MAIZE ROOT MORPHOLOGY AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY- A REVIEW

Article Id: ARCC559 | Page : 16 - 26
Citation :- MAIZE ROOT MORPHOLOGY AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY- A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2012.(33):16 - 26
S. Sen, T. Setter and M.E. Smith
Address : Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University Cornell University, Ithaca, NY-14853, USA

Abstract

The increased population pressure has led to the maximum use of chemical fertilizers especially in the major crops such as rice, wheat and maize production. In the United States, excess application of nitrate-nitrogen in maize cultivation is becoming a major issue because of increased ground water contamination. The nitrogen used by the maize plant is very low; often most of the applied nitrogen is lost through leaching. Root traits, amount of nitrogen present in the soil, soil pH, competition for available nitrogen between the weed and crop plant are challenges in improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in maize breeding program. Effective root system is important in breeding maize for NUE as it is the root system that takes up nutrients from the soil and can help prevent leaching of nitrogen. The trait – NUE often becomes a limiting factor due to low frequency of NUE alleles in maize. Identifying genotypes with efficient root system and improved NUE for developing suitable hybrids would reduce yield loss in maize. It will also have positive effect on the environment by lowering down the excessive nitrogenous fertilizer application.

Keywords

Maize Nitrogen Yield losses Root Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE).

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