Chief EditorYashpal Singh Malik
Print ISSN 0303-3821
Online ISSN 0976-4631
NAAS Rating 3.07
Organic and Natural Farming- A Critical Review of Challenges and Prospects
First Online 14-11-2022|
Agriculture was, by default, organic throughout the world before the technique of manufacturing synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer was discovered in 1903. However, availability of agro-chemicals became very common after the Second World War and the agriculture started becoming more and more chemical based. Synthetic fertilizers were introduced in India during 1965-66 and their use grew rapidly along with the high yielding varieties during the green revolution period and Indian farming, by and large, became chemical based. However, by the end of the twentieth century the ill-effects of such chemical-based farming were very well understood by the common Indian people and demand for organically produced food started growing. Different methods and procedures of growing organic food got popularity among the growers, however, a sense of confusion on package of practices on organic/natural farming kept on growing simultaneously. This review article was designed to make various concepts related to organic/natural farming crystal clear for the readers. Principals of organic farming, crop cultivation strategies in organic/natural farming, challenges in organic/ natural farming and possibilities and suggestions in organic/natural farming have been elaborately articulated in this review.
- Acharya, D. (2020). Prakrutic Krushi. Governor of Gujarat. https://atarikanpur.icar.gov.in/devrat.pdf.
- Behera, K.K., Alam, A., Vats, S., Sharma, H.P. and Sharma, V. (2012). Organic farming history and techniques. Agroecology and strategies for climate change. Springer, Dordrecht: 287-328p.
- Chaudhary, M.V. and Thakur, N. (2021). Future prospects of organic farming: A review. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 36(2): 108-111.
- Chongtham, I.R., Bergkvist, G., Watson, C.A., Sandström, E., Bengtsson, J. and Öborn, I. (2017). Factors influencing crop rotation strategies on organic farms with different time periods since conversion to organic production. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. 33(1): 14-27.
- Das, A., Baiswar, P., Patel, D.P., Munda, G.C., Ghosh, P.K., Ngachan, S.V., Panwar, A.S. and Chandra, S. (2010). Compost quality prepared from locally available plant biomass and their effect on rice productivity under organic production system. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 34(5): 466-482.
- Eliazer Nelson, A.R.L., Ravichandran, K. and Antony, U. (2019). The impact of the green revolution on indigenous crops of India. Journal of Ethnic Foods. 6(1): 1-10.
- Gugalia, G. (2021). A sustainable agriculture: Organic farming: A review. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 36(3): 204-207.
- Gurusamy, M., Misra, S. and Kumar, D.K. (2021). Organic farming in India: Problems and prospects-its future. Indian Journal of Natural Sciences. 12(65): 30125-30133.
- Haldhar, S.M., Jat, G.C., Deshwal, H.L., Gora, J.S. and Singh, D. (2017). Insect Pest and Disease Management in Organic Farming. Towards Organic Agriculture; [Gangwar, B., Jat, N.K., (Eds)]: 359-390.
- Jain, P.K. (2021). Indian government schemes on agriculture. International Journal of Modern Agriculture. 10(2): 2012-2019.
- Kavitha, V. and Chandran, K. (2017). Organic farming in conserving bio diversity in India-A review. Agricultural Reviews. 38(4): 316-320.
- Khurana, A. and Kumar, V. (2020). State of Organic and Natural Farming: Challenges and Possibilities, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi.
- Korav, S., Dhaka, A.K., Chaudhary, A. and Mamtha, Y.S. (2020). Zero Budget Natural Farming a Key to Sustainable Agriculture: Challenges, Opportunities and Policy Intervention. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Biosciences. 8(3): 285-295.
- Kumar, V. and Pawar, K. (2018). A review on soil health and fertility management in organic agriculture through green manuring. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. SP1: 3213-3217.
- Luttikholt, L.W. (2007). Principles of organic agriculture as formulated by the International federation of organic agriculture movements. NJAS-Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences. 54(4): 347-360.
- Mahesh, K.M., Aithal, P.S. and Sharma, K.R.S. (2021). A study on the impact of schemes and programmes of government of india on agriculture to increase productivity, profitability, financial inclusion and welfare of farmers to transform them into modern society. International Journal of Management, Technology and Social Sciences. 6(2): 231-243.
- Mariappan, K. and Zhou, D. (2019). A threat of farmers’ suicide and the opportunity in organic farming for sustainable agricultural development in India. Sustainability. 11(8): 2400. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082400.
- Maru, A.K., Thumar, R. K. and Prajapati, M. (2021). Evaluation of neemastra, agniastra and brahmastra for the management of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. in tomato. Environment and Ecology. 39(4A): 1144-1149.
- Mohapatra, T., Singh, A.K., Birthal, P.S., Gowda, C.M.J. and Rana, R.K. (2022). Doubling Farmers Income-State Wise Synthesis. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krish Bhawan, New Delhi: xvii+95 p.
- Mupambwa, H.A., Ravindran, B., Dube, E., Lukashe, N.S., Katakula, A.A. and Mnkeni, P.N. (2020). Some Perspectives on Vermicompost Utilization in Organic Agriculture. In Earthworm Assisted Remediation of Effluents and Wastes. Springer, Singapore: 299-331.
- Palaniappan, S.P. and Annadurai, K. (2018). Organic Farming Theory and Practice. Scientific Publishers: vii+248 p.
- Rahman, S. (2015). Green revolution in India: Environmental degradation and impact on livestock. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution. 12(1): 75-80.
- Ramachandran, S., Singh, S.K., Larroche, C., Soccol,
- C.R. and Pandey, A. (2007). Oil cakes and their biotechnological applications-A review. Bioresource Technology. 98(10): 2000-2009.
- Rana, R.K. and Singh, R. (2018) Restoring Human and Environmental Health through Creative Natural Farming Practices. In: Agri-Innovators: The Torch Bearers of Brighter Agriculture. [Singh, R., Rana, Rajesh K., Chahal, V. Pand Singh, A.K. (Eds)]. ICAR- ATARI, Zone-I, Ludhiana, India: 19-24.
- Rana, R.K., Singh, R. and Singh, A.K. (2022a). Circumventing the intermediaries for economic empowerment of small farmers in Punjab, India. Current Science. 122(11): 1243-1246.
- Rana, R.K., Singh, R., Singh, A.K., Chahal, V.P., Singh, R., Monga, S. and Singh, M. (2022b). Policy Implications on Doubling Farmers Income - Evidences from the actual successful cases in Zone-1, (2016-17 to 2020-21). Policy Document, ICAR-ATARI, Ludhiana: vi+50p.
- Ranjit, K., Sanjiv, K., Yashavanth, B.S. and Meena, P.C. (2019). Natural farming practices in India: Its adoption and impact on crop yield and farmers’ income. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. 74(3): 420-432.
- Raut, V., Raut, D.D. and Deshpande, S. (2018). A boost of organic farming to farmers. Gujarat Journal of Extension Education. 29(2): 159-162.
- Rembia³kowska, E. (2007). Quality of plant products from organic agriculture. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 87(15): 2757-2762.
- Russel, D.A. and Williams, G.G. (1977). History of chemical fertilizer development. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 41(2): 260-265.
- Seufert, V., Ramankutty, N. and Mayerhofer, T. (2017). What is this thing called organic?-How organic farming is codified in regulations. Food Policy. 68: 10-20.
- Shirur, M., Shivalingegowda, N.S., Chandregowda, M.J. and Rana, R.K. (2018). Performance analysis of South- Indian mushroom units: Imperative policy implications for their preparedness for global competitiveness. Current Science. 115(10): 2141-2146.
- Shirur, M., Shivalingegowda, N.S., Chandregowda, M.J. and Rana, R.K. (2017). Socio economic analysis of entrepreneurial behaviour of mushroom growers in Karnataka. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 87(6): 840-845.
- Singh, M. and Rana, R.K. (2021). Understanding farmer producer organisations (FPOs) for their imperativeness to the small holder farmers. Agriculture letters. 2(12): 22-29.
- Singh, M., Tiwari, D., Monga, S. and Rana, R. K. (2022). Behavioural determinants of functionality of farmer producer organisations in Punjab. Indian Journal of extension Education. 58(1): 130-35.
- Singh, J. (2021). Organic farming by biofertilizers. Biofertilizers: Study and Impact. 121-149.
- Singh, S.P. and Patel, C.R. (2022). Organic farming: An approach for sustainable agriculture. Indian Farming. 72(1): 31-38.
- Varshini, S.V. and Jayanthi, C. (2020). Organic liquid manures and bio-fertilizers: A tool for soil and crop productivity. Agricultural Reviews. 41(4): 387-392.
- Willer, H. and Lernoud, J. (2017). The world of organic agriculture. Statistics and emerging trends 2017. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL and IFOAM-Organics International: 1-336p.
- Wijnands, F.W.T. (1999). Crop Rotation in Organic Farming: Theory and Practice. In: Designing and Testing Crop Rotations for Organic Farming. Proceedings from an International Workshop. Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming: 21-35 p.
- Xu, H.L. (2001). Nature Farming: History, principles and perspectives. Journal of crop Production. 3(1): 1-10.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.