Indirect ELISA for serosurveillance of japanese encephalitis in pigs

DOI: 10.5958/0976-0555.2015.00065.5    | Article Id: B-2612 | Page : 343-349
Citation :- Indirect ELISA for serosurveillance of japanese encephalitis in pigs.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2015.(49):343-349
R.P. Kolhe*, K.N. Bhilegaonkar, Z.B. Dubbal, Simranpreet Kaur, Samir Das and R.K. Agarwal dr_kolherahul@rediffmail.com
Address : Division of Veterinary Public Health, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, (Bareilly) - 243 122, India.

Abstract

For monitoring the activity of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in pigs, no effective assay is available in Indian context. Being its endemicity in India and role of pigs as amplifiers, there was need to develop rapid and sensitive assay for serosurveillance of JE in pigs. An Indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) was standardized using ultracentrifuge sucrose density gradient purified JE antigen from standard virus strain. Cross reaction studies were done with West Nile antigen and comparative efficacy of I-ELISA assessed with Virus Neutralization Test (VNT). Optimum results recorded for detection of IgG and IgM, respectively, at 50 ng/well antigen and 1:200 and 1:300 serum dilutions. The positive - to - negative ratio of ³2 considered positive for JE antibodies. The overall prevalence of JE in pigs recorded to be 28.89 %. The concordance of the indirect ELISA (IgG) vis-à-vis VNT revealed good agreement (kappa = 0.66) and moderate agreement (kappa = 0.56) of standardized I- ELISA towards detection of IgG and IgM, respectively. The assay standardized in the present study could be useful for JE serosurveillance in pig population from endemic and non endemic areas in India.

Keywords

Indirect ELISA Japanese encephalitis Pigs Seroprevalence Standardization.

References

  1. Burke, D.S; Tingpalapong, M; Elwell, M.R; Paul, P.S. and Van Deusen, R.A. (1985) Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M antibodies in porcine sera. American J. Vet. Res. 46: 2054-2057.
  2. Burke, D.S; Nisalak, A. and Ussery, M.A. (1982). Antibody capture immunoassay detection of Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M and G antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. J. Clinical Microbiol. 16: 1034-1042.
  3. Cardosa, M.J; Hah, F.L; Choo, B.H. and Padmanathan, S. (1993). Screening of pig sera for antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus using a dot enzyme immunoassay and IgM capture ELISA: comparison with the hemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Southeast Asian J.Trop. Med. PublicHealth. 24: 472-476.
  4. Cardosa, M.J; Wang, S.M; Sum, M.S.H. and Tio, P.H. (2002). Antibodies to prM protein distinguish between previous infection with Dengue and JE viruses. BMC Microbiol. 2: 9-14.
  5. Chang, H.C; Takashima, I; Arikawa, J. and Hashimoto, N. (1984). Bioton- labeled antigen sandwich ELISA (BLA-S-ELISA) for the detection of Japanese encephalitis antibody in human and a variety of animal sera. J. Immmunol. Methods. 72: 401-409.
  6. Chen, W.R; Tesh, R.B. and Reco-Hesse, R. (1990). Genetic variation of Japanese encephalitis virus in nature. J. Gen.Viro. 71: 2915-2922.
  7. Dey, S; Mohan, C.M; Senthil Kumar, T.M.A; Ramdass, P; Nairar, A.M. and Nachimuthu, K. (2004). Recombinant Lip 32 antigen-based single serum dilution ELISA for detection of canine leptospirosis. Vet. Microbiol. 103: 99-106.
  8. Feinstein, S; Akov, Y; Lachmi, B.E; Lehrer, S; Rannon, L. and Katz, D. (1985). Determination of human IgG and IgM class antibodies to West Nile virus by ELISA. J. Med. Virol. 17: 62-72.
  9. Geeverghese, G; George, S; Bhat, H.R; Prasanna, Y. and Pavri, K.M. (1987). Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from sentinel domestic pig from Kolar district in Karnatka. Indian J. Med. Res. 86: 273-275.
  10. Geeverghese, G; Shaikh, B.H; George Jacob, P. and Bhat, H.R. (1991). Monitoring Japanese encephalitis virus activity using domestic sentinel pigs in Mandya district, Karnataka state (India). Indian J. Med. Res. (A). 93: 140-142.
  11. Geeverghese, G; Shaikh, B.H; George Jacob, P. and Bhat, H.R. (1994). Persistence of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to JE and WN viruses in naturally infected domestic pigs in Karnatka state, India. Acta Virologica 38: 235-237.
  12. Gould, E.A. and J.C.S. Clegg. (1991). Growth, titration and purification of alphaviruses and flaviviruses In: Mahy B.W edited Virology: A Practical Approach, Oxford University Press, Washington DC, 43-76.
  13. Gubler, D.J. (2002). The global emergence/resurgence of arboviral diseases as public health problem. Archives Med. Res. 33: 330-342.
  14. Hogrefe, W.R; Moore, R; Lape-Nixon, M; Wagner, M. and Prince, H.E. (2004). Performance of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM ELISA using a WN virus recombinant antigen (prM/E) for detection of WNV and other flavivirus specific antibodies. J. Clinical Microbiol. 42: 4641-4648.
  15. Holmes, D.A; Purdy, D.E; Chao, D.Y; Noga, A.J. and Chang, G.J. (2005). Comparative analysis of immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture ELISA using virus like particles of mouse brain antigens to detect IgM antibody in sera from patients with evident flaviviral infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 3227-3236.
  16. Konishi, E and Yamaoka, M. (1982). Evaluation of ELISA for quantitation of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in swine sera. J. Virol. Methods. 5: 247-253.
  17. Konishi, E and Yamaoka, M. (1983). Rapid ELISA of whole blood for detection of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus. J. Virol. Methods. 7: 21-27.
  18. Kumanan, K; Ramesh, A; Velmurgan, R; Jgannathan, S. and Padmanabhan, V.D. (2002). Seroepidemiology of Japanese encephalitis among animals and birds in Tamil Nadu. Indian Vet. Journal. 79: 311-315.
  19. Mall, M.P; Kumar, A. and Malik, S.V.S. (1995). Seropositivity of domestic animals against Japanese encephalitis in Bareilly area, UP. J. Commun. Dis. 27: 242-246.
  20. Martin, D.A; Biggerstaff, B. J; Allen B; Johnson, A. J; Lanciotti, R. S. and Roehrig, J. T. (2002). Use of immunoglobulin M cross-Reactions in differential diagnosis of human flaviviral encephalitis infections in the United States. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9: 544–549.
  21. OIE (2004). Japanese encephalitis In: Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, Part II, Section 2.5, Chapter 2.5.14. 1-8.
  22. Pant, G. R. (2006). A Serological Survey of Pigs, Horses, and Ducks in Nepal for Evidence of Infection with Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1081: 124–129.
  23. Ratho, R.K; Sethi, S. and Prasad, S.R. (1999). Prevalence of Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viral infections in pig population in and around Chandigarh. J. Commun. Dis. 31: 113-116.
  24. Ravi, V; Desai A; Balaji, M; Apte, M. P; Lakshmane, L; Subbakrishna, D.K; Sridharan, G; Dhole, T. N. and Ravikumar, B. V. (2006). Development and evaluation of a rapid IgM capture ELISA (JEV-Chex) for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis. J. Clin. Virol. 35: 429-434.
  25. Solomon, T; Ni, H; Beasley, D.W.C; Ekkelenkamp, M; Cardosa, M.J. and Barret, A.D. (2003). Origin and evolution of Japanese encephalitis virus in Southeast Asia. J. Virol. 77: 3091–3098.
  26. Solomon, T; Thao, L.T; Dung, N.M; Kneen, R; Hung, N.T; Nisalak, A; Vaughn, D.W; Farrar, J; Hien, T.T; White, N.J. and Cardosa, M.J. (1998). Rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis by using an immunoglobulin M dot enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2030-2034.
  27. Solomon,T; Dung, N.M; Kneen, R; Gainsborough, M; Vaughn, D.W. and Khanh,V.T. (2000). Japanese encephalitis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 68: 405-415.
  28. Thrusfield, M. (2005). Veterinary Epidemiology (3rd Edn), Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
  29. Ting, S.H.L; See, E; Tan, H.C; Lee, M.A. and Ooi, E.E. (2001). Development of simplified assay for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus. J. Virol. Methods. 93: 43-47.
  30. Tsai, T.F. (2000). New initiatives for the control of Japanese encephalitis by vaccination: minutes of a WHO/CVI meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 13–15 October 1998. Vaccine. 18 (Suppl. 2):1–25
  31. Xinglin, J; Huanchun, C; Xiang, W. and Changmin, Q. (2005). Quantitative and qualitative study of ELISA to detect IgG against Japanese encephalitis virus in swine sera. Vet. Res. Commun. 29: 159-169.
  32. Yamada, K-I; Takasaki, T; Nawa, M; Yabe, S. and Kurane, I. (2003). Antibody responses determined for Japanese dengue fever patients by neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition assays demonstrate cross-reactivity between dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10: 725-728.
  33. Yang, D.K; Kim, B.H; Lim, S.I; Kwok, J.H; Lee, K.W; Choi, C.U. and Kweon, C.H. (2006). Development and evaluation of indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus in swine. J. Vet. Sci. 7: 271–275.
  34. Yoshii, K; Hayasaka, D; Goto, A; Obara, M; Araki, K; Yoshimatsu, K; Arikawa, J; Ivanov, L; Mizutani, T; Kariwa, H. and Takashima, I. (2003). Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay using recombinant antigen expressed in mammalian cells for serodiagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis. J. Virol. Methods. 118: 171-179.

Global Footprints