Chief EditorArvind kumar
Print ISSN 0253-150X
Online ISSN 0976-0547
NAAS Rating 4.75
Control of Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and Reniform Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis on Chickpea
First Online 14-11-2022|
Methods: Seeds of chickpea were soaked in S, S/2, S/4 extracts of rice polish and 0.1, 0.3, 0.5% solution of pyridoxine for 4 h. Four treated seeds were sown in each pot. Three week old plants were inoculated with 5000 M. incognita or R. reniformis larvae.
Result: The root-knot nematode M. incognita and reniform nematode, R. reniformis caused significant reduction in different growth parameters (length and weight of plant, number of pods), chlorophyll content of leaf and water absorption of roots. Similar effects were also observed in plants raised from seeds soaked in different concentrations of water soluble fractions (WSF) of rice polish and pyridoxine solutions, however, the reductions were of comparatively lesser extent. Higher concentrations of the solutions were more effective as compared to lower ones and pyridoxine was more beneficial than WSF for improving plant growth and reducing disease incidence.
Non-chemical control strategies involve biological and cultural methods such as the use of nematode pathogenic organisms, organic amendments and use of nematode resistant cultivars (Anver and Alam, 1999 and 2000; Anver, 2006; Tiyagi and Ajaz, 2004; Ashraf and Khan, 2010; Mahalik and Sahoo, 2019). Water soluble fractions (WSF) of oil-seed cakes of mahua, castor, mustard, neem and peanut and their mixtures with unsterilized soil were reported to be highly deleterious to M. incognita, R. reniformis and Tylenchorhynchus brassicae (Alam et al., 1982). Also, an increase in the period of decomposition of oil-seed cakes and cake-soil mixture enhanced the toxicity of the WSF. Similarly, the WSF of oil-seed cakes significantly inhibited the larval hatching in M. incognita (Khan et al., 1974). In the present study, the effect of seed-soaking treatment with rice polish and pyridoxine was tested on the root-knot development of M. incognita and final population of R. reniformis and growth parameters of chickpea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Seeds of chickpea were soaked in S, S/2, S/4 extracts of rice polish and 0.1, 0.3, 0.5% solution of pyridoxine for 4 h. Seeds soaked in distilled water served as control. Fifteen cm clay pots were filled with 1 kg soil (clay, sand and compost mixture in the ratio of 7:2:1) and then autoclaved. Four treated seeds were sown in each prepared pot. After germination, thinning was done and only one plant per pot was allowed to grow. Three-week-old plants were inoculated with 5000 J2 or immature females of M. incognita or R. reniformis respectively. Uninoculated plants served as a control.
The experiments were terminated three months after inocu1ation. Plants were uprooted and the roots were thoroughly washed with running tap water. The length (in cm) and fresh/dry weights (in g) of plants were taken separately. For determining the dry weight, plants were first dried in an oven at 60°C and then weighed. The water absorption capability of roots was determined by the method described by Alam et al., (1974). The chlorophyll content of the leaves was determined by the method described by Hiscox and Israelstam (1979). The root-knot infection was assessed accordingly to the rating scale (0-5) of Taylor and Sasser (Sasser et al., 1984).
In the case of soil population of the reniform nematode, soil from each treatment was processed after the termination of the experiment using Cobb’s sieving and decanting and the modified Baerman funnel techniques (Southey, 1986). Statistical analysis of the data for critical difference (C.D.) at P = 0.05 and P = 0.01 levels was done as per procedure described by Pansey and Sukhatme (1978).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Plants of chickpea inoculated with the test pathogen showed significant reduction in different growth parameters (length and weight of plant, number of pods), chlorophyll content of leaf and water absorption capacity of roots. Similar effects were also observed in plants raised from seeds soaked in different concentrations of WSF of rice polish and pyridoxine solutions. However, the reductions were of comparatively lesser extent. Higher concentrations of the solutions were more effective as compared to lower ones and pyridoxine was more beneficial than WSF for improving plant growth and reducing disease incidence (Table 1).
Another experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed-soaking in different concentrations of WSF of rice polish and pyridoxine solution on different parameters of chickpea infected with R. reniformis. Its effect on population build up of R. reniformis was also studied.
Chickpea was found to be susceptible to the reniform nematode. Reduction in different growth parameters (length and weight of plant, number of pods), chlorophyll content of leaf and water absorption of chickpea roots caused by the R. reniformis were statistically significant. Plants raised from treated seeds showed better growth and were less vulnerable to the disease incidence. Seed-soaking in higher concentrations of the above-mentioned solutions was more effective than in the lower ones. Maximum reduction in disease incidence was observed in plants raised from seeds soaked in 0.5% pyridoxine solution and a minimum reduction was observed in plants raised from S/4-WSF of rice polish treated seeds (Table 2).
It is known that vitamins are organic compounds synthesized by plants and required in trace amounts for normal growth and development of organisms. B-vitamins constitute a heterogenous group of varied organic compounds; they are designated for simplification as B1, B2, B6, etc. They act not only as coenzymes and phytochromones (Bonner and Bonner 1948) but also play a regulatory role in various physiological processes. Some B-vitamins promote respiratory activity of many plants (DeCapite 1949). B-vitamins are reported to be involved in chlorophyll synthesis (Kodandaramaiah and Gopala Rao 1984) and protein synthesis either at transcriptional or translational level (Gopala Rao, 1973). Regulation of enzyme activity by B-vitamins is well established (Lehninger, 1982). Kodandaramaiah and Gopala Rao (1985) found an increase n the stomatal index due to the application of some vitamins ‘of the B complex group. In the present experiments, the exogenous application of WSF of rice polish and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) solution improved the growth of un-inoculated plants over untreated un-inoculated plants (Table 1 and 2). The plant response to the exogenous application of different growth regulatory substances including B-vitamins, which may improve the germination of seeds and growth of seedlings, depends on its need for these substances. Bonner and Greene (1938) studied many crop responses towards thiamine (vitamin B1) application. Crops with low endogenous levels of vitamin B1 responded positively to the vitamin treatment, while crops having a high content of the vitamin proved to be non-responsive. Improved plant growth due to the application of different B-vitamins has also been obtained by other workers. Sinkovics (1974) applied seven different B-vitamins to two cultivars of capsicum through seed-soaking and secured high seed germination rates coupled with improved seedling growth. Barbieri (1959) observed that the application of vitamins B1 and B2 enhanced plant height, leaf number, fresh and dry weight of pea, broad bean, beet and wheat in pot culture. Afridi et al., (1985) and Ansari and Khan (1986) observed pyridoxine-mediated enhancement in plant growth in Vigna radiata. Ahmad (1975) reported the usefulness of seed-soaking for 4 h in pyridoxine solution for an improvement in growth, seed yield, oil yield and quality of mustard oil. The present study revealed that seed-soaking in different concentrations of WSF of rice polish and pyridoxine solution brought about significant reduction in root-knot development and multiplication of R. reniformis with a corresponding increase in plant growth characters and water absorption capacity of roots. Higher concentrations of WSF of rice polish and pyridoxine solutions were more effective in reducing the damage caused by nematodes as compared to lower concentrations. Treatments with pyridoxine solutions were more effective than WSF treatment. It has been known for many crops that seed treatment with very dilute solutions of B-vitamins stimulated the growth of roots and thus helped the plants to establish and grow efficiently (Afridi et al., 1979). Of the vitamins tested, pyridoxine was noted to have the best effect on root growth. Kodandaramaiah and Gopala Rao (1985) suggested that B-vitamins participated in plant growth and development by enhancing the endogenous levels of various growth factors (hormones) such as cytokinins and gibberellins. It may be thus concluded that luxuriant plant growth due to the exogenous application of WSF of rice polish and pyridoxine may help the plant to escape nematode attack or have a key role in the defence mechanisms of the plants to pathogens directly. Arrigoni et al., (1979) found lower concentrations of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars than in resistant cultivars. They also reported that a decrease in plant ascorbic acid content can reduce the resistance, in tomato, to nematode infection. Melillo et al., (1983) showed that plants treated with ascorbic acid had fewer giant cells. Montasser (1990) reported ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid and riboflavin to be effective in reducing reproduction of M. incognita on tomato plants.
The plants treated with WSF of rice polish and pyridoxine solutions showed improved water absorption capacity of roots as compared to in the untreated control. The absorption of nutrients and water is closely associated with various physiological processes. B-vitamins are known to regulate various processes of metabolism. Their role in the absorption of nutrients has been studied by several workers. Dimitrova-Russeva and Lilove (1969) found an increased uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by Mentha piperita due to the application of these vitamins. As has been discussed earlier, B-vitamins help plants to improve growth. Similar results were also obtained using B6. The beneficial effects of B6 in reducing the plant damage caused by the test nematodes simple, may prove an easy and cost-effective method of nematode management.
Conflict of interest
- Afridi, M.M.R.K., Ansari, S.A. and Samiullah. (1985). Effect of presowing seed treatment with pyridoxine on leaf N, seed yield and protein content of summer moong [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] cv. K-851. Plant Physiology. 77 (suppl.): 9.
- Afridi, M.M.R.K., Samiullah, Ahmad, A. (1979). Effect of Pyridoxine on the Growth and Yield of Barley. In: [Bir, S.S. editor]. Recent Researches in Plant Sciences. New Delhi. Kalyani Publishers. pp. 318-389.
- Ahmad, A. (1975). Studies on the effect of pyridoxine on the growth and yield of barley. [Ph.D. Thesis] available from: Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.
- Alam, M.M., Hasan, N. and Saxena, S.K. (1974). Effect of root- knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on water absorption capability of tomato roots. Indian Journal of Nematology. 4: 244-246.
- Alam, M.M., Khan A.M. and Saxena S.K. (1982). Relative toxicity of decomposed and undecomposed oil-cakes to plant- parasitic nematodes. Acta Botanica Indica. 10: 124-127.
- Ansari, S.A. and Khan, F.A. (1986). Effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with pyridoxine on growth and yield of summer moong. J. Indian Bot Soc. 65: 316-322.
- Anver, S. (2006). Control of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with linseed by oil seed cakes and ploughing. Indian Journal of Nematology. 36: 192-194.
- Anver, S. and Alam, M.M. (1994). Response of chickpea cultivars/ accessions inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Indian Journal of Nematology. 24: 101-105.
- Anver, S. and Alam, M.M. (1995). Reaction of some chickpea accessions to the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis. Annals of Plant Protection Science. 3: 52-55.
- Anver, S. and Alam M.M. (1999). Control of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis singly and concomitantly on chickpea and pigeonpea. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 32: 161-172.
- Anver, S. and Alam, M.M. (2000). Organic management of concomitant Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on chickpea. Allelopathy Journal. 7: 79-84.
- Arrigoni, O., Zacheo, G., Arrigoni, L.R., Beleve-Zacheo, T. and Lamberti F. (1979). Relationship between ascorbic acid and resistance in tomato plants to Meloidogyne incognita. Phytopathology. 69: 570-581.
- Ashraf, M.S. and Khan, T.A. (2010). Integrated approach for the management of Meloidogyne javanica on eggplant using oil cakes and bio-control agent. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 43: 609-614.
- Barbieri, G. (1959). Effects of vitamin B1 and B6 on pea, broad bean, beet and wheat plants. Nuovo G. Bot Ital. 66: 14-22.
- Bonner, J. and Bonner, H. (1948). The B-vitamins as plant hormones. Vitam Horm. 6: 225-275.
- Bonner, J. and Greene, J. (1938). Vitamin B1 and the growth of green plants. Bot Gaz. 100: 226-237.
- DeCapite, (1949). Thiamine, riboflavin and nicotinamide in the catabolic processes. Ann Fac Agric Univ Perugia. 6: 59-68.
- Dimitrova-Russeva, E. and Lilove, T. (1969). Growth of Mentha piperita and synthesis of essential oil as affected by thiamine (vitamin B1) pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and nicotinic acid (vitamin PP). Rasten Nauki. 6: 73-3.
- Gopala Rao, P. (1973). Influence of riboflavin on growth, respiration, chlorophyll and protein contents in green gram. Current Science. 42: 580-581.
- Hiscox, J.D. and Israelstam, G.F. (1979). A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 1332-1334.
- Khan, M.W., Alam, M.M., Khan, A.M. and Saxena, S.K. (1974). Effect of water soluble fractions of oil-cakes and bitter principles of neem on some fungi and nematodes. Acta Botanica Indica. 2: 120-128.
- Kodandaramaiah, J. and Gopala Rao, P. (1984). Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. as influenced by B-vitamins. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 27: 166-171.
- Kodandaramaiah, J. and Gopala Rao, P. (1985). Influence of B-vitamins on stomatal index, frequency and diurnal rhythms in stomatal opening in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.). Taub. J. Biol. Res. 5: 68-73.
- Lehninger, A.L. (1982). Principles of Biochemistry. Worth Publishers Inc. New York.
- Melillo, M.T., Zacheo, G. and Beleve-Zacheo, T. (1983). Effect of ascorbic acid on gall formation in tomatoes susceptible to Meloidogyne incognito. Nematol Medit. 11: 157-167.
- Mahalik, J.K. and Sahoo, N.K. (2019). Management of Meloidogyne incognita on okra through integrated approach. Indian Journal of Nematology. 49: 25-30.
- Montasser, S.A. (1990). Efficacy of certain vitamins in controlling the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 8: 101-105.
- Pansey, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. (1978). Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers (Revised by PV. Sukhatsne and VV Amble), I.C.A.R., New Delhi.
- Sasser, J.N., Carter, C.C. and Hartman, K.M. (1984). Standardization of host suitability studies and reporting of resistance to root-knot nematodes. Coop Pub., Dept Plant Pathol., N.C. State Univ. and USAID, Raleigh.
- Sinkovics, M. (1974). A method of treating paprika seed with vitamin solutions. Acta Agron - Acad Sci Hung. 23: 410-413.
- Southey, J.F. (1986). Laboratory method for work with plant and soil nematodes. London: Min Agri Fish Food HMSO.
- Tiyagi, S.A. and Ajaz, S. (2004). Biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with chickpea using oil cakes and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Indian Journal of Nematology. 34: 44-48.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.