Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak
Print ISSN 0367-6722
Online ISSN 0976-0555
NAAS Rating 6.43
Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)
Impact of feeding balanced rations on milk production, methane emission, metabolites and feed conversion efficiency in lactating cows
First Online 05-02-2016|
A field study on early lactating crossbred cows (n=35) was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding balanced rations on milk production, enteric methane emission, metabolites and feed conversion efficiency (FCE). In comparison to requirements, the dietary intake of protein and energy were higher by 25.0 and 12.7% whereas, calcium and phosphorus intake were lower by 30.0 and 27.0%, respectively. Balanced feeding improved daily 4% FCM yield by 0.7 kg/cow (P<0.05) and intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen (N) by 37.0% (P<0.01), whereas, reduced (P<0.01) feeding cost by 17.0% and enteric methane emission (g/d/cow and g/kg milk yield) by 14.6 and 18.1%, respectively. Level of IgG, IgA, IgM and uric acid content increased significantly, whereas BUN level reduced (P<0.01) from 18.2 to 15.0 mg/dl. FCE improved (P<0.01) from 0.8 to 1.0 and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis also improved (P<0.01) by 63.6% owing to feeding of balanced rations indicating better performance of cows. Present study indicates that feeding nutritionally balanced rations improved milk production, feed conversion efficiency and reduced methane emission in lactating cows under field conditions.
- AOAC (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 18th edn. (AOAC International: Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA).
- Athanasiadou, S., Kyriazakis, I., Giannenas, I. and Papachristou, T.G. (2009). Nutritional consequences on the outcome of parasitic challenges on small ruminants. Nutritional and foraging ecology of sheep and goats. Options Meditérranéennes, 85: 29-40.
- Baker, L.D., Ferguson, J.D. and Chalupa, W. (1995). Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 78: 2424-2434.
- Bayat, A. and Shingfield, K.J. (2012). Overview of nutritional strategies to lower enteric methane emissions in ruminants. In ‘Proceeding of Maataloustieteen Päivät, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 1-7.
- Blummel, M. (2000). Predicting the partitioning of fermentation products by combined in vitro gas volume and true substrate degradability measurements: opportunities and limitations. In ‘Proceedings of British Society of Animal Science on gas production: Fermentation kinetics for feed evaluation and to assess microbial activity’. pp. 48-58.
- Brouwer, E. (1965). Report of subcommittee on constants and factors. Energy Metabolism. In ‘Proceedings of IIIrd EAAP Symposium’. EAAP Publ. No. 11, pp. 441-443. (Academic Press, London).
- Butler, W.R., Calaman, J.J. and Beam, S.W. (1996). Plasma and milk urea nitrogen in relation to pregnancy rate in lactation dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci., 74: 858-865.
- Capper, J.L., Cady, R.A. and Bauman, D.E. (2009). The environmental impact of dairy production: 1944 compared with 2007. J. Anim. Sci., 87: 2160-2167.
- Castillo, A.R., Kebreab, E., Beever, D.E., Barbi, J.H., Sutton, J.D., Kirby, H.C., France, J. (2001). The effect of protein supplementation on nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage diets. J. Anim. Sci., 79: 247-253.
- Chen, X.B., Grubic, G., Orskov, E.R. and Osuji, P. (1992). Effect of feeding frequency on diurnal variation in plasma and urine purine derivatives in steers. Anim. Prod., 55: 185-191.
- FAO (2012). Balanced feeding for improving livestock productivity – Increase in milk production and nutrient use efficiency and decrease in methane emission, by M. R. Garg. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 173. Rome, Italy.
- Garg, M.R., Sherasia, P.L., Bhanderi, B.M., Phondba, B.T., Shelke, S.K. and Makkar, H.P.S. (2013). Effects of feeding nutritionally balanced rations on animal productivity, feed conversion efficiency, feed nitrogen use efficiency, rumen microbial protein supply, parasitic load, immunity and enteric methane emissions of milking animals under field conditions. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 179: 24–35.
- GHGMP (2005). Greenhouse gas mitigation programme for Canadian agriculture. Report to the cattle industry. Canadian cattleman’s association, Calgary, AB, Canada.
- Haldar, S. and Rai, S.N. (2003). Effects of energy and mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibility and efficiency of milk production in lactating goats. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 20: 244-251.
- Hawk, P.B., Oser, B.L. and Summerson, W.H. (1976). ‘Physiological Chemistry.’ 14th edn. (McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.: London, UK).
- Hennessy, D.W. and Nolan, J.V. (1988). Nitrogen kinetics in cattle fed a mature subtropical grass hay with and without protein meal supplementation. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 39: 1135-1150.
- Houdijk, J.G.M. (2012). Differential effects of protein and energy scarcity on resistance to nematode parasites. Small Rumin. Res., 103: 41-49.
- Hutjens, M. and Chase, L.E. (2012). Interpreting milk urea nitrogen (MUN) values. Extension - America’s research-based learning network. <http://www.extension.org/ pages/11322/interpreting-milk-urea-nitrogen-mun- values#.VDAAUvmSySp>
- IAEA (1997). ‘Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from purine derivatives in urine’. IAEA-TECDOC-945 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria).
- Jarrige, R. (1989). ‘Ruminant Nutrition: Recommended allowances and feed tables.’ (Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, France).
- Johnson, K.A., Huyler, M.T., Westberg, H.H., Lamb, B.K. and Zimmerman, P. (1994). Measurement of methane emissions from ruminants livestock using a SF6 tracer technique. Environ. Sci. Technol., 28: 359-362.
- Kannan, A., Garg, M.R. and Kumar, B.V.M. (2011). Effect of ration balancing on milk production, microbial protein synthesis and methane emission in crossbred cows under field conditions in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 28: 117-132.
- Khandaker, Z.H., Uddin, M.M., Sultan, M.M., Peters, K.L. (2012). Effect of supplementation of mustard oil cake on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis of cattle in a straw based diet in Bangladesh. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 44: 791-800.
- Khochare, A.B., Kank, V.D., Gadegaonkar, G.M. and Salunke, S.C. (2010). Strategic supplementation of limiting nutrients to medium yielding dairy animals at field level. In ‘Proceedings of VIIth Animal Nutrition Association Conference’. p. 30 (Bhubaneswar, India).
- Kiersztejn, M.I., Chervu, M., Smogorzewski, G.Z., Fadda, J.M., Alexiewicz and Massry, S.G. (1992). On the mechanisms of impaired phagocytosis in phosphate depletion. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2: 1484-1489.
- Kohn, R.A., Dinneen, M.M. and Russek-Cohen, E. (2005). Using blood urea nitrogen to predict nitrogen excretion and efficiency of nitrogen utilisation in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs and rats. J. Anim. Sci., 83: 879-889.
- Makkar, H.P.S. and Chen, X.B. (2004). ‘Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants using urinary purine derivatives’. (IAEA-CN-110, Vienna, Austria).
- Mohini, M. and Singh, G.P. (2010). Effect of supplementation of urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) on the milk yield and methane production in lactating cattle on different plane of nutrition. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 27: 96-102.
- Nocek, J.E., Socha, M.T. and Tomlinson, D.J. (2006). The effect of trace mineral fortification level and source on performance of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 2679-2693.
- NRC (2001). ‘Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle.’ 7th edn. (National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences: Washington, DC, USA).
- Rahmatullah, M. and Boyde, T.R.C. (1980). An improvement in determination of urea using diacetyl monoxine method with and without deproteinization. Clin. Chem. Acta, 107: 3-9.
- Ramgaokar, J.S., Verma, A.K., Singh, P. and Mehra, U.R. (2008). Effect of dietary protein levels on urinary excretion and plasma concentration of purine derivatives in crossbred bulls. Anim. Nutr. Feed Technol., 8: 25-34.
- SAS (2012). ‘SAS Procedures Guide Release.’ 9.3. edn. (SAS Institute Inc.: Cary, NC, USA)
- Shahjalal, M.D., Bishwas, M.A.A., Tareque, A.M.M., and Dohi, H. (2000). Growth and carcass characteristics of goats given diets varying protein concentration and feeding level. Asian-Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 13: 613-618.
- Spears, J.W. (2000). Micronutrients and immune function in cattle. Proceedings Nutr. Soc., 59: 587-594.
- Waghorn, G.C. and Hegarty, R.S. (2011). Lowering ruminant methane emissions through improved feed conversion efficiency. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 166-167: 291-301.
- Wanapat, M., Polyorach, S., Boonnop, K., Mapato, C., Cherdthong, A. (2009). Effects of treating rice straw with urea or urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows. Livest. Sci., 125: 238-243.
- Wittenberg, K. (2008). Enteric methane emissions and mitigation opportunities for Canadian cattle production systems. < http://www.vido.org/beefinfonet/otherareas/pdf/Ccb Methane emmissionsWittenburg.pdf>.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.