Effect of Pre-harvest and Post-harvest Hexanal Treatments on Fruits and Vegetables: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1928    | Article Id: R-1928 | Page : 124-131
Citation :- Effect of Pre-harvest and Post-harvest Hexanal Treatments on Fruits and Vegetables: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2020.(41):124-131
G.N. Ashitha, Anjaly C. Sunny, R. Nisha ashithagn@gmail.com
Address : Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Tavanur-679 573, Kerala, India. 
Submitted Date : 14-08-2019
Accepted Date : 6-04-2020

Abstract

The membrane degradation process associated with ripening and senescence of fruit is accelerated by the enzyme phospholipase D (PLD). Hexanal is a compound with high potential to inhibit phospholipase-D enzyme, which is naturally secretes from plants and also promotes the shelf-life extension of fruits during its storage. Pre-harvest hexanal application as enhanced freshness formulation helps to reduce fruit decay and other post-harvest disease by preventing the microbial growth especially mold growth. Post-harvest application of hexanal in the forms of vapour or liquid and nano emulsion for dip treatment, etc. results in improved fruit quality with better colour firmness along with other improved biochemical qualities. The cell wall degrading enzymes such as PLD, PME (Pectin methyl esterase) suppressed after hexanal treatment, whereas accelerated the antioxidant enzymes activities. The hexanal can be used as a potential compound for the preservation and post-harvest storage of perishables with better quality and safety.

Keywords

Hexanal Phospholipase-D (PLD) Pectin methyl esterases (PME)

References

  1. Ashwini, T., Ganapathy, S., Subramanian, K. S., Indu Rani, C. and Guru Meenakshi, G. (2018). Effect of Hexanal Vapour on Post-harvest Quality and Shelf Life of Banana var. Grand Naine. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 7(2): 2441–2450. 
  2. Baggio, J.S., Lourenço, S.D.A. and Amorim, L. (2014). Eradicant and curative treatments of hexanal against peach brown rot. Scientia Agricola. 72–76.
  3. Carpita, N.C., Gibeaut, D.M. (1993). Structural models of the primary cell walls in flowering plants: Consistency of molecular structure with physical properties of walls during growth. Plant Journal. 3: 1–30.
  4. Chan, Z. L. and Tian, S. (2006). Induction of H2O2-metabolizing enzymes and total protein synthesis by antagonistic yeast and salicylic acid in harvested sweet cherry fruit. Post-harvest Biology and Technology. 39: 314–320. 
  5. Cheema, A., Padmanabhan, P., Subramanian, J., Blom, T. and Paliyath, G. (2014). Postharvest Biology and Technology Improving quality of greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by pre- and postharvest applications of hexanal-containing formulations. Post-harvest Biology and Technology. 95:13–19. 
  6. Cheema, A., Padmanabhan, P., Amer, A., Parry, M. J., Lim, L.T., Subramanian, J. and Paliyath, G. (2019). Post-harvest hexanal vapour treatment delays ripening and enhances shelf life of greenhouse grown sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Post-harvest Biology and Technology. 136: 80–89. 
  7. Croteau, R. (1978). Biogenesis of fl avor components: volatile carbonyl compounds and monoterpenoids.In: Post-harvest biology and biotechnology, Food and Nutrition Press, [Hultin, H.O.; Milner, M., (eds.)] Westport, CT, USA. p. 400-432. 
  8. Fallik, E., D.D. Archbold, T.R. Hamilton-Kemp, A.M. Clements, R.W. Collins and M.M. Barth. (1998). (E)-2- hexenal can stimulate Botrytis cinerea growth in vitro and on strawberries in vivo during storage. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 123: 875-881.
  9. Fan, L.; Song, J.; Beaudry, R.M.; Hildebrand, P.D. (2006). Effect of hexanal vapour on spore viability of Penicillium expansum, lesion development on whole apples and fruit volatile biosynthesis. Journal of Food Science. 71: M105-M109
  10. Gardini, F., Lanciotti, R., Caccioni, D.R.L. and Guerzoni M.E. (1997). Antifungal activity of hexanal as dependent on its vapor pressure. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 45: 4297–4302.
  11. Foyer, C.H., Noctor, G. (2005). Redox homeostasis and antioxidant signaling: a metabolic interface between stress perception and physiological responses. Plant Cell. 17(7): 1866-75.
  12. Geetha V., Thirupathi, V., Varadharaju, N., Ganapathy, S., Malathi, D. and Janavi, G.J. (2015). Studies on effect of hexanal on shelf life of mango. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Dept. of F and APE. TNAU. Coimbatore. 
  13. Gill, K.S., Dhaliwal, H.S., Mahajan, B.V.C., Paliyath, G. and Boora, R.S. (2015). Post-harvest Biology and Technology Enhanc- -ing postharvest shelf life and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Allahabad Safeda by pre-harvest application of hexanal containing aqueous formulation. Post-harvest Biology and Technology. 112: 224–232. 
  14. Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., van Otterdijk, R., Meybeck, A. (2011). “Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent Causes and Prevention.” Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.
  15. Hariprasad, P., Niranjana, S.R. (2009). Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria to improve plant health of tomato. Plant Soil. 316: 13–24.
  16. Jincy, M., Djanaguiraman, M., Jeyakumar, P., Subramanian, K.S., Jayasankar, S. and Paliyath, G. (2018). Inhibition of phospholipase D enzyme activity through hexanal leads to delayed mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit ripening through changes in oxidants and antioxidant enzymes activity. Scientia Horticultura. 218(2): 316–325. 
  17. Kaur, S., Arora, N.K., Gill, K.B.S., Sharma, S. and Gill, M.I.S. (2019). Hexanal formulation reduces rachis browning and post-    -harvest losses in table grapes cv. ‘Flame Seedless.’ Scientia Horticultura. 248(1): 265–273. 
  18. Krishnamurthy, P and Wadhwani, A. (2011). Antioxidant Enzymes and Human Health, Antioxidant Enzyme, Mohammed Amr El-Missiry DOI: 10.5772/48109.
  19. Kumar, S.K., El Kayal, W., Sullivan, J.A., Paliyath, G. and Jayasankar, S. (2018). Pre-harvest application of hexanal formulation enhances shelf life and quality of ‘Fantasia’ nectarines by regulating membrane and cell wall catabolism-associated genes. Scientia Horticultura. 229(4): 117–124. 
  20. Lanciotti, R., Corbo, M.R., Gardini, F., Sinigaglia, M. and Guerzoni, M.E. (1999). Effect of hexanal on the shelf life of fresh apple slices. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 47: 4769-4776.
  21. Lanciotti, R., Gianotti, A., Patrignani, F., Belletti, N., Guerzoni, M.E. and Gardini, F. (2004). Use of natural aroma compounds to improve shelf-lfe and safety of minimally processed fruits. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 15: 201-208.
  22. Lohani, S., Trivedi, P.K. and Nath, P. (2004). Changes in activities of cell wall hydrolyses during ethylene-induced ripening in banana: effect of 1-MCP, ABA and IAA. Post-harvest Biology and Technology. 31: 119-126.
  23. Misran, A., Padmanabhan, P., Sullivan, J. A., Khanizadeh, S. and Paliyath, G. (2015). Composition of phenolics and volatiles in strawberry cultivars and influence of pre-harvest hexanal treatment on their profiles. Canadian Journal of Plant Science.125-126.
  24. Newberne, P., Smith, R.L., Doull, J., Feron, V.J., Goodman, J.I., Murno, I.C., Portoghese, P.S., Waddel, W.J., Wagner, B.M., Weil, C.S., Adams, T.B. and Hallagan, J.B. (2000). GRAS flavouring substances. Food Technology. 54: 66-83
  25. Paillard, N.M.M. (1986). Evolution of the capacity of aldehyde production by crushed apple tissues, during an extended storage of fruits, In: The shelf life of foods and beverages. [G. Charalambous (eds.)]. Proc. 4th Intl. Flavor Conf. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam. p. 368-378. 
  26. Paliyath, G. and Droillard, M.J. (1992). The mechanisms of membrane deterioration and disassembly during senescence. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 30: 789-812
  27. Paliyath, G., Pinhero, R.G., Yada, R.Y. and Murr. D.P. (1999). Effect of processing conditions on phospholipase D activity of corn kernel subcellular fractions. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 47: 2579-2588.
  28. Paliyath, G., Yada, R.Y., Murr D.P. and Pinhero. R.G. (2003). Inhibition of phospholipase D. US patent #6,514,917; Canadian patent #2,298,249 issued in 2003
  29. Paliyath, G. and Murr. D.P. (2007). Compositions for the preservation of fruits and vegetables.US patent #7, 198,811.
  30. Paliyath, G. and Subramanian. J. (2008). Phospholipase D inhibition technology for enhancing shelf life and quality In: Post-    harvest biology and technology of fruits, vegetables and flowers ed. Paliyath, G., D.P. Murr, A.K. Handa and S. Lurie. Published by Wiley-blackwell, USA. Pp. No.: 240-245.
  31. Paliyath, G. and Padmanabhan, P. (2018). Preharvest and post-harvest technologies based on hexanal: An overview. Post-harvest Biology and Nanotechnology of Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers, 89–101. 
  32. Pelayo, C., Vilas-Boas, E.V.D., Benichou, M. and Kader, A.A. (2003). Variability in responses of partially ripe bananas to 1- methylcyclopropene. Post-harvest Biology and Technology. 28: 75-85.
  33. Sholberg, P.L. and Randall, P. (2007). Fumigation of Stored Pome Fruit with Hexanal Reduces Blue and Gray Mold Decay. Hortscience. 42(3):611–616. 
  34. Sáenz-garza, N.E., Delaquis, P. and Durance, T. (2013). Microencapsulation of hexanal by radiant energy vacuum microwave-molecular inclusion for controlled release and inhibition of Penicillium expansum in a model system and on apple tissue. FRIN. 52(2): 496–502. 
  35. Sharma, M., Jacob, J.K., Subramanian, J., and Paliyath, G. (2010). Hexanal and 1-MCP treatments for enhancing the shelf life and quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Scientia Horticultura. 125(3): 239–247. 
  36. Singh, S.P. and Saini, M.K. (2014). Postharvest vapour heat treatment as a phytosanitary measure influences the aroma volatiles profile of mango fruit. Food Chemistry. 164: 387–395. 
  37. Song, J., Leepipattanawit, R., Deng, W. and Beaudry, R. M. (1996). Hexanal Vapour Is a Natural, Metabolizable Fungicide/ : Inhibition of Fungal Activity and Enhancement of Aroma Biosynthesis in Apple Slices. Journal of American society of Horticultural Science. 121(5): 937–942.
  38. Song, J., Leepipattanawit, R., Deng, W. and Beaudry. R.M. (1998). Hexanal acts as residue less antifungal agent that enhances aroma biosynthesis in apple fruit. Acta Horticulture. 464: 219-224. 
  39. Song, J., P.D. Hildebrand, L. Fan, F. Forney, W.E. Renderos, L. Campbell-Palmer and C.Doucette. (2007). Effect of Hexanal vapour on the growth of post-harvest pathogens and Fruit decay. Journal of Food Science. 72(4): M108-    M112.
  40. Spotts R.A., Sholberg P.L., Randall P., Serdani M. and Chen P.M. (2007). Effects of 1-MCP and hexanal on decay of d’Anjou pear fruit in long-term cold storage. Post-harvest Biolology and Technology. 44: 101-106.
  41. Thavong, P. and Archbold, D.D. (2010a). Postharvest use of hexanal vapour and heat treatment on longan fruit decay and consumer acceptance. Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology. 15(4): 54-63.
  42. Thavong, P. Archbold, D.D., Pankasemsuk, T. and Koslanund, R. (2010b). Hexanal vapours suppress spore germination, mycelial growth and fungal-derived cell wall degrading enzymes of postharvest pathogens of longan fruit. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 38(1): 139–150.
  43. Tiwari, K. and Paliyath, G. (2011). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Microarray analysis of ripening-regulated gene expression and its modulation by 1-MCP and hexanal. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 49(3): 329–340.
  44. Utto, W., Mawson, A.J. and Bronlund. J.E. (2008). Hexanal reduces infection of tomatoes by Botrytis cinerea whilst maintaining quality. Post-Harvest Biology and Technology. 47: 434-437.
  45. Vasil’ev, V.G., Bykova, T.A., Lebedev, B.V. (1991). Thermodynamics of hexanal at 0-330 K, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 65: 51-4
  46. Vick, B.A. and Zimmerman. D.C. (1987). Oxidative systems for modification of fatty acids: The lipoxygenase pathway. In: The biochemistry of plants. [P.K. Stumpf (ed.)]. Academic Press (9). p. 53–90
  47. Winkler, A.J., Cook, J.A., Kliewer, W.M. and Lider, L.N., (1974). General Viticulture. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 60-71.
  48. Zhang, Y., Seeram, N.P., Lee, R., Feng, L. and Heber, D. (2009). Isolation and identification of strawberry phenolics with antioxidant and human cancer cell anti proliferative properties. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 56: 670–675.
  49. Zhang Y, Kong J, Huang F, Xie Y, Guo Y, Cheng Y, Qian H, Yao W (2018). Hexanal as a QS inhibitor of extracellular enzyme activity of Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas fluorescens and its application in vegetables. Food Chemistry. 30: 255:1-7. 

Global Footprints