Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak
Print ISSN 0367-6722
Online ISSN 0976-0555
NAAS Rating 6.43
Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)
Contagious ecthyma outbreak among goats at Nilgiri hills
First Online 20-05-2016|
Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by Parapoxvirus. In the present outbreak over a range of 3 km radius in a hamlet near Ooty town in the Nilgiris hills, a total of 174 out of 194 non-descript goats were clinically affected with the symptoms of pyrexia (40°C), anorexia, depression, proliferative scab lesions on the skin around the mouth, oral commissures and nostrils. The morbidity rate was 89.7% without mortality. The symptoms were suggestive of contagious ecthyma. The disease was confirmed by agar gel immunodiffusion test, counter immunoelectrophoresis, and by polymerase chain reaction. Affected goats were treated with antibiotics, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and vitamin B complex injections parenterally. Commercially available herbal topical spray (Topicure®) and/or neem leaf and turmeric paste was applied to alleviate the skin lesions. Affected goats were recovered in 4 to 5 weeks. This paper reports the first incidence of contagious ecthyma outbreak in goats during rainy season of the year in high altitude (the Nilgiri hills), Tamil Nadu.
- Centre for Food Security and Public Health. (2007). Contagious ecthyma. An OIE collaborating centre. http:// www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/contagious _ecthyma.pdf. pp: 1-4. Date of accession: 20.01.2014.
- Dey, A. and Kundu, P. (2009). Outbreak of contagious ecthyma in goats. Indian Veterinary Journal 86: 242-243.
- Garrido-Farina, G.I., Cornejo-Cortes, M.A., Martinez-Rodriguez, A., Reyes-Esparza, J., Alba-Hurtado, F. and Tortora- Perez, J. (2008). A study of the process of apoptosis in animals infected with the contagious ecthyma virus. Veterinary Microbiology 129: 28-39.
- Gokce, H.I., Genc, O. and Gokce, G. (2005). Seroprevalence of contagious ecthyma in lambs and humans in Kars, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 29: 95-101.
- Hosamani, M., Yadav, S., Kallesh, D.J., Mondal, B., Bhanuprakash, V. and Singh, R.K. (2007). Isolation and characterization of an Indian ORF virus from goats. Zoonoses and Public Health 54: 204-208.
- Parimal Roy, Purushothaman, V., Sreekumar, C., Tamizharasan, S., Andrew Chandramohan. (2008). Sheep pox disease outbreaks in Madras Red and Mechery breeds of indigenous sheep in Tamilnadu, India. Research in Veterinary Science 85: 617-621.
- Ramesh, A., Vadivoo, V.S., Suresh Babu, S. and Saravanabava, K. (2008). Confirmatory diagnosis of contagious ecthyma by amplification of the GIF / IL-2 gene by PCR. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 4: 208-210.
- Ramesh, A., Suresh Babu, S., Saravanabava, K., Vadivoo, V.S. and Premalatha, N. (2009). Confirmatory diagnosis of contagious ecthyma by PCR and electron microscopy. Indian Veterinary Journal 86: 770-772.
- Sivaseelan, S., Govindarajan, R., Uma Rani, R., Kathiresan, D. and Purushothaman, V. (2005). Outbreak of fatal contagious pustular dermatitis among goats in Tamil Nadu. Indian Veterinary Journal 82: 684-685.
- Tryland, M., Klein, J., Berger, T., Josefsen, T.D., das Neves, C.G., Oksanen, A. and Asbakk, K. (2013). Experimental parapoxvirus infection (contagious ecthyma) in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Veterinary Microbiology 162: 499-506.
- Venkataramanan, C. and Vasu, K. (1982). Geomorphology, Geology and Soil. In: 25 years research on soil and water conservation in southern hilly high rainfall regions. Indian Council for Agriculture Research – Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Udhagamandalam. pp: 61-73.
- Venkatesan, G., Bhanuprakash, V., Balamurugan, V., Bora, D.P., Prabhu, M., Yogisharadhya, R. and Pandey, A.B. (2012). Rapid detection and quantification of Orf virus from infected scab materials of sheep and goats. Acta virologica 56: 81-83.
- Vikoren, T., Liiehaug, A., Akerstedt, J., Bretten, T., Haugum, M. and Tryland, M. (2008). A severe outbreak of contagious ecthyma (orf) in a free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population in Norway. Veterinary Microbiology 127: 10-20.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.