Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak
Print ISSN 0367-6722
Online ISSN 0976-0555
NAAS Rating 6.43
Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)
Comparison of serological tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in cattle of an organized dairy farm
First Online |
Brucellosis has long been recognized with high seroprevalence in Indian dairy herds. Serological surveillance followed regularly to monitor the status of the disease. Four serological methods viz., ELISA, RBPT, STAT and 2-ME tests were used to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in an organized dairy farm. Overall, 33.85%, 32.61% and 30.90% animals were diagnosed serologically positive, respectively by ELISA, RBPT and STAT. However, only 13.66% animals were diagnosed positive by 2-ME. Maximum numbers of seropositive cases were found in female animals, indigenous breed and in 6 to <9 yrs age group, respectively by all serological tests. ELISA diagnosed highest number of seropositive cases in different categories viz., females (36.41%), indigenous breed (21.13%) and 6 to <9 yrs (52.15%), respectively. Sex, breed and age of animals were found to influence the antibody titer (c2, p<0.05) of animals. Therefore, ELISA could be recommended as a screening test for cattle. However, at field level RBPT (k, 0.8597) and STAT (k, 0.8608) may be used for initial screening of the herd. In addition, 2-ME test must be used in parallel to other serological test to rule out the infection.
- Abubakar, M., Arshed, M. J., Hussain, M., Ehtisham-ul-Haq and Ali, Q. (2010). Serological evidence of Brucella abortus prevalence in Punjab province, Pakistan- A cross-sectional study. Transbound Emerg. Dis. 57:443-447.
- Alton, G. G., Jones, L. M. and Pietz, D. E. (1975). Laboratory techniques in brucellosis. Monogr Ser World Health Organ. Geneva. 55:1-163.
- Aulakh, H. K., Patil, P. K., Sharma, S., Kumar, H., Mahajan, V. and Sandhu, K. S. (2008). A Study on the Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in Punjab (India) using milk-ELISA. Acta. Vet. Brno. 77:393-399.
- Berhe, G., Belihu, K. and Asfawu, Y. (2007). Seroepidemiological investigation of bovine brucellosis in the extensive cattle production system of Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Int. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 5:65-71.
- Buchanan, T. M. and Faber, L. C. (1980). 2-Mercaptoethanol Brucella Agglutination Test: Usefulness for Predicting Recovery from Brucellosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:691-693.
- Chahota, R., Sharma, M., Katoch, R. C., Verma, S., Singh, M. M., Kapoor, V. and Asrani, R. K. (2003). Brucellosis outbreak in an organized dairy farm involving cows and in contact human beings, in Himachal Pradesh, India. Veterinarski Arhiv. 73:95-102.
- Chand, P. and Sharma, A. K. (2004). Situation of brucellosis in bovines at organized cattle farms belonging to three different states. J. Immunol. Immunopathol. 6:11-15.
- Crawford, R. P., Huber, J. D. and Adams, B. S. (1990). Epidemiology and surveillance. In: Nielsen K, Duncan JR, eds. Animal Brucellosis. Florida: CRC Press Inc. 131-148.
- Dinka, H. and Chala, R. (2009). Seroprevalence Study of Bovine Brucellosis in Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Areas of East Showa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Am Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 6:508-512.
- FAO/WHO. (1989). Joint FAO/WHO Expert committee on Brucellosis 6th report.\Geneva: World Health Organization, Technical report series.
- Flad, S. (1983). Some observations on the use of Rose Bengal Plate, tube agglutination, heat inactivation and Rivanol tests in caprine brucellosis. Trop Vet. 1:49-53.
- Genc, O., Otlu, S., Sahin, M., Aydin, F. and Gokce, H. I. (2005). Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Leptospirosis in aborted dairy cows. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 29:359-366.
- Ghodasara, S. N., Roy, A. and Bhanderi, B. B. (2010). Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate agglutination, standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes. Vet. World. 3:61-64.
- Godfroid, J., Nielsen, K. and Saegerman, C. (2010). Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife. Croat. Med. J. 51:296-305.
- Gul, S. T. and Khan, A. (2007). Epidemiology and epizootology of brucellosis: A review. Pak. Vet. J. 27:145-151.
- Junaidu, A.U., Oboegbulem, S. I. and Salihu, M. D. (2011). Serological survey of Brucella antibodies in breeding herds. J. Microbiol. Biotech. Res. 1:60-65
- Kebede, T., Ejeta, G. and Ameni, G. (2008). Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in smallholder farms in central Ethiopia (Wuchale-Jida district). Rev. Med. Vet. 159:3-9.
- Kracker, S. and Radbruch, A. (2004). Immunoglobulin class switching: in vitro induction and analysis. Methods Mol. Biol. 271:149-159.
- Kungu, J. M., Okwee-Acai, J., Ayebazibwe, C., Okech, S. G. and Erume, J. (2010). Sero-prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda. Afr. J. Anim. Biomed. Sci. 5:36-42.
- Maadi, H., Moharamnejad, M. and Haghi, M. (2011). Prevalence of brucellosis in cattle in Urmia, Iran. Pak. Vet. J. 31:81-82.
- Mantur, B. G., Amarnath, S. and Shinde, R. S. (2007). Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis. Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 25:188-202.
- McDermott, J. J. and Arimi, S. M. (2002). Brucellosis in sub-saharan Africa: epidemiology, control and impact. Vet. Microbiol. 90:111-134.
- Morgan, W. I. B., Meckinnon, D. I. and Cullen, G. A. (1969). The Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Vet. Rec. 85:636-641.
- Muma, J. B., Samui, K. L., Siamudaala, V. M., Oloya, J., Matope, G., Omer, M. K., Munyeme, M., Mubita, C. and Skjerve, E. (2006). Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock–wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 38:195–206.
- Nielsen, K. H., Wright, P. F., Kelly, W. A. and Cherwonogrodzky, J. H. (1988). A review of enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in cattle. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 18:331- 347.
- OIE. (2012). Bovine Brucellosis, Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, Vol 1, Chapter 2.4.3
- Omer, M. M., Mussa, M.T., Bakhiet, M. R. and Perrett, L. (2010). Brucellosis in camels, cattle and humans: associations and evaluation of serological tests used for diagnosis of the disease in certain nomadic localities in Sudan. Rev. Sci. Tech. 29:663-669.
- Patel, T. J. (2007). Serological, cultural and molecular detection of Brucella infection in bovines including quantification in milk by real-time PCR. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, India.
- Pati, U. S., Singh, K. P., Chandra, S. and Kumar, H. (2000). Detection of Brucella antibodies in buffalo sera. Indian. J. Comp. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. Dis. 21:91-93.
- Paweska, J. T., Potts, A. D., Harris, H. J., Smith, S. J., Viljoen, G. J., Dungu, B., Brett, O. L., Bubb, M. and Prozesky, L. (2002). Validation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody against Brucella abortus in cattle sera using an automated ELISA workstation. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 69:61-77.
- PD-ADMAS. (2012). National control programme on brucellosis: aim and strategies. Hebbal, Bengaluru, India.
- Radostits, O. M., Gay, C. C., Hinchcliff, K. W. and Constable, P. D. (2007). Veterinary Medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats 10th ed, Elsevier Saunders, London, pp 963-974.
- Renukaradhya, G. J., Isloor, S. and Rajasekhar, M. (2002). Epidemiology, zoonotic aspects, vaccination and control/ eradication of brucellosis in India. Vet. Microbiol. 90:183-195.
- Sethi, M. S., Thapliyal, D. C., Ahluwalia, S. S. and Mishra, D. S. (1971). Brucellosis in animal and man- a serological survey. J. Comm. Dis. 3: 43-49.
- Tolosa, T., Regassa, F. and Belihu, K. (2008). Seroprevalence study of bovine brucellosis In: Extensive Management System In Selected Sites of Jimma Zone, Western Ethiopia. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 56:25-37.
- Trangadia, B. J., Rana, S. K., Nagmani, K. and Srinivasan, V. A. (2012). Serological Investigation of Bovine Brucellosis, Johne’s Disease and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Two States of India. J. Adv. Vet. Res. 2:38-41
- Trangadia, B. J., Rana, S. K., Mukherjee, F. and Srinivasan, V. A. (2009). Prevalence of brucellosis and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in organized dairy farms in India. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 42:203-207.
- Turkson, P. K. and Boadu, D. Q. (1992). Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the Coastal Savanna zone of Ghana. Acta. Trop. 52:39-43.
- Upadhyay, S. R., Singh, R., Chandra, D., Singh, K. P. and Rathore, B. S. (2007). Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Uttar Pradesh. J. Immunol. Immunopathol. 9:561-672.
- Wadood, F., Ahmad, M., Khan, A., Gul, S. T. and Rehman, N. (2009). Seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad. Pak. Vet. J. 29:196-198.
- Walker, L. R. (1999). Brucella. in: Veterinary Microbiology ed. Hirsh DC, Zee YC,. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, pp 196-202.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.