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Investigations into Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak among Small Ruminants in Karnataka State of India

DOI: 10.18805/ag.D-5228    | Article Id: D-5228 | Page : 352-357
Citation :- Investigations into Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak among Small Ruminants in Karnataka State of India.Agricultural Science Digest.2021.(41):352-357
Raveendra Hegde, B.P. Shivashankar, N. Gautham, G.R. Praveenkumar, B. Rajasekar, H.K. Muniyellappa, S.M. Byregowda, Madhusudan Hosamani, R.P. Tamil Selvan, Aniket Sanyal ravihegde63@gmail.com
Address : Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bengaluru-560 024, Karnataka, India.
Submitted Date : 2-06-2020
Accepted Date : 2-11-2020

Abstract

Background: Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) remains a serious threat to the Indian livestock sector due to significant economic loss associated with it. Systematic vaccination of large ruminants over the years has lead to a gradual reduction in the number of disease outbreaks in India. However exposure to FMDV infection in small ruminants has been recorded during the past few years (Rout et al. 2013). Sheep and goat population have not been vaccinated so far against FMD under the FMD-Control program (FMD-CP). The present study highlighted the outbreak of FMD in small ruminants in Karnataka, India.
Methods: During the period 2018-19, seven suspected FMD outbreaks  among sheep population in Bellary and Tumakuru districts of Karnataka state were investigated. Tongue epithelium (oral swabs) and foot lesions (n=23) from clinically affected sheep and tissues such as heart, lung, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and kidneys from lambs during post mortem (n=67) were collected. All the samples were processed in the laboratory for the detection of FMD virus antigen by employing Serotype differentiating antigen detection ELISA and by multiplex PCR. Heart tissue samples were also collected in buffered formalin for histopathology study and processed by routine paraffin embedding technique and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E). Serum samples from the recovered animals were collected and screened by NSP-ELISA and LPB-ELISA to check the antibody status in the affected herd. 
Result: A total of seven suspected outbreaks of FMD involving 688 small ruminants was investigated. The outbreak of FMD due to FMDV serotype O was confirmed by ELISA and multiplex PCR assays. Clinically, the affected adult sheep showed typical signs of FMD, while mortality in young lambs was observed without apparent signs of disease. Histologically, heart tissues from FMD affected lambs showed myocardial necrosis with marked aggregations of lymphocytes and neutrophils in the myocardium and perivascular spaces. History of FMD outbreaks in cattle and common grazing land for the livestock, as well as sheep within the reach of these villages, may be the major contributing factors for the outbreaks in sheep populations.

Keywords

ELISA FMD Outbreak Small ruminants

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