Chief EditorArvind kumar
Print ISSN 0253-150X
Online ISSN 0976-0547
NAAS Rating 4.75
Protective Efficacy of Chitosan Coupled Johne’s Disease Vaccine
First Online 12-05-2021|
Methods: Potency of a heat killed, chitosan nanoparticle coupled JD vaccine developed with an Indian isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) was tested in 107 goats. Pre and post immunization blood samples were collected at different time points and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used for assessing IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-12 gene expressions. Immunized animals were challenged with a field isolate of MAP and the immune response was assessed.
Result: Immunized goats were safe with no untoward reactions. Cytokine gene expression studies indicated a good Th1 response during 3-14 wk post immunization. The initial Th1 response was followed by a good Th2 response with a better IL-10 response than the IFN-γ and IL-2 responses in vaccinated animals at 23 wk PI. Both Th1 and Th2 responses were significantly higher in immunized animals at 23 and 34 weeks post challenge indicating a protective immune response.
- Kumanan, K., Vijayarani,K., McDonough, S., Chen, L.H., Park, S.U., Moreira, M.A.S., Akey, B., Huntley, J., Chang, C.F. and Chang, Y.F. (2009). Evaluation of immune responses and protective efficacy in a goat model following immunization with a cocktail of recombinant antigens and a polyprotein of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Vaccine. 27: 123-135
- Magombedze,G., Eda,S. and Ganusov, V.V. (2014). Competition for antigen between Th1 and Th2 responses determines the timing of the immune response switch during Mycobaterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in ruminants. PLOS Computational Biology. 10. e1003414
- Park, A.Y. and Scott, P. (2001). IL-12: Keeping cell mediated immunity alive. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 53: 529-532
- Santos, S., Ramire, M., Miranda, E., Reyes,N., Martinez, O., Acosta-Santiago, M., Rivera, J.M. and Otero, M. (2019). Enhancement of immune responses by Guanosine-based particles in DNA plasmid formulations against infectious diseases. Journal of Immunology Research. 2019 May22:2019: 3409371.Doi:10.1155/2019/3409371.
- Seder, R.A. and Hill, A.V.S. (2000). Vaccines against intracellular infections requiring cellular immunity. Nature. 406: 793-798.
- Singh, S.V., Sharma, M.C., Sohal, J.S., Singh, A.V. and Singh, P.K. (2009). Johne’s disease status, diagnosis and control: Indian Scenario. Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, India Publications, pp 10-12
- Uzonna, J.E., Chilton, P., Whitlock. R.H., Habecker, P.L., Scott, P. and Sweeney, R.W. (2003). Efficacy of commercial and field strain Mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccinations with recombinant IL-12 in a bovine experimental infection model. Vaccine. 21: 3101-3109.
- Wojno, E.D.T., Hunter, C.A. and Stumhofer, J.S. (2019). The Immunobiology of the Interleukin-12 Family: Room for Discovery. Immunity. 50: 851-870
- Zhu, B.D., Qie, Y.Q, Wang. J.L., Zhang, Y., Wang, Q.Z., Xu, Y. and Wang, H.H. (2007). Chitosan microspheres enhance the immunogenicity of an Ag85B-based fusion protein containing multiple T-cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. European Journal of Pharmaceutics Biopharmaceutics. 66: 318-326.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.