Agricultural Science Digest

  • Chief EditorArvind kumar

  • Print ISSN 0253-150X

  • Online ISSN 0976-0547

  • NAAS Rating 5.52

  • SJR 0.156

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Science Digest, volume 42 issue 2 (april 2022) : 192-195

Fungal Diversity and Physico-chemical Parameters of Rhizospheric Soil from Banana Plantation Sites at Nagaland, India

W. Temjen1,*, M.R. Singh1, T. Ajungla1, K.Z. Chophi1, K. Semy1
1Department of Botany, Nagaland University Lumami-798 627, Nagaland, India.
Cite article:- Temjen W., Singh M.R., Ajungla T., Chophi K.Z., Semy K. (2022). Fungal Diversity and Physico-chemical Parameters of Rhizospheric Soil from Banana Plantation Sites at Nagaland, India . Agricultural Science Digest. 42(2): 192-195. doi: 10.18805/ag.D-5274.
Background: Soil Fungi play a vital role in maintaining the soil health. Such Microbial communities offer stability and greater yield in agro-ecosystems. The current study was aimed to evaluate the diversity of rhizospheric fungi present in the Banana plantation site and estimate the values of the selected physico-chemical parameters of the soil.

Methods: Soil samples were collected from the two selected sites i.e. Site MK and Site ZB, from Nagaland State, India During the month of October 2019. Soil temperatures, pH, Moisture, organic carbon and Available Nitrogen were measured by standard protocols. Fungi were isolated in Potato dextrose agar and Rose agar plates following serial dilution method. Plates were incubated at 25±1°C for 5-7 days. Fungal colonies were observed and transferred to appropriate identification media and identified with the help of literature.

Result: A total of 19 different fungal isolates were recorded from the two sites. It was observed that the Genus Aspergillus was dominant in both the sites.
Soil microbial population plays a key role in soil health. It determines the soil fertility, regulates plant growth and actively partakes in decomposition, mineralization, biochemical transformation and soil aggregation (Sinha et al., 2018; Chandrashekar et al., 2014) Soil microbes further improves the plants adaptation to a variety of extreme stresses (Yang et al., 2018). Such Microbial communities aid vital processes that ultimately offer stability and greater yield in agro-ecosystems (Singh, 2015). It has also been reported that fungi are a significant component of soil microbiota (Sinha et al., 2018) and are present in larger quantity as compared to bacteria (Gnanasekaran et al., 2015). With just 5-10% of the total 1.5 million fungal species being described formally (Chandrashekar et al., 2014) proper inventorying and monitoring of the Soil Fungal diversity is essential to maintain soil Health. Improvements of soil health can certainly promote crop yields (Foley et al., 2011; Delgado and Follett, 2002).With regards to yield, Banana is a vital cash crop in India with an average production of about 29, 779.91 thousand tons, it is the second most important cash crop in India (Gnanasekaran et al., 2015). The interactions of these fungi with the plants is certainly the rule and not the exception (Fitter et al., 2005). keeping in view the importance and the role of soil fungal population, the present work was carried out to determine the Soil fungal diverisity and to estimate the physico-chemical paramters of the soils collected from the banana plantation sites.
Soil sampling
Soil samples were collected from two Banana plantation sites i.e. Mokokchung district (Site MK) located at Latitude 26°13¢38²N and Longitude 94°32'24"E, 1024 m above msl and Zunhebuto district (Site ZB) located at Latitude 26°16'18" N and Longitude 94°28'31"E, 1192 above msl, respectively under Nagaland State, India during the month of October 2019.
Physico-chemical parameters of soil sample
Five random soil samples were collected from both the sites (0-15 cm deep) and were combined to form a composite sample. Soil temperatures was recorded during sampling with a soil thermometer. pH was measured using digital systronic pH meter 361. Soil moisture was recorded via oven-dried method (Anderson and Ingram, 1993). Soil organic carbon was determined following the wet digestion method (Walkey and Black, 1934). Available Nitrogen (N) was determined using KEL PLUS Nitrogen analyser. Reagent preparations and experimental setup were done following manufactures manual. All test were performed in triplicates.
Isolation and identification of Fungi
Fungi were isolated in Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Rose bengal agar (RBA) plates following serial dilution method. (Plate 1) Plates were incubated at 25±1°C for 5-7 days. Fungal colonies were observed and transferred to appropriate identification media and identified with the help of literature (Afzal et al., 2013; Webster and Weber, 2007; Nagmani et al., 2006; Gillman, 1957).

Plate 1: Fungal colonies of rhizospheric soil on PDA and RBA from site MK (A-B) and site ZB (C-D).

Soil physico-chemical paramters
Soil Temperature was observed to be 26°C (Site MK) and 24°C (Site ZB) respectively (Table 1). Soil temperature effects organic matter mineralization (Arevaloc et al., 2012).  Soil pH was mildly acidic in both the sites and was found to be 5.29±0.17 (Site MK) and 5.16±0.11 (Site ZB) respectively (Table 1). Soil pH affects the biology, chemistry and physical properties of soil (Brady and Weil, 2002). Soil Moisture values have immense effect on microbial activity (Liu et al., 2009) and was recorded as 21.86±0.30% (Site MK) and 14.93±1.11% (Site ZB) respectively (Table 1). Soil organic carbon impacts soil fertility (Tiessen et al., 1994) and its values were recorded as 2.57±0.26% (Site MK) and 1.54±0.05% (Site ZB) (Table 1). Available Nitrogen varied from 379.37±13.01 Kg/ha (Site MK) and 290.73±7.58 Kg/ha (Site ZB) respectively (Table 1).

Table 1: Soil physico-chemical parameters of the selected sites.

Fungal diversity
A total of 19 fungal species were identified from the two sites (Plate 2). Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium sp, Cladosporium chaldosporiodes, Geotrichum candidum, Humicola sp, Mortierlla sp, Mucor circinelloides, Penecillium sp.1, Penecillum sp.2, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus sp, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride and Trychophyton sp were the total fungal diversity found at both the sites during the month of October 2019. Site MK had a total of 15 fungal population (Table 2) while Site ZB had a total of 10 fungal isolates (Table 2).

Plate 2: Microscopic structure of isolated fungal colonies from rhizospheric soil.


Table 2: Fungal diversity at Site MK and Site ZB.

In the present study, a total of 19 fungal isolates were recorded. It was observed that the Genus Aspergillus was dominant in both the sites which may be attributed to better speculating features of the Genus. The study of the fungal diversity in the rhizospheric region highlights the diversity of the fungus and their importance in soil health. Further monitoring and inventorying is recommended to comprehend the diversity present in the state.
JRF-Fellowship, File no. 16-6 (Dec 2018)/2019(NET/CSIR) provided by the CSIR-UGC, Government of India, Nationality Eligibility Test (NET) is acknowledged for supporting the work financially. The Head, Department of Botany, Nagaland University is duly acknowlegded for providing necessary laboratory facilities for conducting the experiments.

  1. Afzal, H., Shazad, S. and UnNisa, S.Q. (2013). Morphological identification of Aspergillus species from the soil of Larkana district (Sindh Pakistan). Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 1(3): 105-117.

  2. Anderson, J.M. and Ingram, J.S.I. (1993). Tropical soil biology and fertility: A handbook of methods, 2nd Edn. CAB international, Wallingford, UK.

  3. Arevalo, C., Chang, S.X., Bhatti, J.S. and Sidders, D. (2012). Mineralization potential and temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon under different land uses in the parkland region of Alberta, Canada. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 76(1): 241-251.

  4. Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. (2002). The nature and properties of soil, 13th Edn. Springer, Netherlands. pp 249.

  5. Chandrashekar, M.A., Soumya Pai, K. and Raju, N.S. (2014). Fungal Diversity of Rhizosphere Soils in Different Agricultural fields of Nanjangud Taluk of Mysore District, Karnataka, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 3(5): 559- 566.

  6. Delgado, J. and Follett, R. (2002). Carbon and nutrient cycles. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 57(6): 455-464.

  7. Fitter, A.H., Gilligan, C.A., Hollingworth, K., Kleczkowski, A., Twyman, R.M. and Pitchford, J.W. (2005). Biodiversity and ecosystem function in soil. Functional Ecology. 19(3): 369-377.

  8. Foley, J.A., Ramankutty, N., Brauman, K.A., Cassidy, E.S., Gerber, J.S., et al. (2011) Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature. 478(7369): 337-42.

  9. Gillman, J.C. (1957). A Manual of Soil Fungi, Revised 2nd Edn. Oxford and IBH publishing company (Indian reprint) Calcutta, Bombay, New Delhi.

  10. Gnanasekaran, P., Mohamed Salique, S. and Panneerselvam, A. (2015). Isolation and Identification of Soil Mycoflora in Banana Field at Manachanallur, Tiruchirappalli Dt., Tamil nadu, India. International Journal of current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 4(7): 729-740.

  11. Liu, W., Zhang, Z. and Wan, S. (2009). Predominant role of water in regulating soil and microbial respiration and their responses to climate change in semiarid grassland. Global Change Biology. 15(1): 184-195.

  12. Nagmani, A., Kunwar, I.K. and Manoharachary, C. (2006). Hand book of soil Fungi. I.K International pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

  13. Singh, J.S. (2015). Plant–Microbe Interactions: A Viable Tool for Agricultural Sustainability Plant Microbes Symbiosis: Applied Facets; Arora, N.K., Ed, Springer. New Delhi, India; Heidelberg, Germany; New York, NY, USA; Dordrecht, The Netherlands; London, UK. pp. 384.

  14. Sinha, P., Rizvi, G. and Parashar, R. (2018). Study on fungal population in the soil samples of pulses field in Jhansi district. International Journal of Current Research in Life Sciences. 7(11): 2822-2826.

  15. Tiessen, H., Cuevas, E. and Chacon, P. (1994). The role of soil organic matter in sustaining soil fertility. Nature. 371: 783-785. 

  16. Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil science. 37(1): 29-38.

  17. Webster, J. and Weber, R.W.S. (2007). Introduction to fungi, 3rd Edn. Cambridge University press, New York.

  18. Yang, G., Wagg, C., Veresoglou, S., Hempel, S., Rillig, M. (2018). How soil biota drive ecosystem stability. Trends in Plant Science. 23(12): 1057-1067. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)