Effect of treatments of fertilizer-manure block on yield and yield characteristics (Table 2)
Fruit yield, fruit number, fruit length, fruit diameter and number of seeds per fruit were recorded from the Okra crop and the data is presented in the table II. Highest fruit number was recorded by the treatment T7
where in 25 % of the recommended nutrients based on KAU POP recommendation was given as fertilizer-manure block and 50% as top dressing. However it was found to be on par with the treatments T8 (Nutrients as per KAU POP recommendation) and T9 (Nutrients as per soil test based recommendation) i.e.
savings of 25% recommended fertilizers is obtained where fertilizer-manure blocks was used. This can be attributed to reduced loss of nutrients from the fertilizer-manure block owing to its slow release of nutrients and hence fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) is improved to a greater extent. Kiran et al., (2010)
also suggested such improvement in FUE on use of slow release fertilizer technology.
Table 2: Effect of treatments on yield and yield attributing characteristics of Okra.
More over the slow release nature of the fertilizer-manure block can supply the nutrients in accordance with the crop growth resulting in reduced leaching and increased plant uptake. Venkadeswaran and Sundaram, (2016)
. conducted an experiment on nutrient uptake of hybrid okra under drip fertigation plot receiving daily fertigation of water soluble fertilisers recorded higher fruit N, P and K uptake than the crop receiving daily fertigation of conventional fertilizers. Akter et al. (2017)
reported that the use of fertilizers and organic manures in combination improved crop growth and yield in tomato. Similar results of use of fertilizers and organic manures were reported by Sharma and Singh (2011)
in Brassica juncea
. Singh et al., (2013)
recorded the parity of yield between full recommended dose of urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) and organic matrix entrapped urea and DAP containing ¼th of the recommended dose.
The yield attributes such as number of fruits per plant, fruit length and girth showed the similar trend as that of the fruit yield. Treatments T4
were having highest number of seeds per fruit, which can be attributed to the graded supply of all nutrients for seed filling and yield. (Table 2).
Effect of fertilizer-manure blocks on Biometric parameters (Table 3)
The fertilizer-manure blocks made with different fertilizer dosages and in different size placed in grow bags of Okra crop showed significant difference in biometric parameters and the data is presented in theTable 2. Pant height, number of leaves per plant and number of branches per plant showed significant difference among treatments. The results revealed that biometric parameters are in general higher for the treatment T7
where 25% of the recommended nutrients was applied in the form of 100 g fertilizer manure block as basal and 50% of the recommended nutrients was applied as fertilizer as top dressing at 1 month after planting.
Table 3: Effect of fertilizer-manure blocks on biometric parameters in Okra.
The comparison of size and placement of the different fertilizer-manure blocks revealed the superiority of the 100 g block placed below the planting depth over 4 numbers of 25 g blocks placed around the plant just below the surface (Plate 1).
This may be due to the fact that leaching of nutrients from the 25 g blocks placed just below the surface occurred before the complete establishment of the root system. However the root system might have entered directly in to the 100 g blocks resulting in effective utilization of the nutrients entrapped inside the fertilizer-manure blocks. This is very clearly visible in the Plate 2.
The use of organic components along with fertilizers slow down the release of nutrients which can be taken as a point to explain the reduction in fertilizer recommendation needed when the fertilizer manure blocks was used. Trinh Thi Ben et al., (2022)
significant studied the effect of organic Fertilizer and planting type on growth and yield of Curcuma aromatica
. Puri (1999)
reported the effect of neem on inhibition of nitrification. Neem cake is a component in fertilizer-manure block formulated in the study.
The treatments showed significant influence on number of days taken to flowering. Shubham Chawla et al., (2018)
conducted a field study on effect of dates of sowing and nitrogen levels on growth and yield of okra and reported remarkable significant influence on all growth attributes, flower characters and yield parameters. Significantly early flowering was observed in the treatment T8
which received nutrients as per KAU POP recommendations and it was on par with all treatments except T4
and control. Shukla et al., (2018)
also reported that, the occurrence of days to flowering in okra is directly related to the fertility status of the soil.
The control and absolute control treatments T10
had took more days to flowering (34.83 and 36.33 days) and this may be due to in adequate nutrient availability in these treatments.