Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 49 issue 6 (december 2015) : 778-782

Effect of processing on the protection of highly degradable protein sources in steers

M. Yugandhar Kumar1, A. Ravi*
1<p>Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science,&nbsp;Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati &ndash; 517 502, India.</p>
Cite article:- Kumar1 Yugandhar M., Ravi* A. (NaN). Effect of processing on the protection of highly degradable proteinsources in steers . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 49(6): 778-782. doi: 10.18805/ijar.7038.

The effect of heat treatment (125°C for 3 m), formaldehyde treatment (3.4g /100 g CP) or extrusion cooking on the protein disappearance and the effective protein degradability (EPD) of protein sources such as babul seed meal, coconut cake, dried poultry waste, guar meal, mustard cake, rape seed meal and tobacco seed cake in the rumen was studied by nylon bag technique using 4 fistulated steers fed at maintenance ration. Formaldehyde treatment was highly effective in reducing the EPD of babul seed meal, mustard cake, rape seed meal and tobacco seed cake. Heat treatment was effective in protecting the protein of rape seed meal, mustard cake and coconut cake. The effect of extrusion cooking in reducing EPD was low (5.96%) as compared to 31.8% in heat treatment and 39.2% in formaldehyde treatment. The dried poultry waste and guar meal were found to be resistant to different processing methods employed. Method of processing did not influence the nitrogen content of protein sources as there was no loss or gain in nitrogen content due to processing. 


  1. Grewal, R.S., Kaur, J. and Malhotra, P. (2011) Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde and heat treatment on the ruminal degradability of common protein supplements using nylon bag technique. Indian J.Anim.Nutr. 28: 288-292.

  2. NRC, 2001. Ruminally Protected Proteins, National Academy of Sciences, USA, pp. 54-55. 

  3. Orskov, E.R. and McDonald, I. (1979) The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubated measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 92: 499-503.

  4. Orskov, E.R., Deb Hovell, F.D. and Mound, F. (1980) The use of nylon bag technique for the evaluation of feedstuffs. Tropical Animal Production. 5: 195-377.

  5. Reddy, E.P. and Prasad, D.A. (1985) Estimation of effective N degradability of protein supplements using nylon bag technique. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2: 1-6.

  6. Sirohi, S.K., Walli, T.K., Gard, M.R. and Brishketu Kumar (2013) Effect of formaldehyde treated mustard cake on nutrient utilization and milk production performance in crossbred cows fed what straw based diet. Indian J.Anim.Nutr. 30: 5-11.

  7. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994) Statistical Methods, 8th Edition. Affiliated East-West Press and Iowa State University Press. 

  8. Sudhakara Rao, M., Krishna, N. and Anjaneya Prasad, D. (1992). Evaluation of important protein supplements based on rumen degradable protein (RDP) in crossbred cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 62: 280. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)