Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.4 (2024)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 50 issue 6 (december 2016) : 900-904

Electrocardiographic interpretation of the nasopharyngeal response in conscious rabbits

Juneet Kour1, Jafrin Ara Ahmed1*, Nawab Nashiruddullah2, Dibyendu Chakraborty3
1<p>Division of Veterinary Physiology &amp; Biochemistry, Faculty or Veterinary Science &amp; Animal Husbandry, &nbsp;<br /> Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences &amp; Technology-Jammu, Ranbir Singh Pura-181 102, Jammu &amp; Kashmir, India.<br /> &nbsp;</p>
Cite article:- Kour1 Juneet, Ahmed1* Ara Jafrin, Nashiruddullah2 Nawab, Chakraborty3 Dibyendu (2016). Electrocardiographic interpretation of the nasopharyngealresponse in conscious rabbits . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 50(6): 900-904. doi: 10.18805/ijar.v0i0f.3793.

The present study was conducted to recognize by part, the cardiovascular events of the nasopharyngeal reflex, through electrocardiographic interpretations. ECG patterns were traced in twelve clinically normal and healthy New Zealand White rabbits of both sexes, weighing between 2-3 kg and aged between 1-3 years with inhalant irritants. Immediately after induction of formaldehyde vapour, the heart rate fell by 69% from a mean of 192 ± 7.310 bpm to 60 ± 1.296 bpm, whereas exposure with cigarette smoke caused a fall in heart rate by 74% from a mean of 205 ± 9.605 bpm to 53 ± 3.065 bpm. With both irritants, P wave becomes smaller and totally disappeared, indicating an increased vagal activity inducing a sinoatrial node arrest. The amplitude of QRS complex also significantly decreased; and so did the duration of P wave and PR interval, presumably due to junctional escape. T wave duration decreased with slow ventricular repolarization. Bradycardia was also evident with increased QT interval. However, there was no change in QRS complex or ventricular depolarization, mediated perhaps via compensatory sympathetic influence on the ventricular myocardium. The study demonstrates that both formaldehyde and cigarette smoke provoked a similar protective response of rabbits against noxious fumes.

  1. Ahmed, J.A. (2002). Comparative Electrocardiography in Domestic Animals with Special Reference to Cardiac Axis in Goat. PhD Thesis, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

  2. Ahmed, J.A., Nazki, A.R., Nashiruddullah, N., Iqbal, S. and Pampori, Z.A. (2008). Electrocardiographic observations in clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits. Indian J. Anim. Physiol. 3: 104-107.

  3. Andersen, H.T. (1966). Physiological adaptations in diving vertebrates. Physiol. Rev. 46: 212-243.

  4. Blix, A.S. and Folkow, B. (1984). Cardiovascular adjustments to diving in mammals and birds. In: Handbook of Physiology, Vol. 3, Section 3. Cardiovascular system. American Physiological Society, Washington, DC. pp. 917-945.

  5. Elsner, R. and Gooden, B. (1983). Diving and asphyxia. A comparative study of animals and man. Physiological Society Monogram, No. 40. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, No. 40. pp. 1-168.

  6. Forster, R.P. and Nyboer, J. (1955). Effect of induced apnea on cardiovascular renal functions in the rabbit. Am. J. Physiol. 183: 149-154.

  7. Geddes, L.A. (2002). Electrocardiograms from the turtle to the elephant that illustrate interesting physiological phenomena. PACE 25: 1762-1770.

  8. James, J.E.A. and Daly, M.De.B. (1969). Nasal reflexes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 62: 1287-1293.

  9. Kratschmer, F. (1870). Über reflexe von der nasenschleimhaut auf atmung und kreislauf. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 62: 147–    170.

  10. Lin, Y.C. (1974). Autonomic nervous control of cardiovascular response during diving in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 227: 601-    605.

  11. Nalivaiko, E., De Pasquale, C.G. and Blessing, W.W. (2003). Electrocardiographic changes associated with the nasopharyngeal reflex in conscious rabbits: vago-sympathetic co-activation. ýAuton. Neurosci: Basic Clin. 105: 101-104.

  12. Ng, G.A., Brack, K.E. and Coote, J.H. (2001). Effects of direct sympathetic and vagus nerve stimulation on the physiology of the whole heart- a novel model of isolated Langendorff perfused rabbit heart with intact dual autonomic innervation. Exp. Physiol. 86: 319-329.

  13. Nishizawa, T., Shen, Y.T., Rossi, F., Hong, C., Robbins, J., Ishikawa, Y., Sadoshima, J. and Vatner, D.E. (2007). Altered autonomic control in conscious transgenic rabbits with over expressed cardiac Gsa. Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Cir. Physiol. 292: 971-975.

  14. Tilley, L.P. (1992). Essentials of Canine and Feline Electrocardiography. 3rd edn. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

  15. White, S., McRitchie, R.J. and Korner, P.I. (1975). Central nervous system control of cardiorespiratory nasopharyngeal reflexes in the rabbit. Am. J. Physiol. 228: 404-409.

  16. White, S.W. and McRitchie, R.J. (1973). Nasopharyngeal reflexes: integrative analysis of evoked respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 51: 17-31.

  17. Yu, Y.H. and Blessing, W.W. (1997). Cerebral blood flow in rabbits during the nasopharyngeal reflex elicited by inhalation of noxious vapour. J. Auton. Nervous System 66: 149-153.

Editorial Board

View all (0)