Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus

​Brown Manuring-An Eco-friendly Approach towards Sustainability in Agriculture: A Review

Saikat Biswas1,*, Rupa Das2
1Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, Mohanpur-741 252, West Bengal, India.
2Department of Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, Mohanpur-741 252, West Bengal, India.
Agriculture sustainability depends on production of crops without hampering natural systems and thus, suggests for eco-friendly approaches to achieve this. Weed, being a major problem in agriculture causes reduction in crop yield and depletes soil nutrients. Although application of inorganic fertilizers or herbicides improves crop yield to an extent, it hampers soil health and environment through toxic substances. In this context, brown manuring, an organic/eco-friendly approach holds good prospect, specially in direct seeded rice. Reviewed research reports clearly explained the benefits of brown manuring in suppression of weeds, sequestration of carbon, biological nitrogen fixation, addition of macro and micro nutrients to soil, saving soil moisture, improving physical, chemical and biological properties of soil etc. As a consequence, various research works reported improvement in crop growth, yield and economic return of rice, maize, sugarcane etc. However, research gap is still present in this regard and therefore, multi-locational, multi-season, multi-crop trials using different brown manure plants at different rates and time of co-culture are needed at this hour to confirm the efficacy of brown manuring for future recommendation. Besides, strong extension service is needed further to transfuse this eco-friendly approach to grass-root level of farming community. 
Consistent rise in human population urges for elevation in crop productivity to ensure food security. To achieve this, specially, in contexts of agricultural land shrinkage and climate change, farmers are opting intensive cropping approach which not only depletes soil fertility but also creates pest resurgence. Application of inorganic fertilizer or chemical pesticides is now a regular phenomenon in intensive agriculture. Although inorganic fertilizer improves the crop productivity, in a long run, it cannot be advised as it creates deficiencies of many secondary and micro nutrients in soil and damages soil physical, chemical and biological properties (Kumar et al., 2014). Already, stagnation in agricultural production with use of large quantity of fertilizers has been reported in many places (John and Babu, 2021). Consistent application of chemical pesticides season after season, on another side, is creating pest resistance. Both these chemical fertilizer and pesticides persist in soil for long time and thus, leave toxic footprints in environment (Nayak et al., 2020; Biswas and Dutta, 2019; Neog, 2018). Further, excessive application of these inorganic materials add additional cost of cultivation of crops. Therefore, an organic/eco-friendly option either solely or in combination with above inorganic materials is most needed to elevate agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner along with environment safety to an extent. In this context, one eco-friendly approach called ‘brown manuring’ can find suitable place towards achieving sustainability in agriculture. It not only serves as an effective weed management option but also improves soil quality by adding both macro and micro nutrients and accelerating biological activities. As a consequence, it increases the crop productivity and ensures reduction of environmental hazards to an extent.  It helps in achieving high nutrient and water use efficiencies of crops like rice and saves carrying cost of bulky organic manure(s).

Rice is mostly grown as transplanted crop which requires high quantity of water along with various intercultural operations for land preparation, puddling, nursery raising, transplanting etc. and thus, increases cost of cultivation (Maity and Mukherjee, 2009). Therefore, direct seeding of pre-germinated rice seeds can be a suitable alternative of transplanting if weeds are controlled properly (Raj and Syriac, 2017). Weed infestation in direct seeded rice (DSR) can cause around 45-90% yield reduction (Singh, 2014). Success of DSR depends on effective weed management strategy as well as better soil health and both these can be achieved through brown manuring (Iliger et al., 2017). Research reports explore that brown manuring holds good prospect not only in rice ecosystem but also in many other crops. With this backdrop, a review has been made elucidating the role of brown manuring as an eco-friendly approach of weed and nutrient managements to achieve sustainability in production of rice and other crops.
Brown manuring
Brown manuring is the zero tilled version of green manuring, which is practiced before flowering as one of the carbon farming approaches, particularly in loamy to clay soil to sequester carbon into the soil. This practice is mostly seen in DSR under the cases of both line sowing and broadcasting and usually not done in transplanted rice. However, it has been also reported to be practiced in other crops like maize, sugarcane etc. Rice and brown manure plants (viz. sesbania, sun hemp etc.) are grown together and when sesbania/sun hemp plants reach greater heights than rice after 25-30 days of co-culture, they are killed by spraying a selective post emergence (POE) herbicide like 2, 4-D ethyl ester @ 500 g/ha. 4-5 days after spraying, as sesbania/sun hemp plants turn brown colour due to knock down effect of the herbicide and die, they are called brown manure plants (Tanwar et al., 2010). The dead plants are kept standing in the field without incorporating into the soil, allowing the residues of brown manure plants to fall and cover the soil surface as well as to decompose and add nutrients and organic carbon into the soil. Brown manuring was first practiced in N-S Wales, Australia’s Lock Hart district in 1996 (Patil et al., 2020). In Australia, it was used in winter crops against herbicide resistant rye grass. Brown manuring is a suitable alternative of green manuring as later one requires labour, fuel, irrigation water (constraint specially, in rice during summer season) and time for plant’s incorporation into the soil as well as certain temperature and sufficient soil moisture for its decomposition, which may not always be feasible throughout the year and in all location.
Suitable plants for brown manuring
Both non-leguminous and leguminous plants can be used for brown manuring. Non-legumes add organic matter only, while legumes add organic matter and undergoes biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Some notable non-leguminous plants such as niger, wild indigo etc. and leguminous plants such as sun hemp, sesbania (dhaincha), mung, cowpea, lentil, kharif pulses etc. are used for brown manuring. For efficient brown manure production, careful selection of suitable plant is very important. Brown manure plants should be selected on the basis of availability of healthy and cheaper seeds, ease to cultivate, high vigour and dry matter production with no/less and more competition with crop and weeds, respectively, high land coverage to check erosion and conserve soil moisture, short life span, high carbon sequestration potential etc.
Reasons for adoption of brown manuring
Brown manuring is receiving attention from the farmers and researchers in recent years due to its several advantages. This eco-friendly approach helps in substituting 25% of inorganic fertilizer (specially, nitrogen through BNF by leguminous brown manure plants) through supplying nutrition organically and thus, cuts down environmental hazards to an extent. Apart from supplying various macro and micro nutrients to the crop, it adds organic carbon to the soil and improves soil physical properties like soil structure, water holding capacity etc. Fallen leaves often act as surface mulch/cover and thus, saves evaporation water loss to an extent. Further, these residues get decomposed quickly and adds nutrients (specially, nitrogen) to the soil. As plants remain standing even after knock down with herbicide, it protects the light soil from erosion (Singh, 2014). Besides, it helps in enhancement of soil microbial activities (Behera et al., 2019). Along with the positive impact on soil health, it improves growth and yield of the crop by supplying nutrients and water and thereby, provides economic profitability to the farmers. Further, it captures land space and other resources, which, otherwise, are utilised by the weeds and reduces early weed growth due to its high growth rate and competition with weeds.
Impact of brown manuring in agriculture
Brown manuring, being an eco-friendly approach, plays a major role in improving agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner through weed management, sequestration of carbon, biological nitrogen fixation, addition of macro and micro nutrients to soil, saving soil moisture, improving physical, chemical and biological properties of soil etc. In this section, impact of brown manuring on weed management, soil health and plant nutritional quality, growth and yield of crop and production economics as reported from various research works has been briefly described.
Weed management
Weed is a great menace to crop and competes with the crop at below and above ground for resources. Elevation in crop productivity requires effective weed management strategy to be implemented. Single approach is not always efficient in weed management. For instances, application of herbicide kills the weed, but leaves toxic foot prints in the environment. Further, manual weeding is not feasible everywhere specially, under labour unavailability. Therefore, integrated weed management (IWM) combining manual, mechanical, chemical, biological and cultural approaches of weed management is needed. Brown manuring, being a cultural approach, holds good prospect solely or as a part of IWM specially, for controlling weeds of DSR. However, it also effectively controls weeds of other crops like maize, sugarcane etc. Various research works as shown in Table 1, indicates the beneficial role of brown manure in weed management. Brown manure can suppress or smother weeds by occupying land space and early accumulating dry matter (DMA) or shading through greater canopy coverage. Besides, during decomposition of brown manuring plants, certain organic acids and allelochemicals are secreted which reduce size of weed seed bank. It is notable that brown manuring is more effective in suppressing broad leaved weeds and sedges than grasses (Kumar and Ladha, 2011).

Table 1: Brown manuring as weed management option in various crops.

Soil health and plant nutritional quality
Brown manure, not only acts as a weed management option, but also plays an important role in improving soil health. Since, it sequesters carbon as well as fixes atmospheric nitrogen into the soil, it enriches soil physico-chemical properties such as improvement in organic carbon, hydraulic conductivity, soil structure and reduction of bulk density (Hamza and Anderson, 2005). It also accelerates microbial activities in soil. Sharma et al., (2017) observed higher actinomycetes population in BM applied plots of basmati rice grown under system of rice intensification. Zero tillage along with sesbania BM (knocked down by 2,4-D @ 625 g/ 500 litres at 35 DAS) in rice increased organic carbon, hydraulic conductivity and reduced bulk density (Singh et al., 2009b).  Nawaz et al., (2017) reported increase of nitrogen, organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen and reduction of bulk density of soil under BM application in DSR. Samant (2017) also found improvement of soil organic carbon and nitrogen after harvest of rice through brown manuring. Khan (2013) observed increase of soil organic carbon through brown manuring by 0.03-0.05%. Improvement of soil organic carbon through brown manuring was reported by many other researchers also Satyaprakash and Poolchand, 2011; Sarangi et al., 2016). Further, Kwesiga et al., (1999) and Orwa et al., (2009) reported BNF properties of brown manuring plants. Apart from nitrogen and carbon, it also supplies various macro and micronutrients for the plant uptakes. Singh et al., (2009a) and Chaudhary et al., (2018) used brown manuring in DSR and observed increments of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil. Pandit et al., (2020) also found improvement of post-harvest available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil by applying 75% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF)+FYM @ 5 t/ha+ sesbania BM in DSR. Gangaiah and Babu (2016) observed that brown manuring with Sesbania aculeata improved uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by rice over no brown manuring. Venkata Lakshmi and Veeraraghavaiah (2015) also reported improvement in nutrient uptakes by rice through brown manuring with Glyricidia. In another study, use of PE pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha+BM (4 WAS)+POE bispyribac sodium @ 25 g/ha improved nitrogen uptakes by grain and straw of DSR (Kumari and Kaur, 2016). As brown manuring improves nutrient uptakes specially, nitrogen, it exerted positive impact on grain quality. Chongtham et al., (2015) observed improvement of grain protein content of DSR through integrated application of herbicide and brown manure. Brown manuring can also break soil crust and helps seedlings to emerge. Brown manuring improves nutrient and water use efficiencies. Maity and Mukherjee (2011) reported that application of PP Butachlor @ 1.5 kg/ha+BM+2, 4-D @ 0.5 kg/ha at 40 DAS improved nutrient use efficiencies (N, P and K) in DSR. Sharma et al., (2008) achieved 43.6% water saving in DSR over transplanting by using sesbania co-culture. Singh et al., (2009a) also noticed 39.4% water saving by using brown manuring in DSR over transplanting. In another study, Ajamirali (2017) observed high water use efficiency in maize under sun hemp brown manuring. Besides, brown manuring acts as a mulch as well as on decomposition, improves soil porosity and water holding capacity (WHC) and thus, it conserves the soil moisture for crop’s availability. Ramachandran et al., (2012) noticed improvement of soil moisture through application of PE alachlor @ 1 kg/ha+sesbania BM in maize due to weed suppression and improvement of soil WHC by brown manuring.
Crop growth and yield
Positive impacts of brown manuring on soil as well as weed management directly reflect on crop growth and yield. It is because of the improvement of soil health which adequately supplies nutrients and moisture to the crop as well as saving the resources for the crop through suppression of weeds. Gangaiah and Babu (2016) reported increase of DMA by 38 g/m2 and yield by 0.15 t/ha through brown manuring over no BM. Fanish and Ragavan (2020) used PE pendimethalin +sesbania BM+hand hoeing at 90 DAP in sugarcane and observed 38% higher yield than unweeded control. Shekhawat et al., (2021) observed improvement of maize yield through sesbania BM. Maity and Mukherjee (2011) obtained highest grain and straw yields of DSR by applying PP butachlor @1.5 kg/ha+BM+2,4-D @ 0.5 kg/ha at 40 DAS. Kumari and Kaur (2016) used PE pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha+BM (5 WAS)+POE bispyribac sodium @ 25 g/ha and found high plant height, tiller number and biological yield of DSR. Samant (2017) in a study, reported higher yield, production efficiency and harvest index of rice by applying brown manuring than farmer’s practice (Table 2). Pandit et al., (2020) obtained higher plant height, effective tillers, panicle length, filled grains/panicle and yield of DSR by applying 75% RDF+FYM @ 5t/ha+sesbania BM than 100% RDF. Increase of growth and yield of DSR through brown manuring was also reported by many other researchers (Chaudhary et al., 2018; Sarangi et al., 2016; Gill and Walia, 2013; Anitha and Mathew, 2010; Singh et al., 2009a; Aslam et al., 2008; Sharma et al., 2008; Ravisankar et al., 2008). Seema et al., (2015) observed improvement of yield of aerobic rice using sesbania brown manuring.
Production economics
Economic profitability is the ultimate goal of a farmer.  Improving crop productivity by fetching less cost of cultivation asks for those technologies which are cheap but effective. Unlike green manuring, brown manuring requires very less intercultural operation as no incorporation of plant parts into the soil is required and thus, saves labour wages to an extent. Besides, it can substitute certain part of inorganic fertilizer as it supplies nutrients specially, nitrogen and saves the cost of substituted fertilizer. Sarangi et al., (2016) observed substitution of 25% of nitrogenous fertilizer by brown manuring. Being organic in nature, it improves soil health and helps the crop to uptake nutrients and water for its development. Further, brown manuring, suppresses the weeds and channelizes the resources only towards crop growth and productivity. All these benefits of brown manuring reduce the cost of cultivation and improve crop productivity and consequently, increase economic profitability of crop cultivation. Ramachandran et al., (2012) reported highest net return and benefit-cost ratio (B:C) by applying PE alachlor @ 1kg/ha+BM in maize. Fanish and Ragavan (2020) achieved highest net return and B:C through application of PE pendimethalin+sesbania BM+hand hoeing at 90 DAP in sugarcane. In DSR, application of PP Butachlor @ 1.5 kg/ha+sesbania BM+2, 4-D @ 0.5 kg/ha increased economic profit (Maity and Mukherjee, 2011). Pandit et al., (2020) obtained higher net return by applying 75% RDF+ FYM@ 5t/ha+sesbania BM than 100% RDF in DSR. Samant (2007) observed less cost of cultivation and higher gross return, net return and B:C under application of brown manuring than farmer’s practice (Table 2). Gangaiah and Babu (2016) also noticed improvement in economic return in DSR through brown manuring.

Table 2: Yield, harvest index and economics of rice as influenced by brown manuring over farmer’s traditional practice (Samant, 2017).

Review of various research works above reveals that brown manuring holds very good prospects in suppression of weeds as well as improvement of soil health and thereby,  can elevate crop productivity and profitability in an eco-friendly way. However, very less research works have been carried out on brown manuring and most of the works have been restricted to direct seeded rice only. Therefore, its wider adaptability across the location, season and crop is still to be explored. To investigate this further as well as for future recommendation to the farmers, multi-locational, multi-seasonal and multi-crop trials using different types of brown manure plants at different dose and duration of co-culture are needed at this hour from the researchers. Besides, extension service should be strengthened enough to transfuse this promising organic/eco-friendly approach to grass-root levels of farming community for achieving sustainability in agricultural production.

  1. Ajamirali, H.S.P. (2017). Effect of scheduling irrigation and mulching on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Farm Sciences. 30(1): 45-48.

  2. Anitha, S. and Mathew, J. (2010). In situ green manuring with dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata Pers.): A cost effective management alternative for wet seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 48: 34-39.

  3. Aslam, M., Hussain, S., Ramzan, M. and Akhtar, M. (2008). Effect of different stand establishment techniques on rice yield and its attributes. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 18: 79-82.

  4. Behera, B., Das, T.K., Ghosh, S., Parsad, R. and Rathi, N. (2019). Effects of brown manure species, seed rate and time of application of 2,4-D on weed control efficiency, productivity and profitability in maize. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 51(4): 393-397.

  5. Bhambri, M.C. and Kolhe, S.S. (2006). Posibilities of green manuring in direct seeded rice and its impact on weed dynamics. National symposium on conservation Agriculture and Environment, Oct. 26- 28, BHU Varanasi. pp.314-315.

  6. Biswas, S. and Dutta, D. (2019). Phytotoxic effects of glufosinate ammonium on cotton and soil micro-flora. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 51(4): 362-367.

  7. Chaudhary, S.K., Marahatta, S. and Chaudhary, M. (2018). Performance of dry direct seeded rice and weeds on sesbania brown manuring as compared to farmers’ practice and chemical control method. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 6(3): 265-269.

  8. Chongtham, S.K., Singh, R.P., Singh, R.K., Lhungdim, J. and Imtiyaj, A. (2015). Effect of crop establishment methods and weed management practices on weeds, growth and yield of direct-seeded rice. Research on Crops. 16(1): 21-26.

  9. Fanish, S.A. and Ragavan, T. (2020). Enhancing productivity of sugarcane by successful weed management through integration of brown manuring of sesbania and pre and post emergence herbicides. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 8(3): 2076-2080.

  10. Gangaiah, B. and Babu, M.B.B.P. (2016). Brown manuring as a tool of weed management and contributor to nitrogen nutrition of direct wet seeded rice. Oryza. 53(4): 415-421.

  11. Gill, J.S. and Walia, S.S. (2013). Effect of establishment methods and nitrogen levels on basmati rice. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 58(4): 506-511.

  12. Hamza, M.A. and Anderson, W.K. (2005). Soil compaction in cropping systems: A review of the nature, causes and possible solutions. Soil and Tillage Research. 82: 21-145.

  13. ICAR (2007). Vision -2025- NRCWI Perspective plan, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.

  14. Iliger, M.D., Sutar, R., Chogatapur, S.V. and Parameshwarareddy, R. (2017). Effect of brown manuring on soil properties, weed density, grain yield and economics of different crops. Advances in Research. 12(6): 1-11.

  15. John, D.A. and Babu, G.R. (2021). Lessons from the aftermaths of green revolution on food system and health. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems.  5:1-6.

  16. Khan, A.R. (2013). Modern conservation techniques for empowering women: problems and prospects. Lecture delivered during model training course on Gender perspective in Integrated Farming System w.e.f Jan 17- 24 at ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna, Bihar.

  17. Kumar, V. and Ladha, J.K. (2011). Direct seeded rice: Recent development and future research needs. Advances in Agronomy. 111: 297-413.

  18. Kumar, R., Mahajan, G., Srivastava, S.and Sinha, A. (2014). Green manuring: A boon for sustainable agriculture and pest management- A review. Agricultural Reviews. 35(3): 

  19. 196-206.

  20. Kumari, S. and Kaur, T. (2016). Effect of brown manuring and herbicides on growth, nitrogen uptake and weed dynamics in direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 7(6): 1249-1254.

  21. Kwesiga, F.R., Franzel, S., Place, F., Phiri, D. and Simwanza, C.P. (1999). Sesbania sesban improved fallows in eastern Zambia: Their inception, development and farmer enthusiasm. Agroforestry Systems. 47: 49-66.

  22. Mahajan, G., Chauhan, B.S. and Johnson, D.E. (2009). Weed management in aerobic rice in north western Indo-Gangetic Plains. Journal of Crop Improvement. 23: 366-382.

  23. Maity, S.K. and Mukherjee, P.K. (2009). Effect of brown manuring on grain yield and partial factor productivity of nutrients in dry direct seeded summer rice (Oryza sativa L.) under terai agro-ecological region of West Bengal. Journal of Crop and Weed. 5(2): 31-35.  

  24. Maity, S.K. and Mukherjee, P.K. (2011). Effect of brown manuring on grain yield and nutrient use efficiency in dry direct seeded kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian Journal of Weed Science. 43(1 and 2): 61-66.

  25. Nawaz, A., Farooq, M., Lal, R., Rehman, A., Hussain, T. and Nadeem, A. (2017). Influence of sesbania brown manuring and rice residue mulch on soil health, weeds and system productivity of conservation rice-wheat systems. Land Degradation and Development. 28: 1078-1090.

  26. Nayak, P., Biswas, S. and Dutta, D. (2020). Effect of seaweed extracts on growth, yield and economics of kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 9(3): 247-253.

  27. Neog, R. (2018). Assessing the impact of chemical fertilizers onsoil acidification: A study on  Jorhat district of Assam, India. Agricultural Science Digest. 38(4): 270-274.

  28. Orwa, C., Mutua, A., Kindt, R., Jamnadass, R. and Simons, A. (2009). Agroforestry database: A tree reference and selection guide version 4·0. Retrieved from: www.worldagroforestry. org/treed b2/AFTPDFS/Carica_papaya.pdf.

  29. Pandit. T.K., Mookherjee, S. and Karforma, J. (2020). Performance of direct seeded rice under integrated nutrient management practices in old alluvial soils of West Bengal. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 21(5): 19-24.

  30. Patil, N.D.C., Manjunatha, S.K. and Bindu, K.R. (2020). Brown manuring: A tool for integrated nutrient management. Indian Farmer. 7(08): 701-704.

  31. Prabhakaran, N.K. and Chinnusamy, C. (2006). Integration of Seeding Methods and Weed Control Practices in Wet Seeded Rice. National Symposium on Conservation Agriculture and Environment, October 26-28, at BHU, Varanasi, India, pp. 318-319.

  32. Raj, S.K. and Syriac, E.K. (2017). Weed management in direct seeded rice: a review. Agricultural Reviews. 38(1): 41-50.

  33. Ramachandran, A., Veeramani, A. and Prema, P. (2012). Effect of brown manuring on weed growth, yield and economics of irrigated maize. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 44(3): 204-206.

  34. Ravisankar, N., Chandrasekaran, B., Raja, R., Din, M. and Chaudhuri, S.G. (2008). Influence of integrated weed management practices on productivity and profitability of wet seeded rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 53: 57-61. 

  35. Rehman, H., Farooq, M. and Khalid, A. (2007). Managing weeds in direct seeded rice. DAWN group of newspaper. Retrieved from: http.//

  36. Samant, T.K. (2017). A study on effect of brown manuring on growth, yield, economics and soil fertility in direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Bio Innovation. 6(4): 637-643.

  37. Sarangi, D.R., Sahoo, T.R., Sethy, S., Chourasia, M., Prasad, S.M., Mohanta, R.K. and Sadangi, B.N. (2016). Effect of replacing a part of nitrogenous fertilizer by brown manuring in direct seeded rice: A field study. ORYZA- An International Journal on Rice. 53(2): 226-228.

  38. Satyaprakash, S. and Poolchand, P. (2011). Brown manuring in sugarcane for higher production. Prograsive Agriculture. 11(1): 194-197.

  39. Seema, P.P.C., Singh, D.K. and Thoithoi, M. (2015). Effect of weed management practices along with brown manuring on yield of aerobic rice and weed control efficiency at different nitrogen levels. Environment and Ecology. 33(2): 819-822.

  40. Sharma, A., Kachroo, D., Puniya, R., Ram, H., Joshi, D., Soni, P.G., Yadav, T. and Yadav, M.R. (2017). Impact of different transplanting dates and nutrient sources on soil microbial population and grain yield of basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under SRI. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science. 6(3): 778-782.

  41. Sharma, D.P., Sharma, S.K., Joshi, P.K., Singh, S. and Singh, G. (2008). Resource conservation technologies in reclaimed alkali soils. Technical Bulletin 1/2008. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal. Retrieved from:

  42. Shekhawat, K., Singh, V.K., Rathore, S.S., Raj, R. and Das, T.K. (2021). Achieving sustainability in food systems: addressing changing climate through real time nitrogen and weed management in a conservation agriculture-based maize- wheat system. Sustainability. 13: 1-19.

  43. Singh, G., Sharma, D.P., Singh, A.K and Malik, R.K. (2009a). Evaluation of resource conservation technologies in rice- wheat cropping system. Conservation Agriculture experiment at CSSRI, India. Retrieved from:

  44. Singh, R. (2014). Weed management in major kharif and rabi crops. National Training on Advances in Weed Management. pp. 31-40.

  45. Singh, S. and Singh, G. (2007). Evaluation of different methods of establishment in wheat (Triticum aestivum) after different methods of rice (Oryza sativa) establishment. Pantnagar Journal of Research. 5: 36-40.

  46. Singh, S., Chhokar, R.S., Gopal, R., Kumar, V. and Singh, M. (2009b). Integrated weed management-a key for success of direct seeded rice in the indo-gangetic plains. Advances in Agronomy. 111: 297-413.

  47. Singh, S.R., Chhokar, S., Gopal, R., Ladha, J.K., Gupta, R.K., Kumar, V. and Singh, M. (2007). Integrated weed management. A key to success for direct seeded rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Integrated Crop and Resource Management in the Rice-Wheat system of South Asia. pp. 261-270.

  48. Tanwar, T.S., Singh, T. and Lal, B. (2010). Weed management in paddy. Popular Kheti. 1(2):130-135.

  49. Venkata Lakshmi, N. and Veeraraghavaiah, R. (2015). Productive performance of rice as affected by Glyricidia leaf manuring in conjunction with fertilizer nitrogen. Oryza. 52(1): 41-45.

  50. Yadav, S.K., Singh, D.K. and Manisha, R. (2014). Studies on nutrient uptake as influenced by different weed management practices and brown manuring at varying nitrogen levels in direct seeded aerobic rice. International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 12(2): 178-183.

Editorial Board

View all (0)