Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika, volume 35 issue 3 (september 2020) : 185-188

Effect of feeding bypass fat to dairy animals- A Review

Ashwani Kumar Roy, Mahendra Singh
1Animal Physiology Division, N.D.R.I. Karnal- 132 001, Haryana
  • Submitted23-09-2020|

  • Accepted05-10-2020|

  • First Online 07-12-2020|

  • doi 10.18805/BKAP233

Cite article:- Roy Kumar Ashwani, Singh Mahendra (2020). Effect of feeding bypass fat to dairy animals- A Review. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 35(3): 185-188. doi: 10.18805/BKAP233.
The last 3 weeks each of pregnancy and early lactation are very critical for the dairy animals because of the challenges posed by metabolic and hormonal changes in the body. The dry matter intake of these animals starts declining during advanced pregnancy and gets reduced up to 30% just 3 weeks before parturition.  Most of the energy is utilized for the production of colostrum and milk after parturition due to which the animal faces negative energy balance.  The animal also loses its body condition score due to the utilization of its body fat to meet energy requirements that lead to an increase in non-esterified fatty acids in the blood.  The animals are prone to metabolic disorders and decreased production of milk when its body fats are depleted. The energy requirements of such animals could be met by increasing the energy density of their diet.  There is an increase in rumen acidosis if more quantity of concentrate is offered to such animals.  Acidosis leads to the poor digestion of fibers in the rumen. There is increased production of propionate in comparison to acetate which is responsible for less percentage of fat in the milk of these animals. The ill effects of negative energy balance may be eliminated if these animals are offered bypass fat in their diet.  The cellulose digesting bacteria stay unharmed due to bypass fat where as ordinary fat may harm these bacteria if more than 1% of its dry matter intake is fed. Therefore, it is advisable to offer bypass or prilled fat to the animals during transition period. 
  1. Alexander, G., Prabhakara Rao, Z.and Rama Prasad, J., (2002). Effect of supplementing sheep with sunflower acid oil or its calcium soap on nutrient utilization. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences,15, 1288-1293.
  2. Bargo, F., L. D. Muller, J. E. Delahoy, and T. W. Cassidy. (2002). Milk response to concentrate supplementation of high producing dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1777-1792.
  3. Ganjkhanlou, M., Rezayazdi, K., Ghorbani, G.R., Dehghan Banadaky, M., Morraveg, H.,Yang, W.Z., (2009). Effects of protected fat supplements on production of early lactation Holstein cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 154, 276–283. 
  4. Garnsworthy, P.C., Lock, A., Mann, G.E., Sinclair, K.D. and Webb, R., (2008). Nutrition, Metabolism, and Fertility in Dairy Cows:2. Dietary Fatty Acids and Ovarian Function. J. of Dairy Sci. 91: 3824–3833. 
  5. Gobinda Yadav, (2014). Effect of prilled fat supplementation on milk production and reproductive performance in crossbred cows. MVSc thesis, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana, India.
  6. Gowda, N.K.S., Manegar, A., Raghavendra, A., Verma, S., Maya, G., Pal, D.T., Suresh, K.P. and Sampath, K.T. (2013). Effect of protected fat supplementation to high yielding dairy cows in field condition. Anim. Nutri. and Feed Tech. 13: 125-130. 
  7. Grummer, R.R. (1995). Impact of changes in organic nutrient metabolism on feeding the transition cow. J. of Ani. Sci. 73: 2820–2833. 
  8. Ingvartsen, K.L. and Andersen, J.B. (2000). Symposium: dry matter intake of lactating dairy cattle. Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: a review focusing on periparturient animals. J. Dairy Sci. 83: 1573–1597. 
  9. Iriadam M. (2007). Variation in certain haematological and biochemical parameters during the peri-partum period in Kilis does. Small Ruminant Research,. T. 73: 54–57. 
  10. LeBlanc, S.J. (2010). Assessing the association of the level of milk production with reproductive performance in dairy cattle. J. Reprod. Dev. 56:S1–S7. 
  11. Naik, P.K., Saijpaul, S., Sirohi, A.S. and Raquib, M. (2009). Lactation response of crossbred dairy cows fed indigenously prepared rumen protected fat - A field trial. Indian J. of Anim. Sci. 79: 1045-1049. 
  12. Parnerkar, S., Kumar, D., Shankhpal, S.S. and Thube, Marshala. (2011). Effect of feeding bypass fat to lactating buffaloes during early lactation. In: Proceedings of 14th Biennial Conference of Animal Nutrition Society of India ‘Livestock Productivity Enhancement with Available Feed Resources’, Nov. 3-5, 2011, Pantnagar, India, pp. 111-112. 
  13. Rajesh, G., (2013). Studies on Postpartum physiological adaptation in hormones, metabolites and milk production in crossbred cows fed with prilled fat. MVSc thesis, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana, India. 
  14. Salasel, B., A. Mokhtari, and T. Taktaz. (2010). Prevalence, risk factors for and impact of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder dairy cows. Theriogenology 74:1271–1278. 
  15. Schirmann, K.,N. Chapinal, D.M. Weary, W. Heuwieser, M.A.G von Keyserlingk. (2011). Short-term effects of regrouping on behavior of prepartum dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94:2312-2319. 
  16. Singh, S., Sehgal, J.P., Singh, M. and Rajesh G. (2013). Effect of prilled fat on metabolic adjustments in dry matter intake, body weight, metabolites and milk production performance in Murrah buffaloes during early lactation. Poster presented in XXIIth SAPICON-2013 at DUVASU, Mathura, UP, Page-111. 
  17. Sirohi, S.K., Walli, T.K. and Mohanta, R.K., (2010). Supplementation effect of bypass fat on production performance of lactating crossbred cows. Indian J. of Anim. Sci. 80: 733-736. 
  18. Tanaka M., Kamiya Y., Suzuki T., Nakai Y. (2011). Changes in oxidative status in periparturient dairy cows in hot conditions. Anim. Sci. J.T. 82: 320–324. 
  19. Tanritanir P., Dede S., Ceylan E. (2009). Changes in some macro minerals and biochemical parameters in female healthy siirt hair goats before and after parturition. J. of Anim. and Vet. Advances,. T. 8. P. 530–533. 
  20. Thakur S.S. and Shelke S.K. (2010). Effect of supplementing bypass fat prepared from soybean acid oil on milk yield and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 80 (4): 354-357. 
  21. Tyagi, N., Thakur S.S. and Shelke, S.K. (2009). Effect of feeding bypass fat supplement on milk yield, composition and nutrient utilization in crossbred cows. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 26 (1): 1-8. 
  22. Wadhwa, M., Grewal, R.S., Bakshi, M.P.S. and Brar, P.S. (2012). Effect of supplementing bypass fat on the performance of high yielding crossbred cows. Indian J. of Anim. Sci. 82: 200-203. 
  23. Wathes D.C., Cheng Z., Chowdhury W., Fenwick M.A., Fitzpatrick R., Morris D. G., Patton J., Murphy J.J. (2009). Negative energy balance alters global gene expression and immune responses in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows. Physiol. Genomics T. 39: 1–13.

Editorial Board

View all (0)