Agricultural Reviews

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Effect of 6-Benzyl Aminopurine Different Concentration on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Minitubers in Net House and in Field

Meenakshi Kumari1,*
1Career Point University, Kota-324 005, Rajasthan, India.

Background: 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) is a dominant regulation in minitubers formation. BAP treatment enhances both Crop quantity and quality parameter like days to emergence, number of shoots, shoot length, root length, number of stolons, number of minitubers, potato shape index and fresh weight of minitubers. The purpose of this study was to optimise the effect of different concentrations of BAP on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minitubers in a net house and in field.

Methods: The present investigation, effect of BAP different concentration on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers and minitubers were done at Central Potato Research Institute Campus, Modipuram, Meerut during 2012-13 and 2013-14. This experiment design was split plot with five replications and three treatments. In vitro BAP treatments for microtuber growth parameters included three doses (0.75 mg/l, 1.5 mg/l and 2.25 mg/l). BAP treated microtubers were planted in net house, again in next season BAP treated minitubers were planted in field. Growth and yield parameters were recorded.

Result: The concentration of BAP (1.5 mg/l) led to decrease in all parameters as compared to BAP at (2.25 mg/l) treatments in both the varieties. Same result was also observed in field.

The volume of potato produced in India was estimated to be around 53.69 MMT in fiscal year 2021. This represented an increase of more than five million metric tonnes over the previous fiscal year. The northern state of Uttar Pradesh supplied the majority of Indian potatoes. (India: Potato production volume in 2021). Potato is an important food crop (World Book, 2000) and is a good source of carbohydrates, vitamins and proteins (Gabre and Sathyanarayana, 2001). It is a good source of antioxidants (Chen et al., 2007). Generally, seed potato tubers are used for multiplication and production in conventional systems (Struik and Wiersema, 1999). Although this system is quite effective (Singh et al., 2012) and have several disadvantages like low rate of multiplication, high risk of catching various fungal, viral and bacterial diseases and it also intensive control (Struik and Wiersema, 1999). Cytokinins are plant hormones which, including cell division and leaf senescence. Plant Physiological activities influenced by cytokinins. BAP and   BA can improve plant growth by cell division, break bud dormancy and promotes the growth of the lateral bud (Hossain et al., 2006). Therefore, the current study was aimed to optimization the effect of 6-benzyl aminopurine different concentration on potato minitubers in net house and in field.
The research was carried out at the Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI), Modipuram, Meerut Campus and India between 2012 and 2013 (Experiment work period 2013-2016 and written work period 2016-17). Potato virus-free certified micro plants were collected from (CPRI) Modipuram, Meerut. Two varieties, kufri Bahar and kufri Surya, were chosen for tissue culture studies in the lab (Fig 1a, 1b and 1c). (Meenakshi, 2020). Harvested microtubers were washed with sterile distilled water and  remove the adhering constituents and dipped for 10 minutes in a dilute fungicide solution (Bavistin, 0.2 per cent), dried on filter paper and preserved in petri dishes in the light at 20°C for 2 days (Fig 1d and 1e). Petri dishes were wrapped in parafilm and refrigerated at 4°C for 4 months in dark. After three months, the microtubers were removed from the refrigerator and brought to room temperature for 12 days. Microtubers were sprouted within 12 days and planted directly into the seedbeds at a spacing of 10 x 30 cm during the first week of November 2012 and 2013 in net house where Plot size was 1.5 m x 2 m = 3 m2/treatment. In this experiment  used Split Plot Design with five replications and three treatments. The net house soil was sandy loam texture, organic carbon (0.47 per cent), rich in available phosphorus (51.2 kg/ha) and medium in available potassium (160.4 kg/ha) and had neutral pH. (7.5). The planting depth was 4 cm and planting geometry was 30 cm (row to row)/*10 cm (plant to plant). The, fertilizers applied consisted of 100 kg N, 53 kg P2O5 and 67 kg K2O per hectare, as calcium ammonium nitrate, diammonium phosphate and muriate of potash respectively. Full doses of P and K were applied just before transplantation of in vitro microtubers while N was split in three equal applications. A light irrigation was given with the help of a shower just after transplanting of in vitro microtubes. Two times irrigations were given daily with the help of a shower for a week and after that need based irrigation was given. Manual weeding was done(Fig 2a and 2b). Haulms of the crop were pulled at 90 days after transplanting while harvesting carried out manually after 15 days (Fig 2c and 2d). Five plants were tagged from each treatment and the growth parameters were measured. Plant emergence was recorded in the net house on alternate days beginning with the first plant’s emergence after 7 days of planting. The yield parameters (Fig 2e and 3a) were recorded in the net plot at harvesting minitubers. For potato shape index five tubers per sample were drawn from each treatment in five replications (Fig 3b). Each tuber was measured for maximum length, width and thickness representing three different planes. The maximum value, across a particular plane was taken and PSI formula (Singh et al., 2004). The obtained poll data were statistically analysed using a completely randomised design and the software IRRISTAT (IRRI, 1999). After harvesting, minitubers were transferred in cold storage at 4°C and relative humidity conditions for 190 days.

Fig 1: Kufri bahar and kufri surya microtubers, harvesting of microtubers and greening of microtubers.

Fig 2: Kufri bahar and kufri surya microtubers transplant in net house; haulm cutting.

Fig 3: Bahar and kufri surya microtubers in net house; measure PSI (Potato shape index) and minitubers in fields.

In the next season the experimental field was ploughed with a tractor-drawn disc plough for burying the Dhaincha crop a month before planting for preparatory tillage. For pre-sowing irrigation, the field was prepared with two cross disc harrowing and two cross tiller operations to achieve the desired tilth. The field was cross-planked to keep the soil moist. The layout was created by hand.The experiment was designed as a split plot with five replications.

Before planting, the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash were applied. In all plots, phosphorus (Diammonium phosphate 18% N, 46% P2O5) and potassium (Muriate of potash 60% K2O) were applied at a uniform rate of 80 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O ha-1. The remaining half doses (90 kg per ha of N) were applied as urea, which was broadcasted in-furrow at the time of earthing up after 25 days of planting. Gross plot size was 5.85 m x 2m = 11.7 m2 and the ridges were prepared at 65 cm intervals using a tractor-drawn ridger and tubers were manually planted 20 cm apart at a depth of 10.0 cm. After 15 days of planting, experimental plots were gap filled. Manual weeding was used to control weeds by desiccating weeds and improving aeration in the ridges, which was then earthed up. For water management, the crop was lightly irrigated every 8 days after planting and the irrigation was turned off 10 days before tuber harvesting. For the control of whiteflies and insects imidacloprid, ostheon, trizophos and thimethoxam were spread at the different intervals as per requirement. Phorate @ 25 kg a.i ha-1 was applied in the soil at the time of earthing up. For the control of late blight metabolix, metalaxyl and cymoxanil were spread at different intervals as per requirement. Harvesting was done manually in the morning hours (Fig 3c and 3d). The tubers were left in the field for 2.5 hours to allow the soil to dry and be removed. The required observations were recorded in the same manner as in the net house. The pooled data were statistically analysed using a split-plot design and the IRRISTAT software (IRRI, 1999).
Days to Emergence in net house
The first emergence decreased with increasing concentration of BAP in both the varieties. There were no significant differences. Maximum days to the first emergence were recorded with control. In 2.25 mg/L of BAP, the shortest time to first emergence was recorded (Table 1). The outcome is similar to that of Hossain et al (2015), Genene et al., (2018) and Manokari et al., (2021).

Table 1: Effect of BAP treated in vitro microtubers grown in net house (G-0) and in filed (G-1) in respect to growth parameters.

Number of shoot in net house and in field
That the number of shoots varied significantly when compared to the control. As BAP concentration decreased to 0.75 mg/L, the number of shoots increased. The maximum shoot number (5.80 G-0) and (9.65 G-1) were significantly higher at 0.75 mg/L of BAP. However, in the net house (G-0), this was at par  with 2.25 mg/L and the control and in the field (G-1) was it comparable to the control (Table 1). Number of shoots were also increased in the variety of Gudenie by Genene et al., (2018). Boga et al., (2012) found that  BAP increased the number of shoots.
Shoot length and root length in net house and in field
Shoot length and root length per plant increased with the concentration of BAP up to 0.75 mg/L and control treatment showed the least shoot length and root length. Maximum shoot length (54.8 cm G-0) and root length (29.9 cm G-0) were recorded in 0.75 mg/L, which was significant compared to 1.5 mg/L, 2.25 mg/L and control. Again, maximum shoot length (61.8 cm G-1) and root length (30.8 cm G-1) were recorded at 0.75 mg/L and it was at par with control. The significantly minimum shoot length and root length were found in control experiments (Table 1). Walia et al., 2021 obtained consistent results in the potato variety Kufri Girdhari. Kazemiani et al., (2012) discovered that 2 mg/l BAP into culture media increased the number of lateral shoots.Similar result was also observed with (Ahmed et al., 2021). For root length results was similar with Krishnamurthy et al., (2001) but in Polianthes tuberosa L.
Number of stolons and minitubers in net house and in field
Significantly maximum stolons number (11.5 G-0) and (15.2 G-1) and minitubers number (11.1 G-0) and (14.8 G-1) were recorded in 2.25 mili gram/L treatment. Stolon number was however, comparable to 1.5 mg/L, 0.75 mg/L and the control in the net house (G-0) and in the field (G-1). The number of minitubers was significantly differ from 1.5 mg/L, 0.75 mg/L and control in G-0 and G-1 generation (Table 2 and 3). The minimum number of stolons and minitubers were recorded in control. This result was similar with Kumar and Wareing (1972) regarding stolons numbers, Ahmadi et al., (2018) and Ahmed et al., (2021) in case of minitubers nimber.

Table 1: Effect of BAP treated in vitro microtubers grown in net house (G-0) and in filed (G-1) in respect to growth parameters.

Table 2: Effect of BAP treated in vitro microtubers grown in net house (G-0) and in field (G-1) in respect to growth and yield parameters.

Table 3: Effect of BAP treated in vitro microtubers grown in net house (G-0) and in field (G-1) in respect to growth and yield parameters.

PSI and fresh weight of minitubers in net house and in field
The highest potato shape index and fresh weight of minitubers were recorded in 2.25 mg/L. However, there was no significant difference for PSI in net house and in field, but fresh weight of minitubers were compared to 1.5 mg/L, 0.75 mg/L and control in net house and it was comparable to 0.75 mg/L and control in field. The lowest PSI were recorded in control experiments (Table 3). PSI indicates that potato was oval. This result was supported with Hussey and Stacey (1984). The minimum fresh weight of minitubers was found to be in the net house and in the field in the control (Table 3). This result were supported with Li-Gongi et al., (2012) and Ahmadi et al., (2018).
Potato crop has high nutrition value. 6-Benzyl amino purine (2.25 mg/l) was more effective than other concentrations (0.75 mg/l) and (1.5 mg/l). BAP at (2.25 mg/l) treatment enhances both Crop quantity and quality parameter.. BAP at (2.25 mg/l) concentration produced the best results for all parameters of Kufri Bahar and Kufri Surya and also assisted in overcoming the difficulties of conventional vegetative propagation.
I want to thankful to the Dr. Vinay Singh, Dr. D.K. Jain and CPRI Modipuram, Meerut for encouragement and cooperation. 

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