Time Dependent Erythrocyte Morphometric Changes of Prolonged Stored Blood and its Effect on Target Post-transfusion Haematocrit of Splenectomised Mongrel Dogs

DOI: 10.18805/IJAR.B-1357    | Article Id: B-1357 | Page : 711-717
Citation :- Time Dependent Erythrocyte Morphometric Changes of Prolonged Stored Blood and its Effect on Target Post-transfusion Haematocrit of Splenectomised Mongrel Dogs.Indian Journal of Animal Research.2022.(56):711-717
N.H. Okereke, R.I. Udegbunam, S.O. Udegbunam, T.H. Ezeobialu, K.E. Ezenwaka nnamdi.okereke@unn.edu.ng
Address : Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
Submitted Date : 11-03-2021
Accepted Date : 6-08-2021


Background: Mean values of erythrocytic morphometric parameters of very old blood and its effect on the target post-transfusion haematocrit changes of splenectomised dogs was studied. 
Methods: Two hundred and fifty milliliters of blood each were drawn from healthy dogs (n=6) into citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 anti-coagulated blood bags, preserved for 35 days for the evaluation of erythrocyte morphometric and viability parameters. Thereafter, twenty adult male splenectomised dogs were randomly assigned into 5 groups (n=3). Post-splenectomy, 4, 14, 21 and 28 day old blood (DOB) were transfused to groups II-V while group I animals were not transfused. Intraoperative blood loss was determined during the surgery while post-transfusion, animals haematocrit were assayed and used to calculate the targeted haematocrit. 
Result: Findings revealed irreversible progressive time dependent morphometric changes by day 14 of blood storage. Hence, it is recommended that for transfusion purposes, 4 DOB should be the hallmark as it achieved the desired haematocrit and no morphometric changes were observed from it.


CPDA-1 Erythrocyte Hematocrit Morphometric Trypan blue


  1. Adili, N. and Melizi, M. (2014). Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells morphometry on the species determinism of domestic animals. Veterinary World. 7(4): 219-223. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.219-223.
  2. Adili, N., Mohamed, M. and Hadj, B. (2016). Species determination using the red blood cells morphometry in domestic animals. Veterinary World. 9(9): 960-963. doi: 0.14202/vetworld. 2016.960-963.
  3. Cheesbrough, M. (2006). Hematological tests. In: District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 2. Second edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. UK; pp 268- 347.
  4. Cluitmans, J.C.A., Hardeman, M.R., Dinkla, S., Brock, R. and Bosman, G.J.C.G.M. (2012). Red blood cell deformability during storage: Towards functional proteomics and metabolomics in the Blood Bank. Blood Transfusion. 10(supplement 2): s12-s18. doi: 10.2450/2012.004S.
  5. Cunbo, L., Zheming, L., Shuang, X., Pengchong, J., Rui, Y., Mincai, C., Fen, H., Romano, A.R., Xinzheng, Z., Leiting, P. and Jingjun, X. (2017). Protection of the biconcave profile of human erythrocytes against osmotic damage by ultraviolet- A irradiation through membrane-cytoskeleton enhancement. Citation: Cell Death Discovery. 3: 17040; doi: 10.1038/ cddiscovery.2017.40.
  6. Dominic, J.V., Richard, M.R., Michael, R.F., Guy, L.W. and Joseph, M.V. (2015). Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 152730. doi: 10.1155/2015/152730.
  7. Haldane, S., Roberts, J., Marks, S.L. and Raffe, M.R. (2004). Transfusion Medicine. Compendium of Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. 26: 502-518.
  8. Hausner, E., Essex, H.E. and Mann, F.C. (1938). Reontgenologic observations of the spleen of the dog under ether, sodium amytal, pentobarbital sodium and pentothal sodium anaesthesia. American Journal of Physiology. 121: 387-391. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1938.121.2.387.
  9. Hess, J.R. (2010). Red cell changes during storage. Transfusion and Aphersis Science. 43(1): 51-9. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2010.05.009. 
  10. Hoehn, R.S., Peter, L.J., Alex, L.C., Michael, J.E. and Timothy, A.P. (2015). Molecular mechanisms of erythrocyte aging. Biological Chemistry. 396(6-7): 1-24. doi: 10.1515/hsz- 2014-0292.
  11. Hogman, C.F., Knutson, F. and Loof, H. (1999). Storage of whole blood before separation: The effect of temperature on red cell 2,3-DPG and the accumulation of lactate. Transfusion. 39(5): 492-497. doi: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1999.39050492.x.
  12. Ibrahim, K.I.R. (2008). Histological study of effects of storage duration and temperature on the rabbits blood cells. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 30: 14-24.
  13. Ibrahim, M., Asma, A.M., Khuloud, M.N., Noora, A.K. and Tameem, H. (2016). Time Dependent Assessment of Morphological Changes: Leuko-depleted Packed Red Blood Cells Stored in SAGM. BioMed Research International. 4529434. doi: 10.1155/2016/4529434.
  14. Klaus, H., Peter, M., Wolfgang, R., Roderich, R., Klaus, K. and Aloys, E. (2005). “Azo Dyes”. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
  15. Kristensen, A.T. and Feldman, B.F. (1995). General principles of small animal blood component administration. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 25(6): 1277-1290. doi: 10.1016/S0195-5616(95)50154-8.
  16. Okereke, H.N., Udegbunam, R.I., Nwobi, L.G., Ezeobialu, H.T. and Udegbunam, S.O. (2020). In vitro assessment of time- dependent changes in red cell cytoplasmic antioxidants of donkey blood preserved in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine 1 anticoagulant. Veterinary World. 13(4): 726-730. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.726-730.
  17. Udegbunam, R.I., Njaka, C.S., Okereke, H.N. and Udegbunam, S.O. (2020). Comparative evaluation of the in-vitro viability of canine and human blood preserved in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 anticoagulated blood bag. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 54(5): 549-552 doi: 10. 18805 /ijar.B-1039.
  18. Udegbunam, R.I., Umeh, L.A. and Udegbunam, S.O. (2009). The effects of Ketamine hydrochloride on the erythrocytic indices of splenectomized dogs. Animal Science Reporter. 3(3): 114-117.
  19. Uzoigwe, C. (2006). The human erythrocyte has developed the biconcave disc shape to optimise the ûow properties of the blood in the large vessels. Medical Hypotheses. 67(5): 1159-1163. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2004.11.047. 
  20. Wehrli, G. (2012). Blood banking and transfusion medicine for the nephrologist. Seminars in Dialysis. 25(2): 114-118. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-139X.2011.01021.x.

Global Footprints