Agricultural Reviews

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Kunapajala: A Traditional Organic Formulation for Improving Agricultural Productivity: A Review

Saikat Biswas1,*, Rupa Das2
1Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia-741 252, West Bengal, india.
2Depeartment of Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia-741 252, West Bengal, india.
Considering the major setback in agricultural productivity received due to unscientific and excessive practice of intensive farming with injudicious use of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides etc.) as well as environmental hazards, there is a need for at least a partial paradigm shift towards eco-friendly organic approach. Practicing organic agriculture with various organic inputs like Kunapajala can provide soil health management as well as plant protection against pest and diseases, which finally reflects an increase in agricultural productivity. Although this traditional ITK formulation have been modified over the years according to the raw material availability across the location, it is rich in beneficial micro-organisms, growth promoting hormones, enzymes, vitamins, bio-pesticidal compounds which play key roles in crop growth and development when this organic liquid is applied alone or in combination with other organic/inorganic nutrient sources. However, research works on Kunapajala to standardize the dose, time and method of application, quantity of raw materials used for preparation, nutritional properties and response of crop to its application are very limited which further urges for scientific testing through multi-locational, multi-crop research trial and laboratory analysis of the quality of this liquid organic formulation. Afterwards, it requires transfusion to farming community through strong extension works to achieve sustainability in agricultural production.
Increasing population growth urges for more and more food production and chemical based agriculture is now the dominant practice by the farmers to achieve this. Although application of chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers etc.) has played an important role in uplifting the agriculture sector for the initial few decades after green revolution, its charm has gradually faded away, resulting in stagnation in crop production. Excessive and unscientific use of chemical inputs in today’s intensive agriculture is creating poor soil health through hampering soil physio-chemical properties such as salinity problem, poor soil aggregation, abrupt changes in soil pH, compaction and less water holding capacity etc. as well as depleting soil fertility, hampering micro-organisms’ activities, keeping toxic footprints in the environment for a long time, which altogether resulting in poor crop growth, yield and quality (Sharma et al., 2021). On the other hand, agricultural land shrinkage due increasing population pressure continuously urges for enhancing crop productivity. In India, before green revolution, agriculture was practiced only using organic inputs and methods. During earlier days, organic agriculture was self-sufficient to produce food for the population. As population growth gradually occurred, it failed to sustain and chemical based agriculture took its place through green revolution (Biswas and Das, 2022). However, setback in crop production due to continuous application of chemicals has become prominent from 1990 onwards and Indian agriculture is showing paradigm shift again towards organic agriculture to an extent (Biswas, 2020). Organic agriculture maintains biodiversity, biological cycle and its proper interaction with environment. It is a well-known fact that organic agriculture is an eco-friendly, safe approach of farming as no chemicals are used. It provides various nutrients and accelerates micro-organisms’ activity and other natural functions related to crop production.

Organic agriculture mostly relies on application of organic manures, bio-pesticides, organic mulching etc. and adoption of eco-friendly practices. As organic agriculture is a traditional approach, other than these organic products and practices, various conventional organic formulations are also associated with it in the form of indigenous technical knowledge (ITK). These ITKs are variable with location, availability of raw materials and farmer’s practice. They are the good sources of microorganisms, macro and micronutrients, plant growth promoting hormones, enzymes, vitamins etc. and have bio-pesticidal properties (Ram et al., 2018). Among all these formulations, some of them are now available to us as ITKs. One such traditional organic formulation is Kunapajala. It is a liquid organic formulation produced from animal and plant products through fermentation. Kunapajala is rich in various nutrients specially, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium as well as micro-organisms, growth promoting substances etc. which are essential for plant growth and development. Mishra (2007) stated that Kunapajala has the ability to substitute chemical fertilizers to a high extent. Considering the present population growth, as complete reliance on organic agriculture is not a practical approach at least for now, Kunapajala can find its place in integrated nutrient management also as one of the ITKs having beneficial role in agriculture.
Kunapajala (filthy fluid) or Kunapambu (fermented filth) is one of the traditional liquid organic formulations used since ancient times. Kunapajala was derived from Sanskrit words ‘Kunapa’ (i.e. smelling like dead body, corpse) and ‘Jala’ (i.e. water). Earliest record of this organic formulation was found possibly in two documents i.e.Vrikshayurveda’ (written by Surapala around 1,000 AD in Eastern India) and ‘Lokopakara’ (documented by a poet Chavundaraya around 1,025 AD in Karnataka of South India) (Ali et al., 2012). Interestingly, the preparation, use and beneficial role of Kunapajala was forgotten till english translation of Vrikshayurveda was published. Even after that, agricultural researcher, scientists showed negligence on this formulation and Valmiki Sreenivasa Ayangarya, a mathematician was the first one who experimented with Kunapajala and documented the beneficial role of herbal Kunapajala on mango and coconut (Ayangarya, 2004a). Ayangarya also observed enhancement in growth of chilli plant after application of herbal Kunapajala prepared from naturally fallen sour mango and soapnut (Sapindus emarginatus) (Ayangarya, 2004b). Later, Ayangarya in Arunachal Pradesh, prepared different types of Kunapajala like Indsafari (through aerobic fermentation of safari fish in cow urine) (Ayangarya, 2005), Mushika Kunapa (through aerobic fermentation of body parts of rats in cow urine) (Ayangarya, 2006a) and Kukkuta Kunapa (through aerobic fermentation of chicken flesh in cow urine) (Ayangarya, 2006b) to apply in different crops like tea bushes, kiwi fruit garden etc. and obtained positive results through their growth promoting and bio-pesticidal properties.
Kunapajala preparation and its history
Although apart from highlighting the beneficial role of Kunapajala in enhancing crop growth and productivity, its detailed preparation procedure was not mentioned in Lokopakara, Surapala in Vrikshayurveda(verses 101-106) mentioned preparation procedure (Sadhale, 1996) as follows:

According to Vrikshayurveda, the flesh, bone marrow, brain, blood and excreta of a dead boar are collected as and when available and mixed with water for further storage under the ground to avoid foul odour as well as to protect from other animals like dog’s attack. Although Surapala at first mentioned dead boar, later suggested to use fat, bone marrow, flesh, blood and excreta of any animals (specially, with horns) and fishes as per the availability, which gives flexibility to the farmers to use raw materials properly. Before storage, all the animal and fish excreta or body parts should be boiled in water and kept in earthen pot with sufficient addition of paddy husk. During the time of use, this mixture is cooked after adding sesame oilcake, honey and water soaked black gram. A little ghee can also be poured into the mixture.

In Surapala’s Vrikshayurveda, there was no mention of the quantity of ingredients required to prepare Kunapajala which was documented as a highly effective nutritious liquid organic preparation for trees’ growth, flowering and development of reproductive organs (Majumdar, 1935).

About 300 years after Surapala’s documentation, one chapter ‘Upavanavinoda’ from ‘Sarangadhara-paddhati’ (written by Sarangadhara, a scholar in the court of King Hammira of sakambhari-desa i.e. Bundelkhand) mentioned the preparation of Kunapajala without giving details about the quantity of ingredients (Majumdar, 1935). According to Sarangadhara, in order to prepare Kunapajala, flesh, fat, bone marrow of animals (deer, pig, sheep, goat, rhinoceros etc.) and fishes are boiled in water and compound milk, sesame oilcake powder, blackgram (boiled in honey), pulse decoction, ghee and hot water are added into the earthen pot containing the boiled substances. Afterwards, the pot is kept in a warm place for about two weeks to incubate boiled Kunapajala before use.

After 250 years of Upavanavinoda,‘Vishvavallabha’, written by Chakrapani (1577 AD) also described the preparation of Kunapajala which was almost similar to Sarangadhara’s procedure with animal skin is the only new addition as a raw material (Sadhale, 2004). Nene (1999) expressed that other than animal or fish body parts and wastes, Kunapajala can also be prepared using plant based products. This herbal version of Kunapajala is popularly known as Shasyagavya which is prepared by fermenting the mixture of cow dung, cow urine, weed or plant parts or vegetables wastes and water in 1:1:1:2 ratios, respectively. Over the years, several modifications have been made in order to prepare Kunapajala. Some of them are listed below (Table 1).

Table 1: Different methods of Kunapajala preparation.

Nutritional properties of Kunapajala
Depending on the raw materials, Kunapajala is known to contain various macro and micronutrients, beneficial micro-organisms, plant growth promoting hormones, essential amino acids. According to Martinez (2008), Kunapajala is rich in carbohydrates, proteins and alkaloids obtained from milk, sesame and black gram. Further, animal and fish body parts supply ample amount of phosphorus, triacylglycerides, esters, sterolester, phospholoipids, vitamins A, D and E etc. Use of honey in preparation of Kunapajala acts as a source for carbohydrates which accelerate fermentation process. It is also rich in microorganisms like rhizobium, azotobacter, azospirillum, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, trichoderma and pseudomonas. Chakraborty et al., (2019) analysed physical and chemical properties of Kunapajala and stated that it is rich in various nutrients (Table 2). It can be applied into the soil or as foliar spray or through seed treatment/priming.

Table 2: Physical and chemical properties of Kunapajala (Chakraborty et al., 2019).


Different ingredients used to prepare Kunapajala not only add nutritional properties but also ensure bio-pesticidal properties. For instance, addition of paddy husk in Kunapajala makes the formulation rich in silica which helps the plants to become robust against pest and disease attacks. Milk used for Kunapajala preparation shows resistance against certain viral diseases viz. tobacco mosaic virus, rice tungro virus etc. Patil (2007) mentioned that there is a risk of pathogen infestation through plant-based compost application, which can be avoided with the use of Kunapajala as it is boiled and fermented.
Role of Kunapajala in agricultural productivity and crop quality
Kunapajala plays an important role in uplifting crop productivity and quality through providing various nutrients for the plant’s uptake from soil or foliar absorption. Firminger (1864) recognised Kunapajala as a good source of nutrients for enhancing vegetable productivity. Further, presence of beneficial micro-organisms, enzymes, plant growth promoting hormones etc. in Kunapajala can help to boost up the crop yield when applied alone or in combination with other organic/inorganic nutrient sources. Kavya and Ushakumari (2020) observed highest plant height, number of branches, leaf area index and yield of bhindi under application of 50% N as FYM and foliar application of 5% non-herbal Kunapajala due to availability of good amount of nutrients, micro-organisms, enzymes, growth hormones etc. Sarkar et al., (2014) reported that soil drenching of Kunapajala along with Panchagavya ensured linear growth of root and shoots of vegetable seedlings more prominently over control as well as with each alone. In their study, Kunapajala + Panchagavya ensured 23.21%, 5-15% and 10-23% more shoot growth in tomato, chilli and cow pea, respectively. They obtained around 50% linear growth of root in all the three vegetables. Lamina size in tomato was also increased when Kunapajala was applied either alone (51.13%) or in combination with Panchagavya (39.95%). Even, there was an increase of leaf area through application of Kunapajala in tomato (51%), chilli (10%) and cow pea (30%). Kunapajala also increased plant dry biomass as high as 106.63% in tomato. They observed superiority of Kunapajala + Panchagavya over others on fruit yield in tomato (115%) and cow pea (127%) as well as fruit number in chilli (107%). Narayanan (2006) also applied the mixture of Kunapajala and Panchagavya and found improvement in yield of vegetables. Deshmukh et al., (2012a and 2012b) observed that in tomato plants, leaf number and biomass, relative water content of leaves, osmotic potential, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll stability index, carotenoids, xanthophylls were higher, while membrane injury was lesser under application of Kunapajala than traditional organic farming and inorganic fertilizer application. Quickest attainment of flowering, extended fruiting phase, increments in size, fresh weight and shelf life of tomato fruits were recorded when Kunapajala was applied. They also obtained highest contents of soluble protein, carbohydrates, polyphenols, proline, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid as well as anti-oxidant properties (catalase, super oxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, indole acetic acid oxidase) of leaves and fruits of tomato grown under application of Kunapajala.A positive impact of Kunapajala on quality of crop produce was observed by Rajasree et al., (2022) (Table 3).

Table 3: Influence of Kunapajala on growth and quality of rice.

In most of the cases, efficacy of Kunapajala or such type of ITK formulations depends on the raw materials used for preparation. Naik et al., (2022) compared three types of herbal Kunapajala and observed that nettle based herbal Kunapajala registered highest chlorophyll (a, b, total) and carotenoid contents in mustard, followed by integrated herbal Kunapajala and weed based herbal Kunapajala. In a study by Ali et al., (2012), Shasyagavya (20 and 10%) and Kunapajala (5 and 10%) ensured improvement in growth and yield of black gram, while in mustard, Kunapajala (3%) recorded the best result due to presence of organic carbon, beneficial micro-organisms and growth promoting hormones. Asha (2006) sprayed Kunapajala on langali (Gloriosa superba Linn) plants and observed greater growth, flowering and yield over control and chemical fertilization. Mishra (2007) also noticed increment in growth attributes viz. plant height, leaf length, panicle length, number of grains/panicle of rice with application of Kunapajala at 10 days’ interval. Similarly, in brinjal, Bhat and Vasanthi (2008) obtained more number of branches, greater fruit yield with lesser seeds and less vulnerability to diseases with the use of Kunapajala over chemical fertilizer application. Ankad et al., (2017) reported that Kunapajala application in Ashwagandha and Kalmegha seeds ensured higher leaf area, leaf area index, crop growth rate, leaf area duration, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, dry root yield and root length over other sources of nutrients. Seed priming with herbal Kunapajala was done by Halder et al., (2022) on chickpea and results indicated that seed priming with 10% Kunapajala ensured highest germination %, speed of germination, shoot and root lengths, seedling length, seedling dry weight, vigour index-I and II, water imbibition rate, α-amylase activity and seed metabolic efficiency as well as quickest germination time in chickpea over control, hydropriming and others (Fig 1 a, b, c, d). Earlier, Sudhakar et al., (2010) mentioned the presence of beneficial microorganisms, amino acids, vitamins, growth regulators like IAA, GA3 etc. resulting in positive influence on germination and other seedling physiological quality parameters of crops.

Fig 1(a): Effect of herbal Kunapajala priming on germination and seedling quality of chickpea.


Fig 1(a): Effect of herbal Kunapajala priming on germination and seedling quality of chickpea.


Fig 1(a): Effect of herbal Kunapajala priming on germination and seedling quality of chickpea.


Fig 1(a): Effect of herbal Kunapajala priming on germination and seedling quality of chickpea.


Along with the nutritional properties, Kunapajala also provides resistance against insects and diseases. Deshmukh et al., (2011) stated that Kunapajala can enhance the growth and provide greater disease resistance than other contemporary organic formulations, which altogether increase crop yield. Ayangarya (2005) applied his Kunapajala preparation (Indsafari) as foliar spray @ 1% and controlled tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis theivora) and loopers (Biston suppressaria) in tea garden.Being a liquid in nature, it has the property to reach the root zone of the crop when applied in soil, resulting in high uptake of nutrients. Foliar application, however, is more effective as compared to soil application as nutrients are absorbed more efficiently than root uptake. Further, through cooking and fermentation of the raw materials of Kunapajala, protein, fat, carbohydrate etc. of this liquid formulation are broken down well into simple products (low molecular weight), resulting in quicker and greater availability of nutrients to the plants as compared to other conventional organic products (Neff et al., 2003).
Over the years, various research reports have confirmed that Kunapajala, being a traditional organic liquid formulation, can uplift the agricultural productivity in a sustainable way through effectively reviving the soil health degraded due to application of chemicals, improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties, providing variety of nutrients, growth promoting hormones, enzymes, vitamins etc. for crop growth as well as building resistance in crop against insects and diseases. However, it still lacks adequate researches regarding the quality analysis, standardization of raw materials and their quantities, doses, time and method of Kunapajala application etc. To achieve this, there is an urgent need to use this old ITK formulation in multi-crop, multi-locational research trials as well as bio-chemical analysis in standard laboratories. Further, extension service needs to be strong enough to adequately transfuse standardised form of Kunapajala to farming community to achieve a revamp in agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner. 

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