Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.43

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 51 issue 1 (february 2017) : 105-110

Formulation of kinnow mandarin (Citrus Nobilis Lour x Citrus Deliciosa Tenora) waste and paddy straw based complete feed blocks and its utilization by goats

Sonu Chaudhary, Ankur Rastogi*, R.K. Sharma, Pratiksha Raghuwanshi1, Nazam Khan2
1<p>Division of Animal Nutrition, FVSc &amp; AH, SKUAST-J, R S Pura, Jammu-181 102, J&amp;K, India</p>
Cite article:- Chaudhary Sonu, Rastogi* Ankur, Sharma R.K., Raghuwanshi1 Pratiksha, Khan2 Nazam (2015). Formulation of kinnow mandarin (Citrus Nobilis Lour x Citrus Deliciosa Tenora) waste and paddy straw based complete feed blocks and its utilization by goats . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 51(1): 105-110. doi: 10.18805/ijar.5669.

Study was conducted to formulate the paddy straw based complete feed blocks containing kinnow-mandarin waste (KMW) in a manual densification machine and to evaluate its effect on the nutrient intake and digestibility of goats. Block was formulated utilizing paddy straw, KMW, wheat flour, molasses, wheat bran, urea, mineral mixture, common salt and water. Bulk density of prepared blocks was 0.21 g/cm3 whereas durability was 17.36%. An in vivo feeding trial was conducted for 30 days duration along with a digestibility trial during last week of feeding trial. Twelve local adult male goats were randomly allotted as per randomized block design to two equal groups designated Control and Treatment. All the animals were kept on complete feed feeding regimen with either conventional concentrate mixture with paddy straw in 40:60 proportion or KMW-Paddy straw based feed block on ad libitum basis. Feed intake and nutrient digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in experimental animals, irrespective of the dietary treatment. The cost of feed for treatment group was about 12 per cent lower over the cost of conventional complete feed. It may be concluded that KMW may be utilized as a part of paddy straw based complete feed without affecting nutrient intake and digestibility. However, the binding and durability of blocks achieved in the present study was not satisfactory and this formulation therefore is not recommended to be densified in a manual block making machine.

  1. AOAC. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 16thed. Washington, DC., USA.

  2. Bampidis, V.A. and Robinson, P.H. (2006). Citrus by-products as ruminant feeds: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 128: 175-217.

  3. Barrios-Urdaneta, A., Fondevila, M. and Castrillo, C. (2003). Effect of supplementation with different proportions of barley grain or citrus pulp on the digestive utilization of ammonia-treated straw by sheep. Anim. Sci., 76: 309-317. 

  4. Berwal, R.S., Lohan, O.P., Rathee, C.S. and Yadav, K.K. (1993). Effect of various chemicals on post compression expansion and durability of crop residue blocks. Indian J. Anim. Nut., 10: 119-122.

  5. Bhattacharya, A.N. and Harb, M. (1973). Dried citrus pulp as a grain replacement for Awasi lambs. J. Anim. Sci., 36: 1175-1180.

  6. Bueno, M.S., Ferrari Jr., E., Bianchini, D., Leinz, F.F. and Rodrigues, C.F.C. (2002). Effect of replacing corn with dehydrated citrus pulp in diets of growing kids. Small Rumin. Res., 46: 179-185.

  7. Butler, J.L. and McColly, H.F. (1959). Factors affecting the pelleting of hay. Agric. Eng., 40: 442-446.

  8. Chen, M.C., Ammerman, C.B., Henry, P.R., Palmer, A.Z. and Long, S.K. (1981). Citrus condensed molasses soluble as an energy source for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci., 53: 253-259.

  9. Duncan, D. B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F test: Biometrics, 11: 1-42.

  10. Ensminger, M.E., Oldfield, J.E. and Heinemann, W.W. (1990). Feeds and Nutrition, 2nd ed. The Ensminger Publishing Company, Clovis, CA, USA.

  11. FAO. (2012). Crop residue based densified total mixed ration – A user-friendly approach to utilise food crop by-products for ruminant production, by T.K. Walli, M.R. Garg and Harinder P.S. Makkar. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 172. Rome, Italy.

  12. Grasser, L.A., Fadel, J.G., Garnett, I. and de Peters, E.J. (1995). Quantity and economic importance of nine selected byproducts used in California dairy rations. J. Dairy Sci., 78: 962-971.

  13. Grover, P.D. and Mishra, S.K. (1996). Biomass briquetting: technology and practices. Regional Wood Energy Development Program in Asia, Field Document No. 46. Bangkok, Thailand: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

  14. Jakhmola, R.C. (2005). Evaluation of locally available feed and fodder to improve quality and formulate complete economic rations with high roughage diets. Final Project Report National Agricultural Technology Project, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India.

  15. Kaliyan, N. and Morey, R.V. (2010). Natural binders and solid bridge type binding mechanisms in briquettes and pellets made from corn stover and switchgrass. Bioresour. Technol., 101: 1082-1090

  16. Kalra, K.L., Grewal, H.S. and Kahlon, S.S. (1989). Bioconversion of kinnow-mandarin waste into single-cell protein. MIRCEN J. Appl. Microb., 5: 321-326.

  17. Khule, N.R., Mahale, N.B., Shelar, D.S., Rokade, M.M. and Chaudhari, S.R. (2012). Extraction of pectin from citrus fruit peel and use as natural binder in paracetamol tablet. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 4: 558-564.

  18. Kour, R., Rastogi, A., Sharma, R.K., Kumar, A. and Raghuwanshi, P. (2014). Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste, Vet. World, 7: 803-806.

  19. Kour, R. (2012). Utilization of Kinnow (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora) fruit waste in the ration of goats. M.V.Sc. Thesis. Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu India.

  20. Lanza, A. (1984). Dried citrus pulp in animal feeding. In: Hollò, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Industries and the Environment. Budapest, Hungary. Elsevier Pulishers, New York, NY, USA, pp.189-198.

  21. Madrid, J., Hernández, F., Pulgar, M.A. and Cid, J.M. (1996). Dried lemon as energetic supplement of diet based on urea-    treated barley straw: effects on intake and digestibility in goats. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 63: 89–98.

  22. Madrid, J., Hernández, F., Pulgar, M.A. and Cid, J.M. (1997). Urea and citrus by-product supplementation of straw based diets for goats: effect on barley straw digestibility. Small Rumin. Res., 24: 149-155. 

  23. Malla, B.A., Rastogi, A., Sharma, R.K., Ishfaq, A. and Farooq, J. (2015). Kinnow madarin (Citrus nobilis lour × Citrus deliciosa tenora) fruit waste silage as potential feed for small ruminants, Vet. World, 8: 19-23.

  24. Martinez-Pascual, J. and Fernandez-Carmona, J. (1980). Citrus pulp in diets for fattening lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 5: 11–22.

  25. McCullough, M.E. and Sisk, L.R. (1972). Crude fiber, form of ration, type of silage and digestibility of optimum rations. J. Dairy Sci., 55: 484-488.

  26. Mohsenin, N. and Zaske, J. (1976). Stress relaxation and energy requirements in compaction of unconsolidated materials. J. Agr. Eng. Res., 21: 193-205.

  27. NHB (2014) Indian Horticulture Database 2013. National Horticulture Board, Gurgaon, India.

  28. O’Mara, F.P., Coyle, J.E., Drennan, M.J., Young, P. and Caffrey, P.J. (1999). A comparison of digestibility of some concentrate feed ingredients in cattle and sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 81: 167-174.

  29. Patel, S., Agrawal, S. and Lodhi, B.S. (2012). Natural binding agents in tablet formulation. Int. J. Pharm. Biol. Arch., 3: 466-473. 

  30. Pickard, G.E., Roll, W.M. and Ramser, J.H. (1961). Fundamentals of hay wafering. Trans. ASAE, 4: 65-68.

  31. Ranjhan, S.K. (1998). Nutrient Requirements of Livestock and Poultry. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.

  32. Reece F.N. (1966). Temperature, pressure, and time relationships in forming dense hay wafers. Trans. ASAE, 9: 749-751. 

  33. Sharma, H., Bhatia, S. and Alam, M.S. (2013). Studies on pectin extraction from kinnow peel and pomace. Agric. Res. J., 50: 128-130.

  34. Sharma, S., Singh, B., Rani, G., Zaidi, A.A., Hallan, V., Nagpal, A. and Virik, G.S. (2007). In vitro production of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) free kinnow plants employing phytotherapy coupled with shoot tip grafting. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. – Pl., 43: 254-259. 

  35. Sinclair, W.B. (1984). The Biochemistry and Physiology of the Lemon and Other Citrus Fruits. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Oakland, CA, USA.

  36. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical Methods. 8thEdition, East West Press Private Limited, New Delhi.

  37. Sudweeks, E.M. (1977). Digestibility by sheep of diets of citrus pulp, corn, or soybean mill feed with three forages. J. Dairy Sci., 60: 1410–1415.

  38. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3583-3597.

Editorial Board

View all (0)