Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak
Print ISSN 0367-6722
Online ISSN 0976-0555
NAAS Rating 6.43
Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)
Prevalence and assessment of risk factors for haemoprotozoan infections in cattle and buffaloes of South-West Gujarat, India
First Online 20-05-2016|
A total of 480 suspected blood samples were collected from cattle (n=254) and buffaloes (n=226) during the study period from September 2011 to December 2014 for determination of prevalence of haemoprotozoan parasites from South Western Gujarat (Junagadh). The conventional optical microscopy of Giemsa stained blood smears revealed that 37% of cattle and 38.93% of buffaloes were infected with haemoprotozoan parasites including Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata. The animals infected with haemoprotozoan diseases showed lower total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and higher total leukocyte count (TLC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Incidence of haemoprotozoan infection between the breeds differed significantly (P<0.05). Haemoprotozoan infections were recorded significantly higher (P<0.001) in monsoon season followed by summer and being lowest in winter season in cattle. Over all prevalence in female animals were higher than male counterparts. In both the species, over all higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in comparison to other haemoprotozoan diseases and the difference being statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The prevalence of B. bigemina in bovines was associated with various risk factors namely age, season and breed (p£0.05). Sex wise females recorded apparently higher infection rates than males. The multivariate logistic regression models showed that the risk of babesiosis was significantly higher in rainy season (OR=5.18, P=0.003) followed by summer (OR=3.9, P=0.019) compared to winter season. Conversely, in buffaloes, the risk of babesiosis was significantly higher in summer season (OR=9.0, P=0.004) followed by rainy (OR=7.43, P=0.008) compared to winter season. The risk for anaplasmosis in buffaloes increased by 3.46 times (OR=3.64, p=0.027) in non descriptive breed compared to well defined breed.
- Agrawal, R., Singh, R., Kumar, M. and Upadhyay, A.K. (2003). Epidemiological features of bovine trypanosomiosis and babesiosis in Durg district of Chhattisgarh state. Indian Vet. J. 80:314–317.
- Ananda, K.J., Ganganaik, S. and Kavitha, R.B. (2014). Epidemiological studies on haemoprotozoan diseases in bovines in and around Shimoga: a malnad region of Karnataka. Indian Vet. J. 91:29-31.
- Ananda, K.J., Placid, E, D’Souza. and Puttalakshmamma, G.C. (2009). Prevalence of haemoprotozoan diseases in crossbred cattle in Bangalore north. Vet. World. 2: 15–16.
- Arunkumar, S. and Nagarajan, K. (2013). A study on prevalence status of infection among cattle population of Kancheepuram and in and around Chennai districts of Tamil Nadu. Int. J. Food Agri. and Vet. Sci. 3:155–157.
- Atif, F. A., Khan, S., Iqbal, H.J. and Roheen, T. (2012a). Prevalence of tick-borne diseases in Punjab, Pakistan and hematological profile of Anaplasma marginale infection in indigenous and crossbred cattle. Pakistan J. Sci. 64: 11–15.
- Atif, F.A., Khan, M.S., Iqbal, H.J., Arshad, G.M., Ashraf, E. and Ullah, S. (2012b). Prevalence of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria annulata infections among cattle in Sargodha District, Pakistan. Afr. J. Agri. Res. 7: 3302–3307.
- Bhatnagar, C.S., Bhardawaj, B, Sharma, D.K. and Meena, S.K. (2015). Incidence of Haemoprotozoan diseases in cattle in Southern Rajasthan, India. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 4: 509-514.
- Kohli, S., Atheya, U.K. and Thapliyal, A. (2014). Prevalence of theileriosis in cross-bred cattle: its detection through blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Vet. World. 7: 168–171.
- Mallick, K.P., Dwivedi, S.K., Srivastava., N.K. and Kumar, S. (1987). A report on the occurrence of haemoprotozoan infection in rural live-stock. Indian J. Parasitol. 11:25–26.
- McLeod, R. and Kristjanson, P. (1999). Final Report of Joint ESYS/International Livestock Research Institute/ Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Tick Cost Project-Economic Impact of Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases to Livestock in Africa, Asia and Australia International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
- Minjauw, B. and McLeod, A. (2003). The impact of ticks and tick-borne diseases on the livelihood of small scale and marginal livestock owners in India and eastern and southern Africa. Tick-borne diseases and poverty. Research report, DFID Animal Health Programme, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK. P. 124.
- Muraleedharan, K., Syed, Z.K., Margoob, H.P., Pattabyatappa, B., Malli-karjun, G.B. and Seshadri, S.J. (2005). Incidence of Anaplasma sp., Babesia sp. and Trypanosoma sp. in cattle of Karnataka. J. Vet. Parasitol. 19:135–137.
- Ogden, N.H., Casey, A.N.J., French, N.P., Adams, J.D.W. and Woldehiwet, Z. (2002). Field evidence for density-dependent facilitation amongst Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on sheep. Parasitol. 124:117–125.
- Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and surveillance Annual report. (2005). Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
- Radostits, O.M, Blood, D.C. and Gay, C.C. (1994). Veterinary Medicine, A text book of the diseases of cattle, sheep, Goats, Pigs and Horse, 8th edn. ELBS, Baillier, London.
- Roy, S., Tiwari, A., Galdhar, C.N., Upadhyay, S.R., Ratre, H.K., Sahu, S.K. and Maiti, S.K. (2004). Indian J. Vet. Med. 24:5–7.
- Sajid, M.S., Siddique, R.M., Khan, S.A., Iqbal, Z. and Khan, M.N. (2014). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anaplasmosis in Cattle and Buffalo Populations of District Khanewal, Punjab, Pakistan. Global Veterinaria. 12:146–153.
- Salih, D.A., Hussein, A.M.E. and Singla, L.D. (2015). Diagnostic approaches for tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases in livestock. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health. 7:45–56.
- Shahnawaz, S., Ali, M., Aslam, M.A., Fatima, R., Chaudhry, Z.I., Hassan, M.U., Ali, M. and Iqbal, F. (2011). A study on the prevalence of a tick transmitted pathogen, Theileria annulata, the hematological profile of cattle from Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Parasitol. Res. 109:1155–1160.
- Singh, A. and Gill, B.S. (1977). A note of the prevalence of subclinical anaplasmosis in three herds of cattle and buffaloes in Punjab state. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 47:224–226.
- Singh, A.P., Singla, L.D. and Singh, A. (2000). A study on the effects of macroclimatic factors on the seasonal population dynamics of Boophilus micropus (Canes, 1888) infesting the cross-bred cattle of Ludhiana district. Inter. J. Anim. Sci. 15:29–31.
- Singh, J., Gupta, S.K., Singh, R., Hussain, S.A. (2014). Etiology and haemato-biochemical alterations in cattle of Jammu suffering from anaemia, Vet. World. 7:49–51.
- Singla, L.D., Sharma, A., Sharma, P. And Kaur, P. (2013). Management of multiple haematozoan infection at a farm in Ludhiana. Indian Vet. J. 90:11–14.
- Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982). Helminthes, arthropod and protozoa of domestic animals. Bailliere and Tindal, London.
- Tuli, A., Singla, L.D., Sharma, A., Bal, M.S., Filia, G. and Kaur, P. (2015). Molecular epidemiology, risk factors and haematochemical alterations induced by Theileria annulata in dairy animals of Punjab (India). Acta Parasitol. 60: 378–390.
- Vahora, S.P., Patel, J.V., Patel, B.B., Patel, S.B. and Umale, R.H. (2012). Seasonal incidence of Haemoprotozoan diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo in Kaira and Anand districts of Gujarat, India. Vet. World. 5: 223–225.
- Velusamy, R., Rani, N., Ponnudurai, G., Harikrishnan, T.J., Anna, T., Arunachalam, K., Senthilvel, K. and Anbarasi, P. (2014). Influence of season, age and breed on prevalence of haemoprotozoan diseases in cattle of Tamil Nadu, India. Vet. World. 7:574–578.
- Velusamy, R., Rani, N., Ponnudurai, G. and Anbarasi, P. (2015). Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India, Vet. World. 8: 1205-1209.
- Yadav, C.L., Gupta, R.P. and Ruprah, N.S. (1985). Studies on protozoan infections in cattle and buffaloes. Indian Vet. Med. J. 9:205–209.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.