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Full Research Article
Effect of Processing Techniques on Nutritional Parameters of Antioxidant Rich Pomegranate Flowers
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Background: India is the largest producer of pomegranate in world. The cultivation is having a drawback of producing more of agricultural waste; all bloomed flowers do not get developed to a proper fruit and drops down earlier only. Dropped flowers may be the male flowers which drop naturally after pollination and others are female flowers which dropped due to environmental conditions or agricultural factors. According to the literature, pomegranate flowers are chemically composed of various phenol compounds which shows medical properties like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor property which helps in fats and glucose anabolism, antioxidative property, anti-inflammatory property and also hepatoprotective property.
Methods: The study was conducted reduce the agricultural waste by finding some nutritive composition of flowers. Nutritional analysis (energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates) and antioxidant analysis (Vitamin C and gallic acid) of fresh and shade dried pomegranate flowers of three different varieties i.e. Solapur Lal, Bhagwa and Ruby were done.
Result: Our findings shows that shade dried pomegranate flowers of ruby variety are having highest mean values for energy (334.7833±0.571) and carbohydrates. (72.176±0.123). protein and Fat content was found to be highest in shade dried pomegranate flowers of Solapur Lal variety with mean values as 10.350±0.121 and 0.813±0.0152 respectively. For antioxidant content, Shade dried pomegranate flowers of ruby variety contains highest amount of both the antioxidants i.e. Vitamin C and gallic acid with the mean values as 35.330±0.249 and 1533.873±11.265, respectively.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Regarding gallic acid content, the highest content was in Solapur Lal variety and the result was statistically significant i.e. (p<0.05). Table 2 depicted the comparison between nutritional analysis of three different varieties of shade dried pomegranate flower. For proximal analysis among all the three different varieties of shade dried pomegranate flowers, energy content was found highest in Ruby. Protein content was highest in Solapur Lal variety. Carbohydrate content among all three varieties was highest in Ruby variety. Fat content was seen highest in Solapur lal. The results were statistically significant i.e. (p<0.05).
For antioxidant levels, Ruby variety contains highest amount of vitamin C with and gallic acid. The results were statistically significant i.e. (p<0.05). Table 3 depicted the comparison between proximal analysis of three different varieties of fresh pomegranate flowers and shade dried pomegranate flowers. Results revealed that mean values for proximal analysis of shade dried Pomegranate flowers are higher in all varieties as compared to fresh pomegranate flowers. Ruby variety of pomegranate flowers (shade dried) had highest content of energy and carbohydrates. Protein and fat content was found to be highest in Solapur Lal variety (shade dried). All the results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Table 4 depicted the comparison between Antioxidant content of three different varieties of fresh pomegranate flowers and shade dried pomegranate flowers. Antioxidant content was found to be highest in shade dried pomegranate flowers of all three different varieties as compared to fresh Pomegranate flowers. Ruby variety (shade dried) contains highest amount of both the antioxidants i.e. Vitamin C and gallic acid and all the results were statistically significant.
Hiller, (1994) states that fresh flowers are very attractive, but quite expensive as well as short lived and also available during their particular seasons only. Dried flowers, on other side are long lived and retained their aesthetic value irrespective of the season. Quality of dried flowers depends on the method of drying being used and also their moisture content, which must ranges from 8-11.5%, it ensures their good quality, firmness and also helps to maintain their lives for more than 180 days. Excessive drying may result into petal shedding during handling, this have been documented by (Singh, 2004). Rahimmalek and Goli, (2013) explain in their study that drying process also stops the microorganism growth and prevents certain biochemical reactions that might alter the organoleptic changes. A study of by Kumar et al., (2021) describes the importance of dried flowers as they stated that demand of dry flowers for ornamental purpose is continuously increasing and India is among the most leading countries in this industry. This sector of agriculture is getting popularity due to the significant properties of dried flowers like eco- friendly, sustainability, year around availability. Also, research like Katalinie et al., (2012) show that there is growing interest of humans to find the naturally occurring antioxidants in food items or medicinal materials to replace synthetic antioxidants, which are already almost restricted due to their carcinogenicity.
Hence keeping these properties in consideration this study is done to find out the nutritional properties of the “Pomegranate” flowers and to observe the nutritional difference among the fresh and dried pomegranate flowers. There is variety of methods used for dehydration of different flowers such as air drying, water drying, sun drying, press drying, hot air oven drying, freeze drying etc. In this study, Pomegranate flowers were dehydrated by shade drying and oven drying method and the study concluded that the shade dried Pomegranate flowers were found to be holding much more nutritive value as compared to fresh pomegranate flowers.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
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