Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.44

  • SJR .282 (2022)

  • Impact Factor .427 (2022)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus

Evaluation of Liquid and Dry Aluminum Chloride Treatment of Litter on Litter Quality and Performance of Duck

Tae-Ho Chung
  • Email
1Department of Companion Animals and Animal Resources Science, Joongbu University, Chungnam, 32713, South Korea.
Cite article:- Chung Tae-Ho (2019). Evaluation of Liquid and Dry Aluminum Chloride Treatment of Litter on Litter Quality and Performance of Duck. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53(12): 1684-1687. doi: 10.18805/ijar.B-1173.
This study investigated the effects of liquid aluminum chloride (liquid AlCl3) and dry AlCl3 litter treatment of duck litter on litter pH, ammonia (NH3) emissions and total nitrogen (TN) and duck performance. 240 newborn Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 12 pens (20 ducks per pen) for 42 days. The litter additives consisted of the following four groups with three replications per group using a randomized block design: Control, G1 (50 g liquid AlCl3/kg duck litter), G2 (150 g liquid AlCl3/kg duck litter) and G3 (150 g dry AlCl3/kg duck litter). The liquid and dry AlCl3 were applied by spraying and as a top-dressing, respectively. No significant difference was found on growth performance, however, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (P<0.05) better in G2. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found among duck litter pH at weeks 3, 5 and 6; NH3 emissions at weeks 2, 3, 5 and 6; and TN at weeks 3 and 6. At week 6, NH3 emissions from the duck litter were reduced by 23.1%, 32.2% and 36.7% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The addition of 150 g liquid or 150 g dry AlCl3 to duck litter has the potential to increase FCR and TN content while reducing litter pH and NH3 emission.
  1. AOAC. (1998). Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists, 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC. 
  2. Çelen, M.F., Kozat, S., Ekin, S., Yörük, B.H., Alki, E. (2008). Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected trace elements and vitamins concentrations in broiler. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7:3363-3366. 
  3. Choi, I.H. and Moore, P.A.Jr. (2008a). Effect of various litter amendments on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen content of poultry litter. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 17: 454-462. 
  4. Choi, I.H. and Moore, P.A.Jr. (2008b). Effect of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids and nitrogen contents of litter. Poultry Science. 87:1955-1963. 
  5. Choi, I.H., Choi, J.H., Ko, S.H., Moore, P.A.Jr. (2011). Reducing ammonia emissions and volatile fatty acids in poultry litter with liquid aluminum chloride. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B. 46:432-435. 
  6. Dahal, G.K. (2012). Reuse and reuse of old poultry litter. Available at: https://en.Engormi    litter-t35256. 
  7. Elliott, H.A. and Collins, N.E. (1982). Factors affecting ammonia release in broiler houses. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 25: 413–418. 
  8. Fraley, S.M., Fraley, G.S., Karcher, D.M., Makagon, M.M., Lilburn, M.S. (2013). Influence of plastic slatted floors compared with pine shaving litter on Pekin Duck condition during the summer months. Poultry Science. 92:1706-1711. 
  9. Hess, J.B., Blake, J.P., Macklin, K.S., Norton, R.A., Bilgili, S.F., Blake, J.P. (2009). Effective broiler litter management. Available at:
  10. Irfan, M., Mehmood, S., Mahmud, A., Hussain, J., Saima, Shaheen, M.S., Ahmad, S., Zia, M.W. (2019). ZiaEffect of different bedding materials on growth performance, physiological response and economic efficiency in three commercial broiler strains. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53:545-550.
  11. Madrid, J., Lypez, M.J., Orengo, J., Martínez, S., Valverde, M., Megías, M.D., Hernández, F. (2012). Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age. Animal. 6:1322-1329.
  12. Moore, P.A.Jr., Daniel, T.C., Edwards, D.R. (2000). Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate. Journal of Environmental Quality. 29:37-49. 
  13. Moore, P.A.Jr. and Edwards, D.R. (2007). Long-term effects of poultry litter, alum-treated litter and ammonium nitrate on phosphorus availability in soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 36: 163-174. 
  14. Lee, G.D., Kim, S.C., Choi, I.H. (2013). Using anhydrous aluminum chloride with calcium carbonate to reduce ammonia volatilization and increase nitrogen content from poultry litter. Journal of Poultry Science. 50:172-176. 
  15. Proch, A., Malik, D.S., Singh, Y., Sandhu, K.S., Sharma, A., Sethi, A.P.S. (2019). Effect of litter and dietary amendments on ammonia concentration, broiler performance and litter quality in winter. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53:973-978.
  16. Shah, S.B., Baird, B.D., Rice, J.M. (2007). Effect of a metabolic stimulant on ammonia volatilization from broiler litter. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16:240-247.
  17. SAS Institute Inc. (2008). Version 9.2. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.
  18. Sahoo, S.P., Kaur, D., Sethi, A.P.S., Sharma, A., Chandra Chandrahas, M. (2017). Effect of chemically amended litter on litter quality and broiler performance in winter. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 45:533-537. 
  19. Sims, J.T. and Luka-McCafferty, N.J. (2002). On-farm evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a poultry amendment: effects on litter properties. Journal of Environmental Quality. 31:2066-2073. 
  20. Watts, D.B., Smith, K.E., Torbert, H.A. (2012). Impact of poultry litter cake, cleanout and bedding following chemical amendments on soil C and N mineralization. International Journal of Agronomy. 2012: 1-8.

Editorial Board

View all (0)