Effects of waterborne iron on fry of Catla catla (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.)

DOI: 10.5958/0976-0555.2015.00106.5    | Article Id: B-2550 | Page : 210-217
Citation :- Effects of waterborne iron on fry of Catla catla (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.).Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2015.(49):210-217
Mitra Debnath, Ratan Kumar Saha*, Dibyendu Kamilya and Himadri Saha ratankumarsaha123@rediffmail.com
Address : Department of Fish Health and Environment, College of Fisheries, Central Agricultural University, Lembucherra, Tripura-799 210, India.

Abstract

Effects of waterborne iron on Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala) fry was evaluated in the present study. In short-term definitive test a concentration series of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 mg l-1 of iron were selected. In long-term partial life cycle test 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mg l-1 of iron were selected to observe the behavioural changes, feeding rate, growth rate and bioaccumulation of iron in different organs of fishes. Supplement of iron was done by adding FeSO4 to get the test concentrations. Rohu showed highest tolerance to iron toxicity. The lowest 96 h LC50 value was found for mrigal as 11.21 ± 0.53 mg l-1 whereas the highest was observed in rohu as 16.75 ± 0.96 mg l-1. Among the organs tested, comparatively gill showed higher iron accumulation and muscle showed the lowest. However, rate of change of iron accumulation in gills w.r.t toxicant concentration was lowest as compared to other tissues. Histopathological study of gill showed the evidence of iron accumulation and erosion of secondary gill lamellae. In long-term partial life cycle test reduction in feeding rate, behavioural changes and reduced weight gain was observed. Mrigal showed highest accumulation and catla showed the lowest.

Keywords

Bioaccumulation Environmental parameter Gill erosion Indian major carps Iron toxicity 96 h LC50.

References

  1. Amelung, M. (1982), Auswirkungen geloster Eisenverbindungen auf die Ei- und Larvalentwicklung von Salmo gairdneri (Richardson). Arch. Fisch Wiss., 32: 77– 87.
  2. AOAC (2000). AOAC official methods, 999.11. determination of cadmium, copper, iron and zinc in foods. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after dry ashing. Chapter-9, 19-22 pp.
  3. APHA (2005), Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
  4. Bhattacharya, T. and Saha, R. K. (1991), Water quality of Agartala, Final Report, Tripura State Pollution Control Board. 43 pp +24 Figures.
  5. Bury, N. and Grosell, M. (2003), Iron acquisition by teleost fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 135: 97-105
  6. Bury, N., Grossell, R. M., Wood, C. M., Hogstrand, C., Wilson, R. W., Rankin, J.C., Busk, M., Lecklin, T., and Jensen, F. B. (2001), Intestinal iron uptake in the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 3779-87.
  7. Chen, P.J., Su, C.H., Tseng, C.Y., Tan, S.W. and Cheng, C.H. (2011). Toxicity assessment of nanoscale zerovalent iron and its oxidation products in medaka (Oryzias latipes) fish. Marine Pollution Bulletin 63: 339-346.
  8. Connell, D., Lam, P.K.S., Richardson, B., and Wu, R.S.S. (1999), Introduction to Ecotoxicology. Blackwell Science, UK. 170 pp.
  9. Crichton, R.R., Wilmet, S., Legsyer, R. and Ward, R.J. (2002), Molecular and cellular mechanisms of iron homeostasis and toxicity in mammalian cells. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 91: 9 -18.
  10. Dalzell, D.J.B. and MacFarlane, N.A.A. (1999), The toxicity of iron to brown trout and effects on the gills: a comparison of two grades of iron sulphate. Journal of Fish Biology 55: 301-15.
  11. Datta, M.K., Saha, R.K., Dhanze, J.R., Prakash, C., Kohli, M.P.S. and Saharan, N. (2009), Nutrient profile of pond soil in northeastern state of Tripura and impact of water acidity on aquaculture productivity. Journal of the Inland Fisheries Society of India 35: 11-30.
  12. Davies, F.G. (1991), A hand book of Environmental Health and Pollution Hazard. University of California Press Oxford, UK. Doudoroff, P. and Katz, M. (1953), Critical review of literature on the toxicity of industrial wastes and their components to fish. II. The metals, as salts. Sewage and Industrial Wastes 25: 802-39.
  13. Du Preez, H.H., van Rensurg, E., and van Vuren J.H.H. (1993), Preliminary laboratory investigation of the bioconcentration of zinc and iron in selected tissues of the banded tilapia, Tilapia sparrmanii (Cichlidae). Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 50: 674-81.
  14. Fatma, A. and Mohamed, S. (2008). Bioaccumulation of selected metals and histopathological alterations in tissues of Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus from Lake Nasser, Egyptian Global Veterinary 2, no. 4: 205-18.
  15. Gonzalez, R.J., Grippo, R.S. and Dunson, W.A. (1990), The disruption of sodium balance in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) (Mitchill) by manganese and iron. Journal of Fish Biology 37: 765-774.
  16. Ilavazhahan, M., Tamil Selvi, R. and Jayaraj, S.S. (2010), Determination of LC50 of the bacterial pathogen, pesticide and heavy metal for the fingerling of freshwater fish Catla catla. Global Journal of Environmental Research 4: 76-82.
  17. Misra, S.G. and Mani, D.M. (1992), Metallic Pollution. 1st ed. Asish Publishing Inc, India.
  18. NIER (2004), National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea, The Acute Toxicity of Iron dichloride to Fish (Report No. EG04007, tested by KRICT).
  19. Peuranen, S. (2000), The effects of aluminium and iron on fish gills. Academic Dissertation, Helsinki. 8–30.
  20. Peuranen, S., Vuorinen, P.J., Vuorinen, M. and Hollender, A. (1994), The effects of iron, humic acids and low pH on the gills and physiology of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Annales Zoologici Fennici 31: 389-96.
  21. Playle, R.C. (1998), Modelling metal interaction at fish gills. Science of the Total Environment 219: 147–163.
  22. Roberts, R.J. (2001), Fish Pathology. 3rd (Ed.), W.B. Saunders, Harcourt Publishers Limited, Toronto. 472 pp.
  23. Saha, R.K. (2010), Soil and Water Quality Management for Sustainable Aquaculture. 1st ed, Narendra Publishing House, Delhi.
  24. Smith, E.J., Sykora, J.L. and Shapiro, M.A. (1973), Effect of lime neutralized iron hydroxide suspensions on survival, growth, and reproduction of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30: 1147-53.
  25. Sykora, J.L., Smith, E.J. and Synak, M. (1972), Effect of lime neutralized iron hydroxide suspensions on juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchell). Water Research 6: 935-50.
  26. Teien, H.C., Garmo, O.A., Atland, A. and Salbu, B. (2008), Transformation of iron species in mixing zones on fish gills. Environmental science and Technology 42:1780-1786.

Global Footprints