Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.4 (2024)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 50 issue 1 (february 2016) : 41-47

Voluntary intake and palatability indices of pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal by cafeteria method

David Brown*, Jones W. Ng’ambi, David Norris
1<p>Department of Animal Production, School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Limpopo, P/Bag X1106, Sovenga-0727, South Africa.</p>
Cite article:- Brown* David, Ng&rsquo;ambi W. Jones, Norris David (2015). Voluntary intake and palatability indices of pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal by cafeteria method . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 50(1): 41-47. doi: 10.18805/ijar.5542.

A study was conducted to determine preference intake and relative palatability indices of tanniniferous Acacia karroo fed to 5 growing male Pedi goats with an average body weight of 19.81 ± 1.83kg. Five feeding troughs were provided to each goat and each animal was exposed to all the experimental diets. A cafeteria feeding approach was used, thus, permitting goats free access to the diet of their choice. Acacia karroo (K) was offered in a mixture with Setaria verticillata (S) hay at five different levels: Diet 1: S80K20, Diet 2: S75K25, Diet 3: S70K30, Diet 4: S60K40 and Diet 5: S50K50. The daily relative palatability indexes (RPI) obtained for each diet were subjected to analysis of variance with feeds as treatments and individual animals as replicates in a completely randomized design. Significant differences (P Diet 4> Diet 3> Diet 2> Diet 1. Diet 5 appeared to be the most preferred by goats with an RPI of 96.91%. Palatability indices were positively and significantly (Pand tannin contents. Results of this study indicated that tannin-rich Acacia karroo leaves when fed in a mixed diet could influence preference and intake by Pedi goats. Palatability studies could be used in designing supplemental feeding programs for ruminant livestock in the tropics.

  1. Abdulrazak, S.A., Fujihara, T., Ondriek, J.K and Orskov, E.R. (2000). Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia tree leaves from Kenya. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 85: 89-98.

  2. Aganga, A.A and Tswenyane, S.O. (2003). Feeding value and anti-nutritive factors of forage tree legumes. Pak. J. Nutr. 2: 170-177. 

  3. Aganga, A.A., Adogla-Bessa, T., Omphile, U.J., Tshireletso, K. (2000). Significance of browses in the nutrition of Tswana goats. Arch. Zootec. 49: 469–480.

  4. Annison, E.F and Bryden, W.L (1998). Perspectives on ruminant nutrition and metabolism. I. metabolism in the rumen. Nutr. Res. Rev. 11: 173-198.

  5. AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC. pp:20-26.

  6. Breslin, P.A.S., Gilmore, M.M., Beauchamp, G.K. and Green, B.G. (1993). Psychophysical evidence that oral astringency is a tactile sensation. Chem. Senses, 18:405–417.

  7. Brooker, J.D., O’Donovan, L., Skene, I., and Sellick, G. (2000). Mechanisms of tannin resistance and detoxification in the rumen. In: Brooker, J.D. (Ed.), Tannins in Livestock and Human Nutrition. ACIAR Proceedings No. 92, pp. 117-122.

  8. Clausen, T.P., Provenza, F.D., Burritt, E.A., Bryant, J.P and Reichardt, P.B. (1990). Ecological implications of condensed tannin structure: a case study. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:2381-2392.

  9. Cooper, S.M. and Owen-Smith, N. (1985). Condensed tannins deter feeding by browsing ruminants in a South African savanna. Oecologia 67: 142-146.

  10. Devendra, C. (1993). Nutritional potential of fodder trees and shrubs as protein sources in ruminant nutrition. In Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock. (Ed. A. Speedy and P. Pugliese). Animal Health and Production Paper No.102. FAO, Rome, Italy. T0632E/T0632E02.htm#ch2

  11. Dzowela, B.H., Hove L. and Mafongoya, P.L (1995). Effect of drying method on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of multi-purpose tree and shrub fodders. Trop. Grassl. 29:263-269.

  12. Gwanzura, T., Ngambi J.W. and Norris, D. (2011). Effects of selected species and forage sorghum hay grown in Limpopo province on voluntary intake and relative palatability indices of Pedi goats. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 12: 1249-1255.

  13. Halimani, T E., Ndlovu, L.R., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M. and Miller, B.G. (2005) Metabolic response of pigs supplemented with incremental levels of leguminous Acacia karroo, Acacia nilotica and Colophospermum mopane leaf meals. Anim. Sci. 81: 39-45.

  14. Holechek, J.L., Munshikpu, A.V., Saiwana, L., Nuiiez-Hemandez, G., Valdez, R., Wallace, J.D. and Cardenas, M., (1990). Influences of six shrubs diets varying in phenol content on intake and nitrogen retention by goats. Trop. Grasslands. 24: 91-98.

  15. Ikhimioya, I., (2008). Acceptability of selected common shrubs/tree leaves in Nigeria by West African dwarf goats. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 20: No. 6. 

  16. Jarrige, R. (1988) Alimentation des bovins, ovins et caprins. INRA Publications, pp 471. 

  17. Kaitho, R.J., Umunna, N.N., Nsahlai, I.V., Tamminga, S., Van Bruchem, Hanson, J. and Van DeWouw, M. (1996). Palatability of multipurpose tree species: Effect of species and length of study on intake and relative palatability by sheep. Agrofor. Syst., 33: 249-261.

  18. Lambert, M.G, Jung, G.A, Harpster, H.W and Lee, J. (1989). Forage shrubs in North Island hill country 4. Chemical composition and conclusions. New Zeal. J. of Agr. Res., 32: 499-506.

  19. Lamy, E., Rawel, H., Schweigert, F.G., Capela, F., Silva, A., Ferreira, A., Rodigues, C., C. Antunes, A.M. Almeida, A., Varela Coelho, and Sales-Baptista, E. (2011). The effect of tannins on Mediterranean ruminant ingestive behavior: The role of the oral cavity. Molecules 16:2766–2784.

  20. Larbi, A., Osakwe, I.I and Lambourne, J.W (1993). Variation in relative palatability to sheep among Gliricidia sepium provenances. Agro. Sys.22: 221-224.

  21. Low, A.B. and Rebelo, A.G. (eds.) (1996). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Pretoria: DEAT. This publication is available online at:

  22. Makkar, H.P.S. (2003). Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Res. 49: 241-256.

  23. Makkar, H. P. S., Bluemmel, M., Borowy, N.K and Becker, K. (1993). Gravimetric determination of tannins and their correlation with chemical and protein precipitation methods. J. Sci. Food Agric. 61:161-165.

  24. Mapiye C., Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K., Strydom, P.E., Marufu, M.C., Muchenje, V. (2009). Nutritional status, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nguni steers supplemented with Acacia karroo leafmeal. Livest. Sci. 126:206–214.

  25. Marten, G.C. (1970). Measurement and significance of forage palatability. Proceedings of the National Conference on Forage Quality Evaluation and Utilisation, Sept. 3-4, Nebraska Center for Continuing Education, Lincoln, pp: 1-55.

  26. Marume, U., Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K. (2012). Influence of dietary supplementation with Acacia karroo on experimental haemonchosis in indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats of South Africa. Livest Sci. 144:132–139.

  27. Miller, S.M., Klieve, A.V., Plumb, J.J., Aisthorpe, R. and Blackall, L.L. (1997). An in vitro cultured rumen inoculum improves nitrogen digestion in mulga-fed sheep. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 48: 403-409.

  28. Minson, D. J. (1990). The Chemical Composition and nutritive Value of Tropical grasses. In: (Ed. P. J. Skerman, D. G. Cameroon and F. Riveros) Tropical Grasses. pp. 172-180. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 

  29. Mokoboki, H.K., Ndlovu, L.R., Ngambi, J.W., Malatje, M.M., Nikolovav, R.V. (2005). Nutritive value of Acacia tree foliages growing in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 35:221–228.

  30. Nastis, A.S. and Malechek, J.C. (1981). Digestion and utilization of nutrients in oak browse by goats. J. Anim. Sci., 53: 283-289.

  31. Nastis, A.S. and Malechek, J.C., (1988). Estimating digestibility of oak browse diets for goats by in vitro technique. J. Range Manage., 41: 255-258.

  32. Ngambu, S., Muchenje, V. and Marume, U. 2012. The effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal preparation on meat sensory characteristics of the indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat genotype. Afr. J. Biotechnol 11: 12878-12884.

  33. Ngwa, A.T., Nsahlai, I.V., Bonsi, M.L.K. (2002). The rumen digestion of dry matter, nitrogen and cell wall constituents of the pods of Leucaena leucocephala and some Acacia species. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82: 98–106

  34. Norton, B.W (2003). The nutritive value of tree legumes In: Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture. Gutteridge R G and Shelton H M (Editors),

  35. Norton, B.W. (1994). Tree Legumes as dietary supplements for ruminants, pp: 192-201. In Gutteridge R. C and H. M. Shelton: Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture. CAB International.

  36. Nunez-Hernandez, G., Holechek, J.L., Wallace, J.D., Galyean, M.L., A. Tembo, R. Valdez and Cardenas, M. (1989). Influence of native shrubs diets on nutritional status of goats: Nitrogen retention. J. Range Manage, 42: 228-232.

  37. Olafadehan, O.A (2011). Changes in haematological and biochemical diagnostic parameters of Red Sokoto goats fed tannin-rich Pterocarpus erinaceus forage diets. Vet. arhiv 81: 471-483.

  38. Porter, L.J., Hristich, L.N. and Chan, B.G. (1986). The conversion of procyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyanidins and delphinidins. Phyt. 25: 223-230.

  39. Ramirez, R.G. and Coello S.M. (1990). Influence of native shrubs on digestion and nitrogen retention by goats. In: VI Reunidn National de Caprinocultura. San Luis Potosi, Mexico, pp. 16-20.

  40. Ramirez, R.G., (1992). Meat goat diets and nutrition on rangelands. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Meat Goat Production, Management and Marketing, Laredo, Texas, USA, pp. 103–111

  41. Ramirez, R.G. and Ledezma-Torres, R.A. (1997). Forage utilization from native shrubs Acacia rigidula and Acacia farnesiana by goats and sheep. Small Ruminant Res. 25 : 43-50.

  42. Reed, J.D. (1995). Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 1516-1528.

  43. SAS, (2008). User’s Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, MC., USA

  44. Sidahmed, A.E., Morris, J.G., Koong, L.J. and Rodosevich. S.R. (1981). Contribution of mixtures of three chaparral shrubs on the protein and energy requirements of Spanish goats. J. Anim. Sci., 53: 1391-1396.

  45. Tamir, B. and Asefa, G. (2009). Effects of different forms of Acacia saligna leaves inclusion on feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain in lambs fed grass hay basal diet. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 153: 39-47.

  46. Thompson, K.F and Poppi, D.P (1990). Livestock production from the pasture In: Pastures - Their ecology and management. Langer R H M (editor) Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK pp 263-283 

  47. Van Soest, P.J. (1994). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminants. 2nd Edn., Cornell University Press, New York, ISBN: 9780801427725, Pages: 476.

Editorial Board

View all (0)