Chief EditorArvind kumar
Print ISSN 0253-150X
Online ISSN 0976-0547
NAAS Rating 4.75
Incidence of Cereal Cyst Nematode Prevailing in Wheat-rice Growing Regions of Punjab Province, Pakistan
First Online 09-01-2021|
Methods: A study was designed to assess the incidence of cereal cyst nematodes in wheat and rice monoculture cropping regions of eight districts of Punjab province, viz., Jhang, Khushab, layyah, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Narowal, Gujranwala and Sargodha in Pakistan. Population densities of cereal cyst nematodes were studied by extracting the cysts and second stage juveniles from soil samples and identified the nematode species.
Result: The CCNs were found in 80% of the total 250 samples collected from wheat and rice monoculture fields of at least one crop. In the soil samples collected from wheat fields, an average of 7 to 38 cysts/100g of dry soil with eggs and J2 population of 142-771 were recorded. Whereas from the soil samples of rice fields, 17 to 25 cysts/100g soil were found with 345 to 508 eggs and juveniles. Among the wheat fields, the lowest incidence of 5.5% was recorded in kot–momin and highest incidence of 16.88% was recorded in Silanwali tehsils of Sargodha region. In rice fields, 24.69 to 27.00% incidence of CCNs was noticed in soil samples of various surveyed regions. Three different species of Heterodera genus were morphologically identified from the collections. The species includes Heterodera oryzae, Heterodera avenae and Heterodera graminophila. H. oryzae was more abundant in rice growing regions while H. avenae and H. graminophila were present dominantly in wheat growing regions. This study provides an inclusive information regarding cereal cyst nematode densities and species in wheat-rice growing regions of Punjab province of Pakistan.
- Abidou, H., El-Ahmed, A., Nicol, J.M., Bolat, N., Rivoal, R. and Yahyaoui, A. (2005). Occurrence and distribution of species of the Heterodera avenae group in Syria and Turkey. Nematologia Mediterranea. 33.
- Ahmadi, A.R. and Tanha Maafi, Z. (2014). Incidence of Cereal Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera avenae type B and H. filipjevi) in southwestern Iran. Journal of Crop Protection. 3: 75-88.
- Anonymous (2017-18). Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan. Ministry of Food Security and Research.
- Andersson, S. (1982). Population dynamics and control of Heterodera avenae: A Review with some original results 1. EPPO Bulletin. 12: 463-475.
- Brown, R. and Kerry, B. (1987). Principles and practice of nematode control in crops (No. 632.65182/B877). Academic Press Challenge to 2050. FAO Expert Meeting on How to Feed the World in 2050.
- Chen, S. (2007). Suppression of Heterodera glycines in soils from fields with long-term soybean monoculture. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 17: 125-134.
- Cook, R. (1974). Nature and inheritance of nematode resistance in cereals. Journal of Nematology. 6: 165.
- Curtis, B.C., Rajaram, S. and Gómez, M. (2002). Bread wheat: improvement and production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
- Gill, J.S. and Swarup, G. (1971). On the host range of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae Woll. 1924, the causal organism of ‘Molya disease’ of wheat and barley in Rajasthan, India. Indian Journal of Nematology. 1: 63-67.
- Golden, A.M. and Birchfield, W.R.A.Y. (1972). Heterodera graminophila n. sp. (Nematoda Heteroderae) from grass with a key to closely related species. Journal of Nematology. 4: 147.
- Kumari, S. (2017). Morphological and molecular characterizations of cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae Wollenweber, 1924 from the Czech Republic. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 16: 532-539.
- Maqbool, M.A. (1981). Occurrence of root-knot and cyst nematodes in Pakistan. Nematologia Mediterranea. 9: 211-212.
- Maqbool, M.A. and Kerry, B. (1997). Plant nematode problems and their control in the near east region: proceedings. FAO.
- Meagher, J.W. and Brown, R.H. (1974). Microplot experiments on the effect of plant hosts on populations of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) and on the subsequent yield of wheat. Nematologica. 20: 337-346.
- Nicol, J., Maafi, Z.T., Hajihasani, A. and Rezaee, S. (2010). Effect of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera filipjevi, on wheat in microplot trials. Nematology. 12: 357-363.
- Peng, D.L., Ye, W.X., Peng, H. and Gu, X.C. (2010). First report of the cyst nematode (Heterodera filipjevi) on wheat in Henan Province, China. Plant Disease. 94: 1262-1262.
- Riley, I.T., Nicol, J.M. and Dababat, A.A. (2009). Cereal Cyst Nematodes: Status, Research and Outlook.
- Rivoal, R. and Cook, R. (1993). Nematode Pests of Cereals. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. 259-303.
- Rumpenhorst, H.J., Elekcioglu, I.H., Sturhan, D., Öztürk, G. and Enneli, S. (1996). The cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi (Madzhidov) in Turkey. Nematologia Mediterranea. 24: 135-138.
- Rumpenhorst, H.J., Sturhan, D., Subbotin, S. and Moens, M. (2003). Molecular and morphological characterization of the Heterodera avenae species complex (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Nematology. 5: 515-538.
- Shahina, F. and Erum, Y.I. (2007). Distribution of cyst nematodes in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 25: 29-35.
- Smiley, R.W. (2009). Occurrence, distribution and control of Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi in the western USA. Cereal Cyst Nematodes: Status, Research and Outlook. [IT Riley, JM Nicol and A. A. Dababat, (eds)]. CIMMYT, Ankara, Turkey. 35-40.
- Smiley, R.W. and Nicol, J.M. (2009). Nematodes which challenge global wheat production. Wheat science and trade. 171-187.
- Smiley, R.W., Whittaker, R.G., Gourlie, J.A., Easley, S.A. and Ingham, R.E. (2005). Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with reduced wheat yield in Oregon: Heterodera avenae. Journal of Nematology. 37: 297.
- Subbotin, S.A., Rumpenhorst, H.J. and Sturhan, D. (1996). Morpho- -logical and electrophoretic studies on populations of the Heterodera avenae complex from the former USSR. Russian Journal of Nematology. 4: 29-8.
- Subbotin, S.A., Vierstraete, A., De Ley, P., Rowe, J., Waeyenberge, L., Moens, M. and Vanfleteren, J. R. (2001). Phylogenetic relationships within the cyst-forming nematodes (Nematoda, Heteroderidae) based on analysis of sequences from the ITS regions of ribosomal DNA. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 21: 1-16.
- Swarup, G. and Sosa-Moss, C. (1990). Nematode parasites of cereals. Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. 109-136.
- Taya, A.S., Dalal, M.R. and Rana, B.P. (2000). The effect of cropping sequence on cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae and wheat crops. Agricultural Science Digest. 20: 275-276.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.