Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 51 issue 6 (december 2017) : 1113-1119

Phylogenetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus recovered from mithuns and yaks in India

M. Rout, S. Subramaniam, J.K. Mohapatra, A. Sanyal, B.B. Dash, B. Pattnaik
1ICAR-Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease, IVRI Campus, Mukteswar - 263 138, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
Cite article:- Rout M., Subramaniam S., Mohapatra J.K., Sanyal A., Dash B.B., Pattnaik B. (2017). Phylogenetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus recovered from mithuns and yaks in India. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 51(6): 1113-1119. doi: 10.18805/ijar.v0iOF.9138.
The yak and mithun husbandry in India is confronted with several challenges including the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The present study was initiated to investigate FMD outbreaks in semi-domesticated mithun and yak population in various parts of India. A total of 64 clinical samples (vesicle/tongue/foot epithelium/fluid) from mithun and 6 from yak were collected from suspected FMD outbreaks during 2008-2013. Supernatants of the homogenized clinical samples were tested in a serotype discriminating antigen detection ELISA and ELISA-negative samples were further subjected to multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR). A total of 45 mithun samples and only 1 yak sample were found positive for serotype O in antigen detection ELISA. A total of 12 ELISA-negative samples from mithun and 4 from yak were later on found positive for serotype O in mRT-PCR. The phylogenetic analysis based on VP1 genome indicated the involvement of both O/ME-SA/PanAsia and O/ME-SA/Ind2001 lineages of serotype O in those outbreaks. These viruses were genetically similar to those contemporary virus isolates responsible for FMD in domestic livestock indicating a situation of virus sharing among different species of domestic and semi-domestic animals. Thus, mithuns and yaks should be synchronously considered and targeted along with cattle for the effective control of the disease in the country. 
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