Loading...

Physical constraints of fine textured heavy soils and their management - A review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.v38i03.8981    | Article Id: R-1708 | Page : 216-222
Citation :- Physical constraints of fine textured heavy soils andtheir management - A review.Agricultural Reviews.2017.(38):216-222
Address : Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, Punjab, India.
Submitted Date : 12-04-2017
Accepted Date : 18-08-2017

Abstract

Of the many forms of above- and below-ground stresses facing agriculture production, physical soil limitations are generally among the most persistent and least amenable to amelioration. Fine textured heavy soils have physical constraints that severely affect soil and plant health and yield parameters and there is a need to study the problems of these type of soils and find possible measures to ameliorate these problems. Reasons for these problems along with possible preventing measures have been discussed. These soils have severe soil aeration problem due to restricted soil water movement within the profile. The affects of these constraints on crop growth and productivity were highlighted. For efficient crop production, it is important to understand the soil environment in which plants grow, to recognize the limitations of that environment and to ameliorate where possible without damaging the soil quality. For satisfactory plant growth, it is essential that the soil provides a favourable physical environment for root development that can exploit the soil sufficiently to provide the plants needs for water, nutrients and anchorage.

Keywords

Fine textured heavy soil Low permeability Physical constraints Slow infiltration Soil compaction Soil amendments Surface crust Tillage.

References

  1. Acharya, C. L., Bishnay, S. K., Yaduvanshi, H. S. (198 8) Effect of long term application of fertilizers, organic and inorganic amendments under continuous cropping on soil physical and chemical properties in an Alfisols. Indian Journal of Agriculture Sciences 52: 509-516.
  2. Agassi, M., Shainberg, I., Morin, J. (1981) Effect of electrolyte concentration and soil sodicity on the infiltration rate and crust formation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 45:848-851.
  3. Aggarwal, G.C., Sidhu, A. S., Sekhon, N. K., Sandhu, K. S., Sur, H.S. (1995) Puddling and N management effects on crop response in a rice–wheat cropping system. Soil Tillage Research 36:129-139.
  4. Akram, M., Kemper, W. D. (1979) Infiltration of soils as affected by the pressure and water content at the time of compaction. Soil Science Society of America Journal 43:1080-1086.
  5. Alakukku, L. (1996) Persistence of soil compaction due to high axle load traffic. II. Long-term effects on the properties of fine textured and organic soils. Soil Tillage Research 37: 223-238.
  6. Al-Ghazal, A. A. (2002) Effect of tractor wheel compaction on bulk density and infiltration rate of a loamy sand soil in Saudi Arabia. Emirats Journal of Agriculture Science 14: 24-33.
  7. Allmaras, R. R., Rickman, R. W., Ekin, L. G., Kimball, B. A. (1977) Chiselling influences on soil hydraulic properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41: 796-803.
  8. Assouline, S. (2004) Rainfall-induced soil surface sealing: A critical review of observations, conceptual models and solutions. Vadose Zone Journal 3: 570-591.
  9. Balbir-Singh. and Gilkes, R. J. (1993) The recognition of amorphous silica in indurated soil profiles. Clay Mineralogy 28: 461-474.
  10. Belnap, J., Hawkes, C. V., Firestone, M. K., (2003) Boundaries in miniature: two examples from soil. Bioscience 53: 739-749.
  11. Belnap, J. and Lange, O. L. (Eds.), (2001) Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management. Springer, Berlin. 
  12. Ben-Hur, M., Agassi, M., Keren, R., Zhang, J.(1998) Compaction, aging, and raindrop-impact effects on hydraulic properties of saline and sodic Vertisols. Soil Science Society of American Journal 62:1377-1383.
  13. Ben-Hur, M., Shainberg, I., Baker, D., Keren, R. (1985) Effects of soil texture and CaCO3 content on water infiltration in crusted soil as related to water salinity. Irrigation Science 6: 281-294.
  14. Bhagat, P., Gosal, S.K., Singh, C.B. (2016) Effect of mulching on soil environment, microbial flora and growth of potato under field conditions. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 50: 542-548.
  15. Blake, G. R., Nelson, W., Allmaras, R. R. (1976) Persistence of subsoil compaction in a Mollisol. Soil Science Society of American Journal 40: 943-948.
  16. Bruand, A. and Gilkes, R. J. (2002) Subsoil bulk density and organic carbon stock in relation to land use for a Western Australian sodosol. Australian Journal of Soil Research 40: 999-1010.
  17. Chartres, C. J. and Fitzgerald, J. D. (1990) Properties of siliceous cements in some Australian soils and saprolites. Developments in Soil Science 19: 199-205.
  18. Chen, Y., Tarchizky, J., Morin, J., Banin, A. (1980) Scanning electron microscope observations on soil crust and their formation. Soil Science 130: 49-55.
  19. Defossez, P. and Richard, G. (2002) Models of soil compaction due to traffic and their evaluation. Soil Tillage Research 67: 41-64.
  20. Dhinesh, V. and Santhi, R. (2016) Effect of initial soil fertility and integrated plant nutrition system (IPNS) on yield and NPK uptake by brinjal on an Alfisol. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 50:131-134.
  21. Disparte, A. A. (1987) Effects of root mass density on infiltration among four Mediterranean dryland forages and two irrigated legumes. M.S. thesis, University of California, Riverside.
  22. Eldridge, D. J., Greene, R. S. B. (1994) Microbiotic soil crust: a review of their roles in soil and ecological processes in the rangelands of Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32: 389-415.
  23. Eldridge, D. J., Rosentreter, R. (1999) Morphological groups: a framework for monitoring microphytic crusts in arid landscapes. Journal of Arid Envrionment 41: 11-25.
  24. Etana, A., Hokansson, I. (1994) Swedish experiments on the persistence of subsoil compaction caused by vehicles with high axle load. Soil Tillage Research 29: 167-72.
  25. Evans, D. D., Buol, S. W. (1968) Micromorphological studies of soil crusts. Soil Science society of American Journal 32: 19-22.
  26. Evans, R. D., Johansen, J. R. (1999) Microbiotic crusts and ecosystem processes. Critic Review Plant Science 18: 183-225.
  27. Falayi, O., Bouma, J. (1975) Relationship between the hydraulic conductance of surface crusts and soil management in a typic Hapludalfs. Soil Science Society of American Journal 39: 953-63.
  28. FAO-UNESCO (1975) Soil map of the World (1/5 000 000). FAO, Paris, France.
  29. Flowers, M., Lal, R. (1998) Axle load and tillage effect on soil physical properties and soybean grain yield on a mollic ochraqualf in northwest Ohio. Soil Tillage Research 48: 21-35.
  30. Govt. Of India 1990. Indian agriculture in brief, 23rd edition, Min. Of Agric.& Cooperation, New Delhi,pp160. 
  31. Hardy, N., Shainberg, I., Gal, M., Keren, R. (1983) The effect of water quality and storm sequence upon infiltration rate and crust formation. Journal of Soil Science 34: 665-676. 
  32. Harlan, P. W., Franzmeier, D. P., Roth, C. B. (1977) Soil formation on loess in southwestern Indiana. II. Distribution of clay and free oxides and fragipan formation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41: 99-103.
  33. Hassan, M. M. and Gregory, P. J. (1999) Water transmission properties as affected by cropping and tillage systems. Pakistan Journal of Soil Science 16: 29-38.
  34. Hillel, D. (1980) Applications of Soil Physics. Academic Press, New York.
  35. Johansen, J. R. (1986) Importance of Cryptogamic Soil Crusts to Arid Rangelands: Implications for Short Duration Grazing and Current Issues in Grazing Management Shortcourse. Washington State University, Kennewick, WA.
  36. Johansen, J. R. (1993) Cryptogamic crust of semiarid and arid lands of North America. Journal of Phycology 29: 140-147.
  37. Jongerius, A. (1981) Micromorphological application in agricultural research internationational working meeting on soil Micromorphological London.
  38. Jorajuria, D., Draghi, L., Aragon, A. (1997) The effect of vehicle weight on the distribution of compaction with depth and the yield of Lolium trifolium grassland. Soil Tillage Research 41: 1-12.
  39. Kooistra, M. J., Bouma, J., Boersma, O. H., Jager, A. (1984) Physical and morphological characterization of undisturbed and disturbed ploughpans in a sandy loam soil. Soil Tillage Research 4: 405-17.
  40. Kukal, S. S. and Aggarwal, G. C. (2003a) Puddling depth and intensity effects in rice-wheats ystem on a sandy loam soil I. Development of subsurface compaction. Soil Tillage Research 72: 1-8.
  41. Lal, R. (1978) Influence of tillage methods and residue mulches on soil structure and infiltration rate. p.393-402. In: Emerson W W et al (ed.) Modification of soil structure. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  42. Lal, R. (1996) Axle load and tillage effects on crop yields on a Mollic Ochraqualf in northwest Ohio. Soil Tillage Research 37: 143-    160.
  43. Le Bissonnais, Y., Benkhadra, H., Chaplot, V., Fox, D., King, D., Daroussin, J. (1998) Crusting, runoff and sheet erosion on silty loamy soils at various scales and up scaling from m2 to small catchments. Soil Tillage Research 46: 69-80.
  44. Mclntyre, D. S. (1958) Permeability measurement of soil crusts formed by raindrop impact. Soil Science 85: 185-189.
  45. Meek, B. D., Rechel, E. A., Carter, L. M., DeTar, W. R. (1992) Bulk density of a sandy loam soil: Effects of traffic, tillage and irrigation method. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56: 562-565.
  46. Meek, B. D., Rechel, E. A., Carter, L. M., DeTar, W. R. (1989) Changes in infiltration under alfalfa as influenced by time and wheel traffic. Soil Scence society of America Journal 53: 238-241.
  47. Meelu, O. P., Beri, V., Sharma, K. N., Jalota, S. K., Sandhu, B. S. (1979) Influence of paddy and corn in different rotation on Wheat yield, nutrient removal, and soil properties. Plant Soil 51: 51-58.
  48. Moore, D. C. and Singer, M. J. (1990) Crust formation effects on soil erosion process. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54: 1117-1123.
  49. Moorman, F. R. and Van Breeman, N. (1978) Soil forming processes in aquatic rice lands. In: Rice-Soil, Water, Land. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Phillipines, pp. 83-106.
  50. Morin, J. and Benyamini, Y. (1977) Rainfall infiltration into bare soils. Water Resources Research 13: 813-817.
  51. Morin, J., Benyamini, Y., Michacli, A. (1981) The dynamics of soil crusting by rainfall impact and the water movement in the soil profile. Journal of Hydrology 52: 321-335.
  52. Mukhopadhayay, R., Gajri, P. R., Singh, R., Khera, K. L. (1997) Erosion and crust management in coarse-textured soils with an acrylic-based soil conditioner. Arid Soil Research Rehabitation 11: 367-374.
  53. Nizami, M. I. (1988) Soil strength relationship with bulk density and moisture content. Paper presented in 2nd Natl Soil Sci Congress December 20-22, 1988 at Faislabad.
  54. Norton, L. D., Hall, G. F., Smeck, N. E., Bigham, J. M. (1984) Fragipan bonding in a Late-Winsconsinan loess-derived soil in east-    central Ohio. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48: 1360-66.
  55. Oster, J. D., Singer, M. J., Fulton, A., Richardson, W., Prichard, T. (1992) Water penetration problems in California soils: Prevention, diagnoses, and solutions. Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, Univ. of California Div. of Agric. and Natural Resources. University of California, Riverside, CA.
  56. Pagliai, M. and la Marca, M. (1979) Micromorphological studies of soil crusts. Agroclimica 23: 16-25.
  57. Pagliai, M., Bisdom, E. B. A., Ledin, S. (1983) Changes in surface structure (crusting) after application of sewage sludge and pig slurry in cultivated agricultural soils in Northern Italy. Geoderma, 30 Elsevier science publisher B V Anserdam, The Netherlands, pp. 35-53
  58. Painuli, D.K. and Yadav, R.P. 1998. Tillage requirements of Indian soils. In: 50 Years of Natural Resource Management Research (Eds: G.B. Singh and B.R. Sharma). Div. Of Natural Resource Management, ICAR, New Delhi,pp 245-262. 
  59. Patel, M. S. and Singh, N. T. (1981) Changes in bulk density and water intake rate of a coarse textured soil in relation to different levels of compaction. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 29: 110-112.
  60. Prihar, S. S. (1984) Soil research in retrospect and prospect of soil physics, soil science in India. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science Bulletin 14: 112-123.
  61. Richard, L. A. (1953) Modulus of rupture as an index of crusting of soil. Soil Science Society of America Procter 17: 321-323.
  62. Singer, M. J. and Oster, J. D. (1984) Water penetration problems in California soils. Land, Air, and Water Resources Paper No. 10011, Dep. of Land, Air, and Water Resources, Univ. of Calif., Davis.
  63. Soil Survey Staff (1992) Soil Taxonomy. Agric Handbook United State Department of Agriculture 436.
  64. Souty, N., Stengel, P., Rode, C., Tuttobene, R. (1992). Mechanistic study of maize emergence through superficial crusts. Soil Tillage Research 23: 125-40.
  65. Sur, H. S. and Singh, N. T. (1973) Water retention and transmission characteristics of soils of the Pilot Projrct, Patiala. Journal of Research of Punjab Agricultural University 10: 190-198.
  66. Sur, H. S., Prihar, S. S.,Jalota, S. K. (1981) Effect of rice-wheat and maize-wheat rotations on water transmission and wheat root development in a sandy loam soil of Punjab, India. Soil Tillage Research 1: 361-371.
  67. Wakindiki, C. and Ben-Hur, M. (2002) Soil mineralogy and texture effects on crust micromorphology, infiltration, and erosion. Soil Science Society of American Journal 66: 897-905.
  68. West, N. (1990) Structure and function of microphytic soil crusts in wildland ecosystems of arid to semi-arid regions. Advances in Ecological Research 20: 179-223.
  69. Whalley, W. R. and Dexter, A. R. (1994) Root development and earthworm movement in relation to soil strength and structure. Arch Acker-Pf Boden 38: 1-40.
  70. Willatt, S. T. (1986) Root growth of winter barley in a soil compacted by the passage of tractors. Soil Tillage Research 7: 41-50.
  71. Yassoglou, N. J. and Whiteside, E. P. (1960) Morphology and genesis of some soils containing fragipans in northern Michigan. Soil Science Society of America Procter 24: 396-407.

Global Footprints