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Combining Ability and Heterosis for Seed Yield and Yield Components in Indian Mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss]
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First Online 20-06-2022|
Methods: Line x tester analysis of seven lines and five testers was carried out to identify the high heterotic crosses and their relationship in terms of GCA and SCA in Indian mustard. The parents and F1 hybrids were evaluated in RBD with three replications.
Result: The analysis of variances revealed significant differences of genotypes for all characters studied, indicating sufficient genetic variability for the characters. The estimates of SCA variances were higher than GCA variance the characters indicating that dominance variance was more than the additive variance. The ratio of variance due to general and specific combining ability was less than unity for all the traits that indicated the non-additive gene action was predominant over additive gene action. Five lines, viz. PM 24, PM 25, PM 30, Pusa Agrani, JD-6 and one tester, Pusa Bold were deemed to be the good general combiner for seed yield and yield attributing traits. On the basis of high heterosis over mid parent as well as better parent and significant SCA effects for seed yield per plant and its component traits, hybrids namely, JD-6 x Pusa Bold, PM 30 x Seeta, PM 25 x Pusa Bold, PM 24 x Kranti and PM 22 x Sarama were found to be very promising for further exploitation in breeding program.
The acreage, production and productivity of rapeseed-mustard in world during 2019-20 was 35.95 m ha, 71.49 mt and 1990 kg/ha respectively (FAO stat 2019). In India rapeseed-mustard area, production and productivity were 6.86 m ha, 9.12 mt and 1331 kg/ha respectively during 2019-20. Globally, India continues to be ranks 2nd after Canada in acreage (19.81%) and rank 4th after Canada, European Union and China in production (10.37%) (AICRP-RM Report, 2021, ICAR-DRMR).
Exploitation of heterosis may play a very significant role in boosting up the production and productivity of Indian mustard. Heterosis breeding can be one of the most useful options for breaking the present yield barrier. The combining ability analysis is one of the powerful tools to test the value of parental lines to produce superior hybrids and valuable recombinants to develop promising high yielding varieties. To develop better genotypes through hybridization, the choice of suitable parents plays a key role.
Combining ability studies emphasized the predominant effect of GCA on yield and most of the yield components indicating the importance of additive gene action (McGee and Brown, 1995; Gupta et al., 2006). Pandey et al., (1999) reviewed the evidences for the presence of significant SCA effects for seed yield and its components indicating importance of non-additive gene action. A wide range of positive heterosis for number of primary branches and secondary branches per plant, plant height and number of seeds per siliqua was reported by Rawat (1975). Similarly, significant positive heterosis for seed yield and component traits in Indian mustard were reported by many workers (Gami and Chauhan, 2013; Meena et al., 2015 and Chauhan et al., 2017) in different studies.
Keeping these points in view, the present investigation was undertaken to determine general combining ability and specific combining ability of parental lines and mid parent and better parent heterosis of different cross combinations in Brassica juncea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Recommended agronomic practices were followed to raise a good crop. Observations were recorded on randomly selected five competitive plants excluding border plants for thirteen quantitative characters, viz., days to flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), primary branches/ plant, secondary branches/ plant, siliquae/plant, siliqua length (cm), seeds/siliqua, 1000 seed weight (g), length of main axis (cm), siliquae on main axis and seed yield/ plant (g). The data for days to flowering, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity were taken on a plot basis. The Combining ability analysis was carried for Line × Tester mating design as out lined by Kempthorne (1957).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The estimates of SCA variances were higher than GCA variance (Table 1b) for all the characters studied indicating that dominance variance was more than the additive variance. The ratio of variance due to general and specific combining ability was less than unity for all the traits highlighting preponderance effect of non-additive gene action. So, for the improvement of these traits, bi-parental mating followed by recurrent selection would be rewarding to get desirable recombinants. The present finding confirmed the study reported by Thakral et al., (2000); Singh et al., (2005); Gami and Chauhan (2013) and Chauhan et al., (2017).
The estimates of GCA effects of lines and testers are presented in Table 2 and it revealed that the parents namely, PM 24, PM 25, PM 30, Pusa Agrani and JD-6 among lines and Pusa Bold among the testers exhibited significantly positive GCA effects for seed yield per plant. So, additive gene action or additive × additive type of interaction effects mainly controlled these parents. Similarly, such additive type gene effect was also found in parents PM 25, PM 30, Pusa Agrani, JD-6, Pusa Bold and Kranti which exhibited significant GCA effects for siliquae/plant; PM 21, PM 24, Pusa Agrani, Sanjukta Asech and Sarama for siliqua length; PM 24, PM 25, Pusa Agrani, JD-6, Sanjukta Asech and Pusa Bold for seeds/siliqua; PM 21, PM 22, JD-6, Sanjukta Asech, Seeta and Sarama for 1000- seed weight; PM 22, PM 24, Pusa Agrani and Pusa Bold for days to maturity; PM 22, PM 24, PM 30, Pusa Agrani, JD-6, Sarama, Pusa Bold and Kranti for plant height; PM 25, PM 30, Pusa Agrani, JD-6 and Pusa Bold for primary and secondary branches/plant. The parent PM 25 had highest GCA effects among the lines for seed yield/plant followed by JD-6. Similarly, among the testers, only Pusa Bold had significant positive GCA effects for seed yield/plant. These parents can be utilized in further breeding program. Combining all traits the parents PM 24, PM 25, PM 30, Pusa Agrani, JD-6 and Pusa Bold appeared to be consistently superior for seed yield and important yield components consistently showing significantly positive SCA effects and thus the parents were mainly controlled by additive gene effect. All these parents can be considered as good general combiner for seed yield and important yield attributing traits like number of siliquae/plant, number of seeds/siliqua, number of primary branches/plant, plant height, days to maturity and so plants with higher yield coupled with more number of siliquae and early maturing lines would hopefully can be developed from segregating generations with fixable effect in nature.
Specific combining ability effect is a very important estimate for determining the potentiality of cross combination. In this study, out of 35 hybrids none of the crosses showed significant SCA effect for all the traits (Table 3). Similar results were observed by Patel et al., (2015) and Synrem et al., (2015) also in their study. For days to flowering and maturity, earliness is a desirable criteria and so negative SCA effect was desirable. Similarly, for dwarf plant height is desirable in mustard and thus the hybrids which exhibits significantly negative SCA effects for these traits are of paramount importance in breeding program. For days to flowering 16 crosses showed highly significant but negative SCA effects. Similar effects were observed 18 crosses for days to 50% flowering, 11 for days to maturity and 16 crosses for plant height. This indicates that the earliness in days to flowering, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity and reduction in plant height are possible to achieve and these negative trend are to be incorporated in high yielding background. Similar results of negative SCA effect for days to maturity and plant height were earlier reported by Yadava et al., (2012) and Meena et al., (2015). Significant and positive SCA effects were recorded for seed yield in 11 hybrids, 1000-seed weight in 19 hybrids, siliquae/plant in 13 hybrids, length of siliqua and seed/siliqua in 15 hybrids each, primary branches/plant in 10 hybrids and secondary branches/plant in 15 hybrids. All these crosses can be considered as good specific combiners.
The five best cross combinations having significantly positive SCA effects (Table 3 and Table 4) namely, JD-6 × Pusa Bold, PM 30 × Seeta, PM 25 × Pusa Bold, PM 24 × Kranti and PM 22 × Sarama showed that good specific combinations involve parents of high × high, high × low, low × low general combining ability effects. The crosses also showed significantly positive SCA effect for most of the traits (Table 3). Parents with high GCA effect are always favorable in a self-pollinated crop like mustard as characters with additive gene effect can be fixed at an early segregating generation (Singh et al., 1993). From these results it is clear that best cross combination are not always obtained from parents having high × high or high × low general combiners. In majority of the crosses expressing high SCA effects were found to have both or one of the parents as good general combiner for the trait under study. Hence, the ideal cross combination to be exploited is one which shows high magnitude of SCA in addition to GCA in both or at least in one of the parents. However the cross combinations where both parents are involved with non-additive gene effect can be useful for heterosis breeding or in such cross combination delayed selection can be practiced to get desirable recombinant type with homozygous effect (Singh et al., 1991).
The five best performing parents as good general combiners, best performing hybrids along with their heterosis (%) over mid parent as well as better parent and SCA effects for seed yield per plant is presented in Table 5. The estimates of SCA effects showed that five hybrids viz. JD-6 × Pusa Bold, PM 30 × Seeta, PM 25 × Pusa Bold, PM 24 × Kranti and PM 22 × Sarama exhibited significant and positive SCA effects for seed yield/plant. The performance of hybrids with compare to heterosis over mid parent (MP) and better parent (BP) for seed yield/plant revealed that out of total 35 crosses, five crosses also exhibited highly positive significant heterosis (Table 5). High amount of heterobeltiosis observed under the present study agreed with earlier reported by Vagela et al., (2011) and Patel et al., (2015). Yadava et al., (2012) who reported 54.38% heterobeltiosis in hybrid PM 25 × RGN 145 with highly significant SCA effects. Yadava et al., (1974) reported up to 239% heterosis over better parent and Verma et al., (2011) reported 24.36 to 80.97% heterosis in 15 crosses for seed yield per plant in mustard. Combining estimates of GCA, SCA and heterosis, five cross combinations namely JD-6 × Pusa Bold, PM 30 × Seeta, PM 25 × Pusa Bold, PM 24 × Kranti and PM 22 × Sarama appeared superior for developing desirable lines as all these crosses were controlled by additive gene effect and also showed high heterosis for seed yield and several traits.
Conflict of interest
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