Physio-biochemical Parameters of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) Induced by Gamma Rays and EMS

DOI: 10.18805/ag.D-5442    | Article Id: D-5442 | Page : 260-265
Citation :- Physio-biochemical Parameters of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) Induced by Gamma Rays and EMS.Agricultural Science Digest.2022.(42):260-265
Saima Malik, Roshan Jahan, Shazia Bi Ansari, Ruhul Amin, Samiullah Khan saimamalik.amu@gmail.com
Address : Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Submitted Date : 7-07-2021
Accepted Date : 6-10-2021


Background: Induced mutagenesis has proved as a crucial implement to create genetic variability for various essential traits. Trachyspermum ammi is one of the most important medicinal seed spices and its oil exhibits various pharmacological properties. Ajwain has been overlooked owing its narrow genetic base and little study has been performed to create genetic variations.
Methods: Dry and healthy seeds of ajwain were treated with the different concentration of gamma rays (25,50,75 and 100Gy), EMS (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%EMS) and different doses of combination treatments (25+0.1%, 50+0.2%, 75+0.3% and 100Gy+0.4%EMS). Among both the mutagens, gamma rays were found to be more effectual mutagens as compared to EMS.
Result: The aim of the present study was to find out the mutagenic consequences of gamma rays, EMS and combination treatments on growth and physio-biochemical parameters of ajwain. Studies show that higher doses of both the mutagens caused significantly negative effect on the growth parameters whereas lower doses have positively influenced the parameters. Result shows lower doses of mutagens (25, 50Gy, 0.1%, 0.2%EMS and 25+0.1%, 50Gy+0.2%EMS) proved to be more effective as it caused less biological damage and therefore would be suitable for inducing the desirable mutations and improving the agronomic traits in ajwain.


Ajwain EMS Gamma rays Induced mutagenesis Physio-biochemical parameters


  1. Amin, R., Wani, M. R., Raina, A., Khursheed, S. and Khan, S. (2019). Induced morphological and chromosomal diversity in the mutagenized population of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) using single and combination treatments of Gamma rays and ethyl methane sulfonate. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 12(1): 13-25.
  2. Bashir, S., Wani, A.A. and Nawchoo, I.A. (2013). Mutagenic sensitivity of Gamma rays, EMS and Sodium azide in Trigonella foenumgraecum L. Science Research Reporter. 3(1): 20-26.
  3. Basu, S.K., Acharya, S.N. and Thomas, J.E. (2008). Genetic improvement of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) through EMS induced mutation breeding for higher seed yield under western Canada prairie conditions. Euphytica. 160: 249-258.
  4. Bhosale, R.S. and More, A.D. (2014). Effect of gamma radiation on seed germination, seedling height and seedling injury in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. International Journal of Life Sciences. 2(3): 226-228.
  5. Chahal, K.K., Dhaiwal, K., Kumar, A., Kataria, D. and Singla, N. (2017). Chemical of Trachyspermum ammi L. and its biological properties: A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 6(3): 131-140.
  6. Chowdhury, R. and Tah, J. (2011). Assessment of chemical mutagenic effects in mutation breeding programme for M1 generation of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Research in Plant Biology. 1(4).
  7. Dwivedi, R.S. and Randhawa, N.S. (1974). Evaluation of a rapid test for the hidden hunger of zinc in plants. Plant and Soil. 40(2): 445-451.
  8. Evans, H.J. and Sparrow, A.H. (1961). Nuclear factors affecting radio-sensitivity. II. Dependence on nuclear and chromosome structure and organization. In Brookhaven Symposia in Biology (Vol. 14, p. 101).
  9. Jahan, R., Ansari, S. B., Malik, S. and Khan, S. (2020). Cytological aberrations in M2 morphological mutants of Linum usitatissimum (L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens. Plant Archives. 20(2): 1343-1348.
  10. Jahan, R., Malik, S., Ansari, S.B., Khan, S. (2021). Evaluation of optimal doses for Gamma rays and sodium azide in linseed genotypes. Agricultural Science Digest. 41: 207-210.
  11. Joshi, S.G. and Joshi, S.G. (2000). Medicinal Plants. Oxford and IBH publishing, 2000.
  12. Joy, P.P., Thomas, J., Mathew, S., Jose, G. and Joseph, J. (2001). Aromatic Plants. Tropical Horticulture. 2: 633-733.
  13. Khursheed, S., Raina, A., Laskar, R.A. and Khan, S. (2018). Effect of gamma radiation and EMS on mutation rate: Their effectiveness and efficiency in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).  Caryologia. 71(4): 397-404.
  14. Kumar, G. and Dwivedi, H. (2015). Impact of ionizing radiations in three varieties of Ajwain [Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague]. Int. J. of Res. in Plant Sci. 5(4): 41-46.
  15. Lal, G.M., Toms, B. and Lal, S.S. (2009). Mutagenic sensitivity in early generation in black gram. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1(1). 9-11.
  16. Mackinney, G. (1941). Absorption of light by chlorophyll solutions.  Journal of Biological Chemistry. 140(2): 315-322.
  17. Malik, S., Amin, R., Ansari, S.B., Jahan, R. and Khan, S. (2019). A review on the therapeutic and nutritional value of spices and their prospects. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 10(11): 10-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2230- 8407.1011312.
  18. Mathusamy, A. and Jayabalan, N. (2002). Effect of mutagens on pollen fertility of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Indian J. Genet. 62(2): 187.
  19. Salve, K.M. and More, A.D. (2014). Effect of gamma radiation on seed germination, seedling height and seedling injury in Coriandrum sativum Linn. International Journal of Life Sciences. 2(3): 223-225.
  20. Sarada, C., Jyothi, K.U.V., Rao, S. and Reddy, P.V. (2015). Mutagenic sensitivity of gamma rays, EMS and their combinations on germination and seedling vigour in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L). International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry. 4(2): 430-438.
  21. She, M. and F.W. Mark, (2005). Trachyspermum Link, Enum Hort Berol Alt. 1:267. 1821, nom. Cons” Flora of China. 14: 77-78.
  22. Sikder, S., Biswas, P., Hazra, P., Akhtar, S., Chattopadhyay, A., Badigannavar, A.M. and D’Souza, S.F. (2013). Induction of mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by gamma irradiation and EMS. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 73(4): 392-399.
  23. Singh, B., Dashora, S.L., Sharma, R.K. and Sastry, E.V.D. (1992). Gamma-rays induced variation in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal.  16(2): 60-62.
  24. Takeda, S. and Matsuoka, M. (2008). Genetic approaches to crop improvement: Responding to environmental and population changes. Nature Reviews Genetics. 9(6): 444-457.
  25. Tantray, A.Y., Raina, A., Khursheed, S., Amin, R. and Khan, S. (2017). Chemical mutagen affects pollination and locule formation in capsules of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Int. J. Agric. Sci. 8(1): 108-117.
  26. Tomlekova, N., Todorova, V., Petkova, V., Yancheva, S., Nikolova, V., Panchev, I. and Penchev, E. (2009). Creation and evaluation of induced mutants and valuable tools for pepper breeding programmes. Induced Plant Mutations in the Genomics Era, Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 187-90.
  27. Verma, A.K., Patel, A., Choudhary, S. and Verma, P. (2017). Lethal Dose (LD50) Fixation and Sensitivity of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) to Gamma Radiation for Induction of Mutation. Journal of Agri. Search. 4(4): 237-241.
  28. Verma, A.K., Sharma, S., Kakani, R.K., Meena, R.D. and Choudhary, S. (2017). Gamma radiation effects seed germination, plant growth and yield attributing characters of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied. 6: 2448-2458.
  29. Zehra, A., Choudhary, S., Naeem, M., Khan, M.M.A. and Aftab, T. (2019). A review of medicinal and aromatic plants and their secondary metabolites status under abiotic stress.  Journal of Medicinal Plants. 7(3): 99-106.

Global Footprints