Isolation and identification of a novel Staphylococcus from benzalkonium chloride solution

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.5922    | Article Id: B-268 | Page : 808-813
Citation :- Isolation and identification of a novel Staphylococcus from benzalkonium chloride solution .Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2015.(49):808-813

Yang Fan*, Heqin Zhan1 and Zhao Yong-Xing2
Address :

School of Basic Medicine, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang-453 003, Henan, China.


A bacterium was isolated from benzalkonium chloride solution (5%) stored in an uncovered bottle. The strain was identified as Staphylococcus aureas named SA-RBC through the test of its morphology, biochemical and physiological characterization. The isolated strain SA-RBC has important symbol of pathogenic Staphylococcus by producing coagulase, phosphatase and thermonuclease. Resistance of SA-RBC to disinfectants or antibiotics was tested. The results showed that the strain was highly resistant to benzalkonium chloride, benzalkonium bromide, glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochlorite, but susceptive to phenylic acid. SA-RBC was highly resistant to oxacillin, cefoperazone, cefoxitin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. The tolerable growth concentration of SA-RBC on various surfactants was examined. The results indicated that the strain SA-RBC could grow in a higher concentration of cationic surfactants up to 5%, compared with the control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, S.epidermidis ATCC12228 and S.aureus ATCC 29213) which were unable to grow in 0.1% cationic surfactants. The strain SA-RBC could not utilize benzalkonium chloride as the sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen. The findings in this study suggested that Staphylococcus aureas might be an original contaminant in the quaternary ammonium disinfectant and has potential risk for public health.


Benzalkonium chloride Resistance Staphylococcus.


  1. Aiello, A.E., and Larson, E. (2003). Antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products as a merging risk factor for antibiotic resistance in the community. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3: 501-506. 
  2. Akinkunmi, E.O., and Lamikanra, A. (2012). Susceptibility of community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from faeces to antiseptics. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries. 6: 317-323. 
  3. Baird-Parker, A.C. (1966). Methods for classifying staphylococci and micrococci, pp.59-64. In New York: Academic Press: Identification methods for microbiologists, Part A. Edited by B.M. Gibbs and F.A. Skinner, Eds.
  4. Bjorland, J., Sunde, M., and Waage, S. (2001). Plasmid-borne smr gene causes resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 3999-4004..
  5. Dallas,G..H., Sitar, T. and Joann, B.M., (1983). Characterization of staphylococci, Appled and Environmental Microbiology. 9:649-660.
  6. Delbel, R.H., and Evans, J.B. (1960). Modified benzidine test for the detection of cytochrome-containing respiratory systems in microorganisms. J. Bacteriol. 79: 356-360.
  7. Ezekiel, O. A., and Adebayo, L., (2012). Susceptibility of community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from faeces to antiseptics, J Infect Dev Ctries. 6:317-324.
  8. Geftic, S.G., Heymann, H., Adair, F.W. (1979). Fourteen-year survival of Pseudomonas cepacia in a salts solution preserved with benzalkonium chloride. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 505-510. 
  9. Hasman, H., Moodley, A., Guardabassi, L., Stegger, M., Skov, R.L., and Aarestrup, F.M. (2010). Spa type distribution in Staphylococcus aureus originating from pigs, cattle and poultry. Vet. Microbiol. 141: 326-331. 
  10. Irizzary, L., Merlin, T., Rupp, J., and Griffith, J. (1998). Reduced susceptibility of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus to cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine. Chemother. 42: 248-252.
  11. Kamman, J. F., and S. R. Tatini. (1977). Optimal conditions for assay of staphylococcal nuclease. J. Food Sci. 42:421-424.
  12. Langsrud, S., Sidhu, M.S., Heir, E., and Holck, A.L. (2003). Bacterial disinfectant resistance-a challenge for the food industry. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation. 51: 283-290. 
  13. Levy, S.B. (2000). Antibiotic and antiseptic resistance: impacton public health. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19(10 Suppl): S120-S122.
  14. Liu, Q., Liu, M., Wu, Q., Li, C., Zhou, T. and Ni, Y. (2009). Sensitivities to biocides and distribution of biocide resistance genes in quaternary ammonium compound tolerant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in a teaching hospital. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 41: 403-409.
  15. Mathews, R.J., Ederer, G.M., Cunningham, L.V. and Matsen, J.M. (1975). Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am.Soc. Microbiol.C86, p.41.
  16. Nagai, K., Ohta, S., Zenda, H., Matsumoto, H., and Makino, M. (1996). Biochemical characterization of a pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from a benzalkonium chloride solution. Boil. Pharm. Bull. 19: 873-    875.
  17. Noguchi, N., Suwa, J., Narui, K., Sasatsu, M., Ito, T., Hiramatsu, K. and Song, J.H. (2005). Susceptibilities to antiseptic agents and distribution of antiseptic-resistance genes qacA/B and smr of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Asia during 1998 and 1999. J. Med. Microbiol. 54: 557-565. 
  18. Normanno, G., La Salandra, G., Dambrosio, A., Quaglia, N.C., Corrente, M, Parisi A, Santagada, G., Firinu, A., Crisetti, E., and Celano, G.V. (2007). Occurrence, characterization and antimicrobial resistance of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus isolated from meat and dairy products. Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 115: 290-296. 
  19. Sautter, R.L., Mattman, L.H., Legaspi, R.C. (1984). Serratia marcescens meningitis associated with a contaminated benzalkonium chloride solution. Infect. Control. 5: 223-225.
  20. Schleifer, K.H, and Kloos, W.E. (1975). Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from human skin. I.Amended descriptions of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus and descriptions of three new species: Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hae- molyticus, and Staphylococcus xylosus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 25:50-61. 
  21. Suller, M.T., and Russell, A.D. (1999). Antibiotic and biocide resistance in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus andvancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. J. Hosp. Infect. 43: 281-291.
  22. Sylvie B.B, Pierre Tattevin, Martine B.M. (2012). Emergence of resistance to antibacterial agents: the role of quaternary ammonium compounds-a critical review. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 39: 381-389.
  23. Weber, D. J., Rutala ,W.A., Sickbert-Bennett, E.E. (2007). Outbreaks associated with contaminated antiseptics and disinfectants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 51:4217-4224.
  24. Weese, J.S. (2010). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals. ILAR J. 51: 233-244.

Global Footprints