Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.43

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 50 issue 2 (april 2016) : 185-189

Seasonal effects on behavioral estrus signs and estrus detection efficiency in Holstein heifers

Adnan Unalan*
1<p>Department of Business Administration,&nbsp;Faculty of Economics and Administrative Science, Nigde University, 51240 Nigde, Turkey</p>
Cite article:- Unalan* Adnan (2016). Seasonal effects on behavioral estrus signs and estrus detectionefficiency in Holstein heifers . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 50(2): 185-189. doi: 10.18805/ijar.8594.

In the study, 234 Holstein heifers were observed visually during a one-year period and 1622 estrus records were used to determine seasonal effects on behavioral estrus signs and estrus detection efficiency. Estrus records were classified as standing, mounting, vaginal mucus discharging, and the other estrus signs. The rates of these estrus signs were found to be 50.6%, 22.7%, 20.7% and 6.0%, respectively and the differences were significant (P<0.01). These results showed that standing behavior was the most observable estrus sign in Holstein heifers. In addition, the rates of standing behavior in each season (66.2%, 59.7%, 50.4% and 38.0% in summer, fall, spring and winter, respectively) showed that it was also more observable sign than the other signs. The rates of estrus records according to seasons were found to be 34.4%, 32.9%, 23.6% and 9.1% in winter, fall, spring and summer, respectively and the differences were also significant (P<0.01). In the study, the mean overall estrus cycle length was found to be 21.15±1.85 days. The mean overall estrus detection efficiency was calculated as 57.8%. The mean detection efficiencies according to seasons were found to be 79.5%, 75.9%, 54.6% and 21.1% in winter, fall, spring and summer respectively. These results could be interpreted that estrus detection efficiency was decreased significantly with increase of temperature.

  1. Barr, H.L. (1975). Influence of estrus detection on days open in dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci., 58(2): 246-247.

  2. Boyd, L.J. (1970). Managing dairy cattle for fertility. J. Dairy Sci., 53(7): 969-972.

  3. Britt, J.H., Scott, R.G., Armstrong, J.D. and Whitacre, M.D. (1986). Determinants of estrous behavior in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 69(8): 2195-2202.

  4. Cutullic, E., Delaby, L., Causeur, D., Michel, G. and Disenhaus, C. (2009). Hierarchy of factors affecting behavioural signs used for oestrus detection of Holstein and Normande dairy cows in a seasonal calving system. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 113(1-4): 22-37.

  5. De Vries, A. and Conlin, B.J. (2003). Economic value of timely determination of unexpected decreases in detection of estrus using control charts. J. Dairy Sci., 86(11): 3516-3526.

  6. Dobson, H., Smith, R., Royal, M., Knight, C. and Sheldon, I. (2007). The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 42(Suppl 2): 17-23.

  7. Fetrow, J. and Blanchard, T. (1987). Economic impact of the use of prostaglandin to induce estrus in dairy cows. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 190(2): 163-169.

  8. Heersche, G. and Nebel, R.L. (1994). Measuring efficiency and accuracy of detection of estrus. J. Dairy Sci., 77(9): 2754-2761.

  9. Kinsel, M.L. and Etherington, W.G. (1998). Factors affecting reproductive performance in Ontario dairy herds. Theriogenology, 50(8): 1221-1238.

  10. Løvendahl, P. and Chagunda, M.G.G. (2010). On the use of physical activity monitoring for estrus detection in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 93(1): 249-259.

  11. Mayne, C.S., McCoy, M.A., Lennox, S.D., Mackey, D.R., Verner, M., Catney, D.C., McCaughey, W.J., Wylie, A.R., Kennedy, B.W. and Gordon, F.J. (2002). Fertility of dairy cows in Northern Ireland. Vet. Rec., 150(23): 707-713.

  12. Nebel, R.L. and Jobst, S.M. (1998). Evaluation of systematic breeding programs for lactating dairy cows: A review. J. Dairy Sci., 81(4): 1169-1174.

  13. Reimers, T.J., Smith, R.D. and Newman, S.K. (1985). Management factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows in the Northeastern United States. J. Dairy Sci., 68(4): 963-972.

  14. Roelofs, J.B., Van Eerdenburg, F.J., Soede, N.M. and Kemp, B. (2005). Pedometer readings for estrous detection and as predictor for time of ovulation in dairy cattle. Theriogenology, 64(8): 1690-1703.

  15. Senger, P.L. (1994). The estrus detection problem: New concepts, technologies and possibilities. J. Dairy Sci., 77(9): 2745-2753.

  16. Skarzynski, D.J. and Okuda, K. (1999). Sensitivity of bovine corpora lutea to prostaglandin F2a is dependent on progesterone, oxytocin, and prostaglandins. Biol. Reprod., 60(6): 1292-1298.

  17. Sveberg, G., Refsdal, A.O., Erhard, H.W., Kommisrud, E., Aldrin, M., Tvete, I.F., Buckley, F., Waldmann, A. and Ropstad, E. (2013). Sexually active groups in cattle-A novel estrus sign. J. Dairy Sci., 96(7): 4375-4386.

  18. Unalan, A. (2007). EmbryoGuide-Turk: A software for MOET in dairy cattle improvement. J. Agric. Fac. Ç.Ü., 22(3): 23-32.

  19. Unalan, A. and Cebeci, Z. (2007). HerdGuide-Turk: A herd management software for dairy cattle breeding. J. Agric. Fac. Ç.Ü., 22(1): 81-88.

  20. Wiener, G. (1994). Animal Breeding. The Tropical Agriculturalist Series. The Macmillan Press. Ltd., London, UK, pp 208.

  21. Xu, Z.Z., McKnight, D.J., Vishwanath, R., Pitt, C.J. and Burton, L.J. (1998). Estrus detection using radiotelemetry or visual observation and tail painting for dairy cows on pasture. J. Dairy Sci., 81(11): 2890-2896.


Editorial Board

View all (0)