Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 48 issue 6 (december 2014) : 564-570


Osman Olgun*, Alp Önder Yildiz1
1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, Konya- 42075, Turkey
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary boron, zinc and their combinations to polluted diets with cadmium on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive and biomechanical properties of tibia in quails. A total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 20 weeks old, were randomly distributed in six equal diets groups. Diet I was control group, Diet II was added 20 mg/kg cadmium. Diet III was administered 20 mg/kg cadmium + 60 mg/kg boron. Diet IV was administered 20 mg/kg cadmium + 50 mg/kg zinc. Diet V was administered 20 mg/kg cadmium + 30 mg/kg boron + 25 mg/kg zinc. Diet VI was administered 20 mg/kg cadmium + 60 mg/kg boron + 50 mg/kg zinc. Effect of treatments on body weight, egg weight, feed intake, mortality, eggs damaged, specific gravity, eggshell weight, shear force, shear stress and hatchability were not significant (p>0.05). However, the diet VI had a significant adverse effect on the some performance parameters (egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio). Egg quality and fertility were improved by the addition of cadmium. Cortex thickness and cortex cross section area of tibia were the best when quails fed with diet III.  Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of 20 mg/kg cadmium to the diets had positive effect on eggshell quality in quail breeders.
  1. ASAE Standarts. (2003). Shear and three-point bending test of animal bone. ANSI/ASAE S459, DEC01, USA
  2. Bogomazov, M.I. and Garibian, G.M. (1992). The effect of the zinc content in the rations experimental animals on the absorption, distribution, and accumulation of cadmium chloride in the body with different methods of administration. Vor. Pitan. 4:51–53.
  3. Brozoska, M.M., J. Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, M. Jurczuk, M. Galazyn-Sidorczuk and Rogalska, J. (2000). Effect of short- term ethanol administration of cadmium retention and bioelement metabolism in rats continuously exposed to cadmium. Alcohol Alcoholism. 35:439-445.
  4. Brzoska, M.M. and Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. (2004). Low-level exposure to cadmium during the lifetime increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures of the lumbar spine in the elderly: Studies on a rat model of human environmental exposure. Toxicol. Sci. 82:468–477.
  5. Brzoska, M.M. and Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. (2005). Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on the mineral status and mechanical properties of lumbar spine of male rats. Toxicol. Let. 157:161-172.
  6. Cufadar, Y., A.Ö. Yýldýz, O. Olgun and Bahtiyarca, Y. (2009). Effect of inorganic zinc and phytase supplementation in based maize-soybean diets on the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens. Hay. Üret. Der. (J. Anim. Sci.). 50:16-21.
  7. Cruz, V.C. and Fernandez, I.B. (2011). Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 13:91-95.
  8. Dorian, C. and Klaassen, C.D. (1995). Protection by zinc–metallothionein (ZnMT) against cadmium–metallothionein- induced nephrotoxicity. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 26:99–106.
  9. Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple Range and Multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11, 1-42.
  10. Jemai, H., I. Messaoudi, A. Chaouch and Kerkeni, A. (2007). Protective effect of zinc supplementation on blood antioxidant defense system in rats exposed to cadmium. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 21:269-273.
  11. Korenekova, B., M. Skalicka, P. Nad, J. Saly and Korenek, M. (2007). Effects of cadmium and zinc on the quality of quail’s eggs. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 116:103-109.
  12. Kottferova, J., B. Korenekova, P. Siklenka, A. Jackova, E. Hurna and Saly, J. (2001). The effect of cadmium and vitamin D3 on the solidity of eggshell. Eur. Food. Resd. Techn. 212:153-155.
  13. Leach, R.M., K W. Wang and Baker, D.E. (1979). Cadmium and the food chain: The effect of dietary cadmium on tissue composition in chicks and laying hens. J. Nutr. 109:437-443.
  14. Minitab. (2000). Minitab Reference Manuel (release 13.0). Minitab Inc. State Coll., P.A., USA.Miyahara, T., H. Yamada, M. Takeuchi, H. Kozuka, T. Kato and Sudo, H. (1988). Inhibitory effects of cadmium on in vitro calcification of a clonal osteogenic cell, MC3T3-E1. Toxicol. Appl. Pharm. 96:52-59.
  15. Nolan, T.D. and Brown D. (2000). The influence of elevated dietary zinc, selenium, and their combination on the suppressive effect of dietary and intraperitoneal cadmium on egg production in laying hens. J. Toxicol. Environ. Heal. A. 60:549-565.
  16. National Research Council. (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
  17. National Research Council. (2005). Mineral Tolerance of Animals. 2. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 79-96.
  18. Olgun, O., Y. Cufadar and Yildiz, A.Ö. (2009). Effects of boron supplementation fed with low calcium to diet on performance and egg quality in molted laying hens. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 8:650-654.
  19. Olgun, O., O. Yazgan and Cufadar, Y. (2012). Effects of boron and copper dietary supplementation in laying hens on egg shell quality, plasma and tibia mineral concentrations and bone biomechanical properties. Rev. Med. Vet. 163:335-342.
  20. Olgun, O., O. Yazgan and Cufadar, Y. (2013). Effect of supplementation of different boron and copper levels to layer diets on performance, egg yolk and plasma cholesterol. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 27:132-136.
  21. Pribilincova, J. and Marettova, E. (1996). The effect of cadmium on reproductive performance of laying hens and egg quality. Ziv. Vyr. UZPI. 41:57-62 (Abst).
  22. Rahman, M.S., T. Sasanami and Mori, M. (2007). Effects of cadmium administration on reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). J. Poult. Sci. 44:92-97.
  23. Sahraei, M., H. Janmmohamdi, A. Taghizadeh and Cheraghi, S. (2012). Effect of different zinc sources on tibia bone morphology and ash content of broiler chickens. Adv. Biol. Res. 6:128-132.
  24. Sant’Ana, M.G., R. Moraes and Bernardi, M.M. (2005). Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response. Environ. Res. 99:273-277.
  25. Skalicka, M., B. Korenekova, P. Nad and Saly, J. (2008). Influence of chromium and cadmium addition on quality of Japanese quail eggs. Acta Vet. Brno. 77:503-508.
  26. Stofanikova, J., J. Saly, L. Molnar, E. Sesztakova and Bilek, J. (2011). The influence of dietary zinc content on mechanical properties of chicken tibiotarsal bone. Acta Vet. 61:531-541.
  27. Swiatkiewicz, S. and Koreleski, J. (2008). The effect of zinc and manganese source in the diet for laying hens on eggshell and bones quality. Vet. Med.-Czech. 53:555-563.
  28. Tabatabaie, M.M., H. Aliarabi, A.A. Saki, A. Ahmadi and Hosseini Siyar, S.A. (2007). Effect of different sources and levels of zinc on egg quality and laying hen performance. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 10:3476-3478.
  29. Toman, R., P. Massanyi, N. Luka, L. Ducsay and Golian, J. (2005). Fertility and content of cadmium in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) following cadmium intake in drinking water. Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 62:112-117.
  30. Vodela, J.K., S.D. Lenz, J.A. Renden, W.H. McElhenney and Kemppainen, B.W. (1997). Drinking water contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, benzene and trichloroethylene). 2. Effect on reproductive performance, egg quality and embryo toxicity in broiler breeders. Poult. Sci. 76:1493-1500.
  31. WHO. (1992). Environmental Health Criteria, 134 Cadmium. Geneva: IPCS.
  32. Wilson, J.H. and Ruszler, P.L. (1996). Effects of dietary boron supplementation on laying hens. Brit. Poult. Sci. 37(4):723-729.
  33. Wilson, J.H. and Ruszler, P.L. (1997). Effects of boron on growing pullets. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 56:287-294.
  34. Wilson, J.H. and Ruszler, P.L. (1998). Long term effects of boron on layer bone strength and production parameters. Brit. Poult. Sci. 39:11-15.
  35. Yesilbag, D. and Eren, M. (2008). Effects of dietary boric acid supplementation on performance, eggshell quality and some serum parameters in aged laying hens. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 32:113-117.

Editorial Board

View all (0)