Loading...

COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT MILK FEEDING SCHEDULES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEIN CALVES DURING THE PRE-WEANING PERIOD

DOI: 10.5958/0976–0555.2014.00461.0    | Article Id: B-203 | Page : 384-388
Citation :- COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT MILK FEEDING SCHEDULES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEIN CALVES DURING THE PRE-WEANING PERIOD.Indian Journal of Animal Research.2014.(48):384-388
Address : Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260, Isparta, Turkey

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the comparison of two different milk feeding schedules on growth performance of Holstein calves. Fourteen Holstein calves were housed in individual boxes. Calves were divided into 2 groups (n=7); first group was fed with whole milk with the amount of 10% of their body weight (Conventional Milk Feeding Program= CFP), while second group was fed with whole milk adjusted weekly according to their body weight (Adjusted Weekly Feeding Program= AFP), started from 7%. The experiment was applied on 4-days-old calves after colostrum feeding and weaned while calves were 56 days old. Final BW was found very close in each group (59.13±1.15vs 57.38±1.05 kg, respectively in CFP and AFP). Starter DMI was numerically greater in CFP compared to AFP during the pre-weaning period (0.860 ± 0.16 vs 0.754 ± 0.16 kg/d, respectively). Body measurements (BMs) were similar during the pre-weaning period in each group excluding Chest Girth (CG). Although the numerical differences were found among groups BW, BMs, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Fecal score, these differences were not significant. The calves’ performance and health were not affected by the level of milk feeding during the pre-weaning period.

Keywords

Calf growth Fecal score Holstein Milk feeding Performance.

References

  1. AOAC, (1990). Offical Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.14th ed. Arlington. Virginia, USA: The William Byrd Press, Inc, 1990.
  2. Appleby M C, Weary D M and Chua B. (2001). Performance and feeding behaviour of calves on ad libitum milk from articial teats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74: 191-201.
  3. Blum J W and Baumrucker C R. (2002). Colostral and milk insulin-like growth factors and related substances: mammary gland and neonatal (Intestinal and systemic) targets. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 23: 101-110.
  4. DePassille A M, Borderasand T F and Rushen J. (2011). Weaning age of calves fed a high milk allowance by automated feeders: Effects on feed, water and energy intake, behavioral signs of hunger and weight gains. Journal of Dairy Science 94(3): 1401-1408.
  5. Drackley J K, Bartlett K S and Blome R M. (2002). Protein content of milk replacer and calf starters for replacement calves. http://www.livestocktrail.uiuc.edu/dairynet/paperDispaly.cfm?ContentID=339 (Accessed: Apr 20, 2009)
  6. Hammon H M, Schiessler G, Nussbaum A and Blum J W.(2002). Feed intake patterns, growth performance and metabolic and endocrine traits in calves fed unlimited amounts of colostrum and milk by automate, starting in the neonatal period. Journal of Dairy Science 85: 3352-3362.
  7. Heinrichs A J, Rogers G W and Cooper J B. (1992): Predicting body weight and wither height in Holstein heifers using body measurements. Journal of Dairy Science 75: 3576-3581.
  8. Hill T M, Aldrich J M, Schlotterback R L and Bateman II H G. (2006a). Effects of feeding calves different rates and protein concentrations of twenty percent fat milk replacers on growth during the neonatal period. Professional Animal Scientist 22: 252-260.
  9. Hill T M, Aldrich J M, Schlotterback R L and Bateman II H G. (2006b). Effects of feeding rate and concentrations of protein and fat milk replacers fed to neonatal calves. Professional Animal Scientist 22: 374-381.
  10. Hill T M, Bateman II H G, Aldrich J M and Schlotterbeck R L. (2010). Effect of milk replacer program on digestion of nutrients in dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science 93(3): 1105-1115.
  11. Huber J T, Silva A G, Campos O F and Mathieu C M. (1984). Influence of feeding different amounts of milk on performance, health and absorption capability of baby calves. Journal of Dairy Science 67(12): 2957-2963.
  12. Jasper J and Weary D M. (2002). Effects of ad libitum milk intake on dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 85: 3054-3058.
  13. Kamiya M, Matsujaki M, Orito H, Kamiya Y, Nakamuna Y and Tsuneishi E. (2009). Effects of feeding level of milk replacer on body growth, plasma metabolite and insulin concentrations and visceral organ growth of suckling calves. Animal Science Journal 80(6): 662-668.
  14. Kaya A, Uzmay C, Alcicek A and Kaya I. (2000). A research on rearing calves with acidified whole milk. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Science 24: 413-421.
  15. Khan M A, Lee H J, Lee W S, Kim H S, Kim S B, Ki K S, Ha J K, Lee H G and Choi Y J. (2007a). Pre- and post-    weaning performance of Holstein female calves fed milk through step-down and conventional methods. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 876-885.
  16. Khan M A, Lee H J, Lee W S, Kim H S, Ki K S, Hur T Y, GH, Kang S J and Choi Y J. (2007b). Structural growth, rumen development and metabolic and immune responses of Holstein male calves fed milk through step-down and conventional methods. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 3376-3387.
  17. Khan M A, Weary D M and Keyserlingk M A G. (2011). Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk. Journal of Dairy Science 94(7): 3547-3553.
  18. Kirdar S S. (2001). Milk and analysis methods of the industrial products practice guide. S. D. U. Press, Isparta, Turkey.
  19. Koknaroglu H, Toker M T and Bozkurt Y. 2006. Effect of zeolite and initial weight on feedlot performance of Brown Swiss cattle. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 1(1): 49-54.
  20. Koknaroglu H, Loy D D and Hoffman M P. (2008). Dry matter intake prediction of steers and heifer in the feedlot: Effect of initial weight on dry matter intake. The Phillippine Agricultural Scientist 91(4): 469-472.
  21. Minitab. (2001). Institute Inc. Minitab user’s guide. Release 13 for windows. Minitab Inc. State Collage, PA, USA.
  22. Ozkaya S and Toker M T. (2012). Effect of amount of milk fed, weaning age and starter protein level on growth performance in Holstein calves. Archiv Tierzucht/Archives Animal Breeding 55(3): 234-244.
  23. Strzetelski J, Niwinoka B, Kowalezyk J and Jurkiewiez A. (2001). Effect of milk replacer feeding frequency and level of concentrate intake and rearing performance of calves. Journal of Animal and Feed Science 10: 413-420.
  24. Tapki I. (2007). Comparison of two conventional restricted daily milk allowance methods in dairy calf reasing with respect to growth and behavioural responses: 1. Growth responses. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 6(3): 416-420.
  25. Terre M, Pejero C and Bach A. (2009). Long-term effects on heifer performance of an enhanced-growth feeding pragramme applied during the pre-weaning period. Journal of Dairy Research 76: 331-339.
  26. Thomas T J, Weary D M and Appleby M C. (2001). Newborn and 5-week-old calves vocalize in response to milk deprivation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74: 165-173.
  27. TSE. (1991). Method of the determination metabolic (converted) energy of animal feeds. Turkish Standards Institution. Standard No: 9610, Ankara, Turkey.
  28. Uys J L, Lourens D C and Thompson P N. (2011). The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and healthy of Jersey calves. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 82(1): 47-52.

Global Footprints