Agricultural economy of India is also dependent upon livestock as a source of draft and traction power. A meticulous grass root level survey study was conducted on various aspects of camel and bullock carting systems which involved four different Zones (north, south, east, west) of Thar Desert. A detail economics of both type of carting systems were analysed by using the linear programming method and considered all possible and feasible linear components - subcomponents to reach a final decision. The average working life period of camel (14.50±0.50 years) is more as compared to bullock (10.00±0.66 years) used under carting operation where as the average life period of animal drawn cart is almost same. Maximum farmers (90%) involved themselves for the carting operation in both cases. The average cost of camel cart, was high (about 40%) as compared to bullock cart. The average total number of working days in a year was almost equal in both type of carting system. The average weight/load carrying by camel cart (14.5±4.89 quintal) was quite hlglhs compared to bullock cart (8.00±4.11 quintal). The average working hours per day were 9.25±2.11 and 8.65±2.50 for camel and bullock, espectively. The average daily Income from camel carting was estimated to be higher (about 22%) than bullock carting. Total distance covered per day by camel cart (21.45±6.55 km) was more as compared to bullock cart (14.85±5.50 km). The camel carting required higher investment in terms of interest rate, depreciation rate and expenses towards insurances. The overall total fixed cost was high in camel carting (Rs. 3331/-) than bullock carting (Rs. 2438/-). The yearly repairing and maintenance cost of camel cart was high as compared to bullock cart. In case of bullock the total expenditure for shoeing was Rs. 800/- for a year where as it was not required at all for camel. The total variable cost was high in bullock carting than camel carting. The average yearly maintenance cost of animal were Rs. 15330/- and Rs. 14965/- for camel and bullock, respectively. The total expenditure for both cuet was almost equal but total earning and profit from camel carting was quite high as compared to bullock. The pay back period was almost double in cue of bullock carting as compered to camel where as tha benefit cost ratio was 3/4 th time high in cue of camel carting. It is evident that due to short pay back period and higher benefit cost ratio camel carting is profitable and advantageous over the bullock carting for small dry land farmer in the hot arid Thar Desert.