Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 56 issue 7 (july 2022) : 860-865

Effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse treated with alkali and white rot fungi on dairy cow performance, blood metabolite and ruminal fermentation 

Vatsana Sirisan1, Virote Pattarajinda2, Somporn Duanyai3
1Facultry of Veterinary Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, 44000, Thailand.
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.
3Faculty of Agriculture, Ubonratchathani Rajabhat University, Ubonratchathani, 34000, Thailand.
Cite article:- Sirisan Vatsana, Pattarajinda Virote, Duanyai Somporn (2022). Effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse treated with alkali and white rot fungi on dairy cow performance, blood metabolite and ruminal fermentation . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 56(7): 860-865. doi: 10.18805/ijar.B-1084.
Bagasse is the left over obtained from sugar production plants. After improving the quality with NaOH and white fungus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, it can be used as roughage source for ruminant animal. However, use at different levels in TMR diet is expected to produce different responses. Therefore, the objective this study is to find the suitable level of fermented sugarcane bagasse (FSB) as an ingredient in TMR with 14% dietary protein content on dairy cow performance, blood metabolite and ruminal fermentation. In CRD experiment, nine crossbred Holstein lactating multiparous cows (avg. b. wt. 405±45 kg) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments comprising of 3 levels of FSB in TMR diet viz., 10, 20 and 30%. The result showed that inclusion of FSB at different levels in TMR diet had no effect on DMI and milk production. However, FSB at 20% in TMR had improved the milk composition. Increasing the level of FSB in TMR diet was effect to increase blood glucose, while blood urea nitrogen has the highest in 1.5 hours after feeding FSB at 10% in TMR diet. Level of FSB in TMR diet had no effect on ruminal fermentation as evidenced in every hour of determination, except 4.5 hours after feeding while FSB at 10 % in TMR diet had highest TVFA concentration in the rumen.  Therefore, the study suggests that FSB at the level of 20-30% in TMR diet for optimum performance, blood metabolite and ruminal fermentation.  
Bagasse is a part of the sugar cane trunk and represents about 29% of sugar cane production. It can be used as fuel for power generation, fertilizer and as animal feed. The animal husbandry industry is currently seeking ways to reduce animal feed costs. Sugarcane bagasse is used as roughage source for ruminant animal. However, sugarcane residues consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and are quite high in the proportion of 50, 27.5 and 9.8%, respectively. It has low protein content (less than 2.5%). In addition, the structure of cellulose that was cross-linked to lignin (lignocellulose) (Suksombat, 2004; Ahmed et al., 2012) and this adversely affect the digestion and utilization of animal. Therefore, various methods had been tried to improve the quality of bagasse pulp before its use as animal feed. These include use of NaOH treatment for the destruction of the ligand binding structure, increasing of protein components by using urea or ammonia salt, using enzyme and high pressure stream for degradation. Carvalho et al., (2013) stated that feeding alkali-treated sugar cane bagasse has increased feed intake and body weight of ruminant. However, the use of NaOH more than 5% may also affect animal health. The use of hot steam may only damage the structure of the fiber and may not affect the protein content. Therefore, the use of microorganisms to breakdown the structure of bagasse and produce protein is a good option to improve the quality of bagasse as animal feed. Moreover, owing to the organic matter of sugarcane bagasse, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, it can be used as substrate for microbial population of value-added products, such as protein rich animal feed, amino acid enzyme and organic acid (Parameswaran, 2009) and also source of carbon for the growth of filamentous fungi (Martins et al., 2011). White rot fungi are known as producers of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP), manganese independent peroxidase (MiP) and laccase (Onyango et al., 2011). Similarly, Nallapeta et al., (2012) reported that white rot fungi like Pleurotus chrysosporium, G. applanatum, L. adusta can be used to degrade lignin bonds in bagasse. Permana et al., (2000) reported that sugarcane bagasse supplemented with soybean meal or wheat bran as substrate of P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii and Agrocybe aegerita can influence lignin degradation and improve in vitro digestibility. Vatsana et al., (2016) stated that using fermented sugarcane bagasse with 4% NaOH and P. sajor-caju in TMR diet at the level of 30-40% can improved in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro acid detergent fiber digestibility (IVADFD). However, Mahesh and Mohini (2013) reported that mostly, white rot fungus can decompose lignin but it has no effect on cellulose and hemicellulose. Moreover, limited data is available regarding the use of combination of alkali and white rot fungi for improving the nutritive value of sugarcane bagasse as roughage source for ruminants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and white rot fungi on blood metabolites, ruminal fermentation and dairy cow performance.
In a completely randomized design (CRD) experiment, twelve crossbred Holstein lactating multiparous cows with an average body weight of 405±45 kg and average milk yield of 12.0±1.2 kg/day were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments. All the cows were fed diets comprising of fermented sugarcane bagasse (FSB) as feed ingredient at 10 (T1), 20 (T2) and 30 (T3) per cent levels in TMR diet. The sugarcane bagasse was procured from Mitr Kalasin sugar factory Co., Ltd. at Kalasin Province, Thailand. Fermented sugarcane bagasse (FSB) was prepared by treating sugarcane bagasse with 4% NaOH + 108 spore/ml of Pleurotus sajor-caju, then covered with a plastic sheet and allowed for a period of 20 days before use as roughage source in TMR diet. The experimental diet (14.0% CP) was formulated (Table 1) using KCF 2006 program (Pattarajinda and Duangjinda, 2006). All the dairy cows were offered TMR diet ad libitum.
 

Table 1: Feed ingredient composition of TMR diet on dry matter (DM) basis.


       
The experiment was conducted for 74 days, with the first 14 days as adjustment period. Each cow was allotted single stall. All the cows were weighed before the trial and the end of the experimental period to calculate the body weight change. Feed offered and orts were measured and recorded daily during the period of the experiment to calculate feed intake. Weekly composites of TMR and orts were collected from daily samples of about 0.5 kg and stored at -20°C. TMR diet samples were dried at 60°C and ground to pass through a 1-mm screen using a Wiley Mill (Thomas-Wiley, Philadelphia, PA). Ground diet samples were analyzed for DM, crude protein (CP), ash, ether extract (EE) (AOAC, 2000), ADF and NDF (Van Soest et al., 1991). These were determined by a fiber analyzer (ANKOM200/220, ANKOM Technology Corp., Fairport, NY, USA). Cows were milked twice a day at 05.30 and 15.30 hour and recorded daily for milk production analysis. Milk samples were collected at 2 periods each day (05.30 and 15.30) throughout weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 of the experiment. Milk samples were pooled and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solid (TS) and solid non-fat (SNF) by using a milk analyzer (MILKO SONIC S-L90). On the last day of the experimental period, blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein at 0, 1.5 and 4.5 hours after the morning feeding in 10 ml tubes. The blood serum was used for analysis of blood glucose (BG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) by using an automated chemistry analyzer (HITACHI 912). Rumen fluid samples were collected at the same time as the blood samples via a stomach tube fitted with a vacuum pump. About 80 ml was collected from each cow. Ruminal fluid samples were obtained by straining ruminal contents through two layers of cheesecloth. The samples were preserved by the addition of 5 ml of 1M H2SO4 solution to 50 ml of rumen fluid and stored at -20°C. Prior to analysis, the ruminal fluid samples were thawed and centrifuged at 3,500 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C. The supernatants were collected to determine ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) by using the Kjeldahl method and VFA concentration by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; using Waters Model 600E Controller and Waters Model 484 UV Detector) according to the method of Zinn and Owens (1986).
      
Body weight change, dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolite, and VFA production were subjected to analysis of variance according to CRD, using the general linear model procedure of SAS (1996). Means were separated by Duncan’s new multiple range test at P<0.05.
Dry matter intake (DMI)
 
The average DMI of dairy cows was 15.51 kg/d. Increased levels of FSB from 10 to 30% in TMR diet had no effect on DMI of dairy cows. This mean that treatment of sugarcane bagasse with NaOH and white rot fungi could improve its nutritive value and its potential use as high quality roughage source for cattle. Similarly, Gunun et al., (2016) showed that sugarcane bagasse treated with urea and urea plus Ca(OH)2 could improve the nutritive value and its potential use as high quality roughage. On the other hand, Nattapong et al., (2013) stated that feeding treated sugarcane bagasse with 4% NaOH at the level of 28% in TMR diet resulted in increased DMI, feed efficiency and average daily gain (ADG) of beef cattle.
 
Body weight change
 
The body weight change was significantly higher in cows fed FSB at 30% level in TMR diet which might be attributed to the highest DMI observed in this group (Table 2). The dry matter feed intake of animals supply nutrients for production, improving body weight and maintenance. Accordingly, this study found that cows were capable of using nutrients to improve body weight.
 

Table 2: Effect of level of fermented sugarcane bagasse on DMI, body weight change, milk yield and milk composition.


 
Milk yield and milk composition
 
Inclusion of FSB upto 30% in TMR diet had no effect on milk yield (kg/d). However, the milk yield was numerically higher in cows fed FSB at 10% level compared to other levels. Increased levels of inclusion of FSB in TMR diet fed to dairy cow resulted in increased milk fat content (p<0.01). The effect of FSB on milk fat content might be explained by increasing level of FSB in TMR diet which led to increase of roughage level in TMR diet, it adversely affect to increasing the acetic acid as precursor to milk fat content synthesis. Similar, Shuaiwang et al., (2016) reported that the large changes of milk fat composition can be achieved by changing the nature of forages in the diets.  
        
Milk protein, milk lactose, milk solid nonfat (SNF) and milk total solid (TS) were significantly higher (p<0.01) in cows fed FSB at 20% level in TMR diet (Table 2). Milk composition can be altered with diet composition, since the substrates for mammary synthesis of milk composition are provided by the ruminal fermentation and by the digestion of the small intestine carbohydrates, affecting milk yield directly through the supply of glucose to the mammary gland and milk protein through the growth limitation of ruminal bacteria (Chalupa and Sniffen, 2000).
 
Blood metabolite
 
The effect of FSB on blood glucose concentrations are presented in Table 3. The values of glucose at 0 h pre-feeding, 1.5 h post-feeding and the average of blood glucose were not significantly different, while the differences were significant (p<0.01) at 4.5 h post-feeding. The study indicated that the cows fed FSB at 30% level in TMR diet has lowest blood glucose as compared to the other levels. This may be due to the use of glucose to build body weight and produce milk yield.
 

Table 3: Effect of level of fermented sugarcane bagasse on blood metabolite.


        
The values of BUN concentration at three different intervals of 0, 1.5 and 4.5 h of post feeding are present in Table 3. The average BUN levels at 0, 1.5 and 4.5 hours post feeding were 14.00, 15.83, 17.50 mg/dL, respectively. It can be noticed that BUN values were significantly different at 1.5 h post feeding (p<0.01) while there was no effect on BUN concentration at 0 h of pre-feeding and 4.5 of post feeding. The cows fed FSB at 10% level in TMR diet showed the highest concentration of BUN in comparisons with the other treatment. The BUN concentration was highest at 4.5 hours after feeding as evidenced in all treatments. Similarly, Pattarajinda (2001) reported that BUN concentration was highest at 4 to 6 hours after feeding. Normally, the average BUN concentration is 12 mg/dL, the lowest BUN concentration is 4 mg/dL and the highest BUN concentration is 25 mg/dL (Kohn et al., 2005).
 
Ruminal fermentation
 
The mean NH3-N levels in the rumen at 0, 1.5 and 4.5 hours after feeding were 15.24, 15.49 and 13.32 mg %, respectively. The level of FSB in TMR diet had no effect on ruminal NH3-N concentration either at 0, 1.5 and 4.5 hours after feeding. The concentration of NH3-N in the rumen is caused by factors from protein composition in TMR diet, that when fermented by the microorganisms in the rumen and get NH3-N. According to the present study, TMR diet used in the study has the same protein level of 14% in all treatment, which might had resulted in non-significant differences in NH3- N concentration in the rumen. Tamminga (2006) reported that NH3-N concentration in the rumen depend on the CP content of the diet, the rate of degradation of feed protein, the feed intake level and the feeding pattern.
 
        
The mean total VFA (TVFA) concentration levels at 0 hour pre-feeding and at 1.5 and 4.5 hours after feeding were 93.13, 83.51 and 89.78 mM, respectively. The TVFA concentration in the rumen did not differ significantly among cows fed TMR diet containing FSB at different levels, except for 4.5 hours after feeding where cows fed FSB at a level of 10% in the TMR diet had significantly (p<0.05) higher TVAF concentration. However, the TVFA concentration was at the normal range (70 to 130 mM) as reported by France and Siddons (1993). The VFA are the main product of anaerobic microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the rumen. The increase of VFA profile strongly corresponded to the increasing of microbial population (Vinh et al., 2011). TVFA production in the rumen might come from the R:C ratio of the diet fed to the animal. Molar proportion of acetate decreased while that of propionate increased from low to high concentrate. Similarly, our study found that decreasing level of FSB in TMR diet fed to animals had no effect on TVFA concentration but affected the molar proportion of propionate.
        
The molar proportion of acetate in the rumen was not affected by the level of FSB in TMR diet (Table 4), but had a similar molar proportion (60 to 90%) to the one reported by Mackie et al., (1999). Moreover, the low level of roughage in the diet fed to animals is a significant cause of decreased acetate production in the rumen. Sutton et al., (2003) found that the varied R:C ratios of 60:40 and 90:10 of the TMR diet fed to animals reduced acetate and butyrate concentration, but increased propionate concentration in the rumen. Similarly, all cows in our study were fed different level of FSB as roughage source in TMR diet which might had resulted in increased acetate concentration in the rumen with increasing levels of FSB in TMR diet.
 

Table 4: Effect of level of fermented sugarcane bagasse on ruminal fermentation.


        
Level of FSB in TMR diet had no effect on the molar proportion of propionate in the rumen as evidenced in every hour of determination. On the other hand, FSB at the level 10% in TMR diet had highest propionate concentration in the rumen. Accordingly, Ørskov et al., (1999) also indicated that ruminants fed with high-fiber diets had high acetic acid concentration and are high in propionic acid when fed with low-fiber diets.
        
Different levels of FSB in TMR diet had no effect on the molar proportion of butyrate in the rumen as evidenced in every hour of determination, except for 1.5 h of post feeding. Feeding FSB at level of 20 and 30% in the TMR diet had significantly higher (p<0.05) butyrate concentration in the rumen when compared to 10% level. The molar proportion of butyrate was within the normal range (10 to 25%) like the one reported by Mackie et al., (1999).
Sugarcane bagasse fermented with alkali (NaOH) and white fungi (P. sajor-caju) was used as roughage source in TMR diet at the level of 10, 20 and 30% to study the effect on performance, blood metabolites and ruminal fermentation. This study found that all levels of FSB in TMR diet had no effect on DMI and milk production. However, FSB at 20% level had improved the milk composition. Blood glucose concentration is increased by increasing the level of FSB in TMR diet, while blood urea nitrogen has the highest value at 1.5 hours after feeding FSB at 10% in TMR diet. Level of FSB in TMR diet had no effect on ruminal fermentation as evidenced in every hour of determination, except 4.5 hours after feeding FSB at 10% in TMR diet had highest TVFA concentration in the rumen. Therefore, the study suggests that sugarcane bagasse fermented with NaOH and white fungi (P. sajor-caju) could be used as alternative roughage source for ruminant animal at the level of 20-30% in TMR diet for performance, blood metabolite and ruminal fermentation also.
This research project is funded by the Office of the Higher Education Commission and Mahasarakham University in year 2015.

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