A survey was carried out on the farming use of carnel vs. bullock system covering four zones of Thar desert. A detail economics of both type of farming systems were analysed by using the linear programming method. The average age (years) of carnel and bullocks used under farming system were 6.43±0.98 and 4.12±0.76 respectively. Annual average net income from Kharif season crop was observed to be higher in carnel system as compared to bullock system. Overall in the study area maximum carnel were reared under intensive system followed by semi-intensive and extensive system. Among the kharif season crops, groundnut provided higher return per rupee investment, followed by guar, cotton and moth whereas among the rabi season crops, mustard provided higher return per rupee investment, followed by gram and wheat. The farming use of bullock system required higher expenditure in terms of interest on investment, depreciation and expenses towards insurance of animals. Similar trend was observed in overall total fixed cost, overall total variable cost and maintenance cost of animal. The overall total variable cost was quite high in bullock system (Rs. 56,306/-) as compared to carnel system (Rs. 37,442/-). The average earning from selling of manure was more in bullock system than carnel system whereas income from other sources and profit was high in carnel system than bullock system. The pay back period for investment on animal system was quite less in case of carnel than bullock but the cost benefit ratio was high in carnel system as compared to bullock system. It is evident that due to higher cost benefit ratio and shorter pay back period the farming use of carnel system is advantageous and profitable over the bullock system for small and medium farmers in the hot arid Thar region.