Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma
Print ISSN 0253-1496
Online ISSN 0976-0741
NAAS Rating 4.63
Weed Management Practices in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): A Review
- Email firstname.lastname@example.org
First Online 03-05-2022|
Weed infestation creates competitive environment for wheat by competing with it for water, nutrients, light and space (Jeet et al., 2010). Weeds account approximately third portion of total losses caused by all pests. Under severe cases they may cause total failure of crop. Weeds cause increase in cost of production by influencing costs associated with chemical, labour, equipment and other management practices (Singh et al., 2011a). Weeds also affect crop production indirectly. Indirect effects of weeds on crop production mainly include harboring various insect-pests, lowering down the grain quality and increasing the processing cost (Zimdahl et al., 2013). Extent of wheat yield loss caused by weed infestation is described in Table 1.
Diversity and shifting of weed flora in wheat
A number of weeds infests wheat crop throughout the world. Some of the important weeds of wheat crop are discussed in Table 2. Weed flora varies with respect to field and areas depending upon various environmental conditions, soil characteristics, fertilization, irrigation, cropping systems and various weed management practices. Performance of wheat cultivars on the basis of dry weight of weed flora is represented in Table 3. Weed flora of wheat crop has represented a significant variation over last many years. During 1960’s, Carthamus oxycantha was major problem in wheat crop but this weed disappeared from wheat fields due to increased irrigated area during green revolution. During green revolution, cultivation of various semi dwarf high yielding cultivars along with increased rate of fertilizer application and more assured irrigation resulted in replacement of broadleaf weeds by various grassy weeds such as canary grass and wild oat (Yadav and Malik, 2005). But several weeds such as jungali palak and alfaalfa still associated with rice-wheat cropping system as major weeds of irrigated weed (Pal et al., 2016). Repeated use of single herbicide for a longer period of time results into development of resistance and shifting of weed flora (Qasem, 2013). After isoproturon resistance in P. minor (Chhokar and Sharma, 2008), some new chemicals such as fenoxaprop, clodinafop and sulfosulfuron were tested against P. minor and these herbicides provided excellent results against this weed. These herbicides were effective against only grassy weeds and their repeated use for long time resulted in shifting of weed diversity towards broadleaf weeds (Chhokar et al., 2008b). In recent years, Rumex dentatus has also emerged as a big problem in irrigated wheat (Singh et al., 2011b). This weed has developed resistance against various ALS inhibitor herbicides particularly metsulfuron (Heap, 2014). Per cent occurrence of major weeds in rice-wheat cropping system and other cropping system is represented in Table 4. P. minor still remains a dominant weed in rice fb wheat cropping system whereas A. ludoviciana became a serious issue in well aerated light textured soil (Pal et al., 2015). With respect to present time, P. minor is still causing drastic yield losses in wheat crop particularly in north-west part of India comprising Haryana, Punjab, Delhi and U.P. Nearby areas to North West region such as Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh are also at higher risk of developing herbicide resistance in P. minor. In Haryana, P. minor infestation varies with one district to other district. Table 5 represents the contamination of P. minor in wheat crop in several districts of Haryana.
Different approaches of integrated weed management (Fig 1)
Cultural methods of weed management
There is a significant impact of various cultural practices on growth of weed plants (Barberi et al., 2002). Several major cultural methods are discussed below:
Table 6 represents the effect of different tillage practices on weed population and their dry weight. It is observed that population of various weeds particularly P. minor is reduced to a great extent by practicing zero tillage as it lower down its germination. Zero tillage also gives effective results against weeds even in the absence of residues on soil surface (Kumar et al., 2013). Yadav et al., (2002a) also reported less severity of P. minor under zero tillage. Rice straw burning results into more emergence of P. minor and lower down the efficacy of various grassy herbicides (Chhokar et al., 2009). Zero tillage with residue retention also helpful in management of broad leaf weeds such as R. dentatus and Mellilotus indica (Kumar et al., 2015) but continuous practice of zero tillage for a year after year may result into shifting of weed diversity in the favor of broadleaf weeds like R. dentatus and M. parviflora.
Mechanical method of weed control
This method has great role in suppression of population of weed and enhancement in crop yield (Kolb et al., 2010). It involves practicing of various equipment for hand weeding and uprooting of weeds. This method reduces the dependency on herbicides and this quality makes this method more popular among researchers (Chikowo et al., 2009; Jabran et al., 2010).
Planting with FIRBS technique that is furrow irrigated raised bed system, is one of the best practices of mechanical weed management. In this method, several raised beds are prepared which causes failure in the germination of weeds due to fast drying of topmost surface of bed (Mishra et al., 2005). Kumar et al., (2014) also observed a significant reduction in weed population and weed control efficiency under FIRBS technique (Table 7). Generally bed planter is used for practicing this technique. Some other effective practices of mechanical weed control such as planting with Turbo Happy Seeder and raised bed sowing are also found effective against various weeds of wheat crop. Mechanical hoeing practiced for raised bed preparations is mainly done by tractor and it causes large extent reduction in the population and dry matter of weeds (Dhillon et al., 2005). Mechanical weeding practiced twice over 15 and 30 days stage was observed to be most effective in reducing the accumulation of weed dry matter (Sharma and Singh, 2011).
Seed rate and spacing
Babu et al., (2017) reported that maximum weed population was observed in wheat sown under 25 cm spacing between two rows with 100 kg of seed rate per hectare and minimum weed population was reported in wheat sown under inter row spacing of 20 cm with seed rate of 150 kg per hectare (Table 8). Similarly higher the seed rate, lesser will be the population density of weed (Marvat et al., 2011). Narrow spacing and higher seed rate causes lower uptake of nutrients by weeds which results into decrease in the dry matter of various weeds more particularly P. minor to a great extent (Mahajan and Brar, 2002).
It is generally assumed that ground surface is more efficiently covered by North-South rows as compare to East-West rows and thus reduces the weed infestation (Widderick et al., 2018).
There is a great impact of crop sequences on severity of weed population (Kagode et al., 1999). Methods of various herbicidal applications can be easily dictated by choice of crops and crop sequence (Stevenson and Johnston, 1999). By getting proper knowledge of suitable crop sequence, farmers can easily reduce the current weed infestations and also can predict the weed severity of upcoming future.
It is generally observed that less infestations of P. minor occurs in early sown wheat as compare to late sown wheat. This is due to higher temperature faced by weeds during early sowing which is not favorable for weeds of wheat crop. Under early seeding, wheat plants give a tough competition to P. minor plants germinated during first irrigation. Table 9 presents the effect of sowing time on P. minor dry weight and wheat grain yield.
Prevention of weed seed entry into field
Weed seed may also enter into cultivated area through various contaminated inputs such as crop seeds, FYM, vermicompost and irrigation water. Among these, contamination of crop seeds with weed seeds is the main cradle responsible for heavy weed infestation. This type of contamination can be removed by using clean and certified seeds. Various kinds of manures and vermicompost used in field should be well decomposed and free from contamination of weed seeds.
Crop rotation is supposed to be an excellent practice for controlling various noxious and mimicry weeds such as P. minor. It adversely affects weed seed bank because of change in weed management practices with respect to successive crops. Wozniak (2019) reported that number and air-dry weight of weeds were higher in the CM than in the CR system by 57.1% and 75%, respectively. Integration of various vegetables with short life cycle in rice fb wheat system may also enhance weed control without any application of herbicides, As discussed earlier, rice-wheat cropping system is more severely affected by the problem of isoproturon resistance compared to other systems like cotton-pigeonpea-wheat, sugarcane-vegetable-wheat, rice-berseem-sunflower-wheat etc. So this system should be least followed in farming systems. Dry matter of P. minor as influenced by crop rotation is represented in Table 10.
The two components that characterize the weed competitiveness of crops are weed suppression ability (WSA) and weed tolerance (WT). WSA is defined as a variety’s inherent ability to lower down competition-based weed growth and WT is defined as a variety’s inherent ability to produce good yield despite tough competition from weeds (Jannick et al., 2000). Some of tall and fast growing varieties with spreading habits forms canopy much earlier as compare to other varieties and smoothers the weed plants (Balyan and Malik, 1989). Wheat varieties like ‘WH-147’ and ‘HD-2285’ are more competitive with weeds particularly wild oat as compare to other cultivars. It was reported that under late sown conditions, PBW-343 was found superior against P. minor as compare to other varieties (Kaur et al., 2003). Effect of height of wheat cultivars is represented in Table 11.
Stale seed bed/dab system
In this method; two irrigations are applied before seed bed preparation to stimulate the germination of weed seeds present in fields. As a result of this, weeds are germinated which are then destroyed by hand weeding or by using heavy planker. Several non-selective weedicides like glyphosate and paraquat can be also sprayed for getting quick results (Singh et al., 2017). Table 12 and 13 shows the effect of stale seed bed technique on weed density and yield parameters of wheat crop.
After the preparation of seed bed with the help of various plough, harrow and plankers, the topmost layer of soil is dried and then used as a soil or dust just before sowing of wheat. Generally wheat seeds are sown at a depth of 4-5 cm and weed seeds present in the topmost surface of soil will not germinate until first irrigation is applied and thus shifting of crop weed competition occurs in the favoritisms of crop plants (Ranaivoson et al., 2018).
Straw management and residue mulching
Straw mulch is very helpful in maintaining adequate soil moisture and temperature, conserving soil and controlling various weeds in wheat. Mulch application raises the height of crop plants which results into suppression of weeds (Ullah et al., 1998). Several implements like turbo happy seeder and rotary disc drill have a great role in weed control in wheat sowing with 8 to 10 t ha-1 residue mulch on surface. This practice also does not have any adverse effect on wheat plants (Sharma et al., 2008).
Straw burning affects germination of weeds as well as efficiency of herbicides. Therefore burning of straw should be prohibited and it should be retained on field surface as it helps in suppressing weed plants.
Generally presence of high moisture causes luxury growth of various moisture loving weeds. So level of water should be managed in such a way that it enhances crop growth not weed growth. Weeds like R. dentatus and P. minor cannot grow in light dry soil whereas wheat crop can easily germinate in marginally drier region.
Adequate amount of various nutrients particularly nitrogen helps in increasing the competitive ability of crop plants (Blackshaw et al., 2008). Band placement of fertilizers also reduces weed growth (Blackshaw et al., 2004) by making nutrients availability only for crop plants not for weed plants. Fertilizers have also stimulatory effects on the efficiency of various herbicides. Various plant and animal derived nutrient sources such as FYM, vermicompost etc. should be applied after their complete decomposition because these are the sources of weed infestation.
Soil solarization is characterised as a special weed management technique where a polyethylene sheet covers moist soil and heats it for several weeks with solar radiation. As a result of this polyethylene sheet coating, a high temperature of 50-60oC develops in the soil of the northern area during the summer season. In solarized soil, there is significant reduction in the number of total weed flora (grasses, broadleaf weeds and sedges) when compared to non-solarized soil (Arora and Tomar, 2012).
It is one of the most promising approaches for suppressing various weeds in wheat crop. Intercrop helps in whole coverage of cultivated area so that no space remains available for growth of weeds which causes reduction in weed infestation to a great extent in intercropped areas (Elsalahy et al., 2019).
Allelopathy is defined as key tool of weed management in which various plants discharges several allelochemicals or secondary metabolites which acts as natural weed inhibitors. Various allelochemicals extracted from mulberry, sunflower, winter cherry and barnyard grass have great potential for control of most problematic weeds of wheat such as Phlarais minor and Avena fatua (Jabran et al., 2010). Liquid extract of Lantana camara has also a great role in suppression of germination and vegetative growth of P. minor (El-Kenany and El-Darier, 2013). Abbas et al., (2018) reported that application of sunflower, rice, maize and sorghum residues significantly reduced the population of Phalaris minor due to allelopathic effects of these crop residues. Use of these residues also caused a significant decay in the seed bank of various weeds in soil.
Chemical method for weed management
Worldwide chemical method of weed management is most popular due to its higher efficacy and quick results. For getting good results, herbicides should be timely applied by knapsack sprayer at recommended dose. Herbicides when smeared in small droplets, causes less toxicity compared to larger droplets due to their superior numerical exposure and translocation (Prasad and Cadogan, 1992).
As we know that wheat crop is affected with a number of various grasses, sedges and broadleaf weeds, so different herbicides are applied in wheat on the basis of their selectivity to weed flora. For isoproturon resistant P. minor, several herbicides are fenoxaprop, clodinafop, pinoxaden, pendimethalin, Atlantis and sulfosulfuron are widely used due to their higher efficacy. Among these, clodinafop, pinoxaden and fenoxaprop are specifically used for the control of grasses such as P. minor and A. ludoviciana. For the management of dicotyledonous weeds (broadleaf weeds), metsulfuron, 2,4-D and carfentrazone are mostly used weedicides. But these weedicides have very little effect on various noxious weeds such as R. spinosus and M. parviflora. Application of herbicidal mixtures effectively controls such kinds of weeds. Effect of different herbicides and their mixtures on density and biomass of diverse weed flora of wheat is represented in Table 14.
Important guidelines for application of herbicides
Pre emergence spray of herbicides such as pendimethalin and trifluralin can be efficiently done by using tractor mounted sprayer. Because of better coverage in less time, the use of self-propelled sprayers fitted with multiple nozzles should be encouraged for herbicide application compared to other sprayers.
Surfactant and adjuvents
Surfectants improves the efficacy of herbicides by providing better penetration and uniform spreading of herbicide. Herbicides can be easily penetrated into cuticle of leaves with the help of adjuvents which make changes in cuticular waxes of leaves (Malik et al., 1993).
Integrated weed management (IWM)
It means integration of all feasible method of weed control in harmonious manner so that weed density is reduced to a level at they are not harmful for crop growth. Currently we are solely dependent on chemicals for weed management due to their quick and effective results but this over dependence on herbicides has resulted to several serious issues such as development of herbicide resistant weeds, weed flora shift, adverse impacts on soil and environment. For prevention of these detrimental effects of chemicals, it is necessary to integrate other weed control measures such as cultural and mechanical methods along with herbicide application to a weed management program so that weeds can be successfully controlled without any harmful effects on our environment. Various mechanical measures such as soil, different kinds of mulches and stale seed bed also helpful in weed control. Some of the important IWM practices are listed in Table 15.
Conflict of interest
- Abbas, T., Nadeem, M.A., Tanveer, A., Ali, H.H. and Farooq, N. (2018). Role of allelopathic crop mulches and reduced doses of tank-mixed herbicides in managing herbicide- resistant Phalaris minor in wheat. Crop Protection. 110: 245-250.
- Anonymous. (2018). Area, Production and Productivity of Wheat in India. http://www.indiastat.com.
- Arora, A. and Tomar, S.S. (2012). Effect of soil solarization on weed seed bank in soil. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 44(2): 122-123.
- Babu, R., Kakraliy, S.K., Prakash, L., Kumar, P. and Yadav, R.A. (2017). Effect of plant geometry and seed rates on growth, yield attributes, productivity as well as weed dynamics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 63: 81-88.
- Balyan, R.S. and Malik, R.K. (1989). Influence of nitrogen on competition of wild canarygrass (P. minor) in wheat. Pestology. 13: 5-6.
- Barberi, P. (2002). Weed management in organic agriculture: Are we addressing the right issue? Weed Research. 42: 177-193.
- Bisen, P.K. and Singh, R. (2008a). Effect of tillage and weed control practices on weed growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat system. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 78(4): 347-350.
- Bisen, P.K. and Singh, R. (2008b). Effect of different weed species on crop-weed competition in mustard. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 40(3 and 4): 199-200.
- Bisen, P.K., Singh, R.K. and Singh, R.P. (2006). Relative composition of weeds and wheat yield as influenced by different weed control and tillage practices. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 38: 9-11.
- Blackshaw, R.E. (2004). Application method of nitrogen fertilizer affects weed growth and competition with winter wheat. Weed Biology and Management. 4: 103-113.
- Blackshaw, R.E., Harker, K.N., O’Donovan, J.T., Beckie, H.J. and Smith, E.G. (2008). Ongoing development of integrated weed management systems on the Canadian Prairies. Weed Science. 56: 146-150.
- Chhokar, R.S. and Sharma, R.K. (2008). Multiple herbicide resistance in little seed canary grass (Phalaris minor): A threat to wheat production in India. Weed Biology and Management. 8: 112-123.
- Chhokar, R.S., Sharma, R.K. and Sharma, I. (2012). Weed management strategies in wheat: A review. Journal of Wheat Research. 4: 1- 21.
- Chhokar, R.S., Singh, S. and Sharma, R.K. (2008b). Herbicides for control of isoproturon-resistant little seed canary grass (Phalaris minor) in wheat. Crop Protection. 27: 719-726.
- Chhokar, R.S., Singh, S., Sharma, R.K. and Singh, M. (2009). Influence of straw management on Phalaris minor Retz. control. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 41: 150-156.
- Chikowo, R., Faloya, V., Petit, S. and Munier-Jolain, N. (2009). Integrated weed management systems allow reduced reliance on herbicides and long-term weed control. Agricultural Ecosystem Environment. 132: 237-242.
- Dhillon, S.S., Prashar, A. and Thaman, S. (2005). Comparative studies on the effect of weed management practices on Phalaris minor in bed and conventionally planted wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Indian Journal of Ecology. 32: 72-75.
- El-Kenany, E.T. and El-Darier, S.M. (2013). Suppression effects of Lantana camara L. aqueous extracts on germination efficiency of Phalaris minor Retz. and Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench). Journal of Taibah University for Science. 7(2): 64-71.
- Elsalahy, H., Döring, T., Bellingrath-Kimura, S. and Arends, D. (2019). Weed suppression in only-legume cover crop mixtures. Agronomy. 9: 648.
- FAO STAT. (2018). http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.
- Gharde, Y., Singh, P.K., Dubey, R.P. and Gupta, P.K. (2018). Assessment of yield and economic losses in agriculture due to weeds in India. Crop Protection. 107: 12-18.
- Gupta, H.S., Gopinath, K. and Pandey, A.K. (2008). Integrated weed management in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Weed Science. 25(3): 112-116.
- Harrington, L.W., Morris, M., Hobbs, P.R., Singh, V.P., Sharma, H.C., Singh, R.P., Chaudhary, M.K. and Dhiman, S.D. (1992). Wheat and rice in Karnal and Kurukshetra districts, Haryana, India. Exploratory survey report. Hisar, New Delhi, India Mexico and Philippines: CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maizy Trigo and International Rice Research Institute. 40-42.
- Heap, I. (2014). International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://www.weed science.com/details/Case.aspx? ResistID=10949.
- Jabran, K., Cheema, Z.A., Farooq, M. and Hussain, M. (2010). Lower doses of pendimethalin mixed with allelopathic crop water extracts for weed management in canola (Brassica napus L.). International Journal of Agricultural Biology. 12: 335-340.
- Jannick, J.L., Orf, J.H., Jordan, N.R. and Shaw, R.G. (2000). Index selection for weed suppressive ability in soybean. Crop Science. 40: 1087-1094.
- Jat, R.S., Nepalia, V. and Chaudhary, P.D. (2003). Influnce of herbicides and method of sowing on weed dynamics in wheat. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 35: 18-20.
- Jeet, S., Kler, D.S., Kumar, R. and Kumari, A. (2010). Response of seed rates and nitrogen levels in relation to crop residue management on microenvironment of bed planted soybean (Glycine max)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) system. Environmental Ecology. 28: 1571-1576.
- Kaur, H., Brar, H.S. and Walia, U.S. (2003). Competitive ability of wheat cultivars sown on different dates with little seed canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.). Indian Journal of Weed Science. 35: 21-23.
- Kaur, S., Kaur, T. and Bhullar, M.S. (2017). Control of mixed weed flora in wheat with sequential application of pre-and post- emergence herbicides. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 49: 29-32.
- Kegode, G.O., Forcella, F. and Clay, S. (1999). Influence of crop rotation, tillage and management inputs on weed seed production. Weed Science. 47: 175-183.
- Khaliq, A., Ali, K. and Imran, M. (2003). Integrated weed management in wheat grown in irrigated areas. International Journal Agriculture Biology. 5: 530-532.
- Khatun, M.J., Begum, M. and Hossain, M.M. (2016). Effect of tillage method and weeding regime on soil weed seed bank status and yield performance of wheat. Progressive Agriculture. 27(1): 9-19.
- Kolb, L.N., Gallandt, E.R. and Molloy, T. (2010). Improving weed management in organic spring barley: Physical weed control vs. interspecific competition. Weed Research. 50: 597-605.
- Kumar, P., Singh, O.P. and Ahlawat, I.S. (2014). Weed dynamics, growth and yield of wheat crop as influenced by different tillage and herbicide management under rice-wheat cropping system. Journal of Agricultural Research. 1(3): 161-167.
- Kumar, V., Bellinder, R.R., Gupta, R.K., Malik, R.K. and Brainard, D.C. (2008). Role of herbicide resistant rice in promoting resource conservation technologies in rice-wheat cropping systems in India: A review. Crop Protection. 27: 290-301.
- Kumar, V., Brainard, D.C., Sharma, P.C., Jat, H.S., Malik, R.K., Sharma, D.K. and McDonald, A. (2015). Conservation Agriculture (CA)-Based Practices Reduced Weed Problem in Wheat and Caused Shifts in Weed Seed Bank Community in Rice-wheat Cropping Systems. In: 25th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. October 13-16, 2015. Hyderabad, India.
- Kumar, V., Singh, S., Chhokar, R.S., Malik, R.K., Brainard, D.C. and Ladha, J.K. (2013). Weed management strategies to reduce herbicide use in zero till rice-wheat cropping systems of the Indo-gangetic plains. Weed Technology. 27: 214-54.
- Mahajan, G. (2000). Ph.D. Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana.
- Mahajan, G. and Brar, L.S. (2002). Integrated management of Phalaris minor in wheat: Rationale and approaches: A review. Agricultural Review. 23: 241-251.
- Malik, R.K. and Malik, Y.S. (1994). Development of herbicide Resistance in India. In: Appropriate Weed Control in South-East Asia, [S.S. Sastroutomo and Bruce, A. Auld (eds.)]. CAB International. pp. 64-81.
- Malik, R.K. and Singh, S. (1993). Evolving strategies for herbicide Use in Wheat. Resistance and Integrated Weed Management. Proceedings of Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium on Integrated Weed management for Sustainable Agriculture, 18-20 November, 1993, Hisar. India. 1: 225-238.
- Malik, R.K. and Singh, S. (1995). Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor Retz.) resistance to isoproturon in India. Weed Technology. 9: 419-425.
- Marwat, K.B., Khan, M.A., Hashim, S., Nawab, K. and Khattak, A.M. (2011). Integrated weed management in wheat. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 43(1): 625-633.
- Mishra, J.S., Singh, V.P. and Yaduraju, N.T. (2005). Effect of tillage and weed control methods on weeds and wheat (Triticum aestivum) in vertisols. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 37(1-2): 96-97.
- Oad, F.C. (2007). Growth and yield losses in wheat due to different weed densities. Asian Journal of Plant Science. 6: 173-6.
- Om, H., Kumar, S. and Dhiman, S.D. (2004). Biology and management of Phalaris minor in rice-wheat system. Crop Protection. 23(12): 1157-1168.
- Pal, S., Sharma, R., Sharma, H.B. and Singh, R. (2016). Influence of different herbicides on weed control, nutrient removal and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 61(1): 59-63.
- Pal, S., Sharma, R., Sharma, H.B., Singh, R. and Babu, S. (2015). Bio-efficacy and selectivity of different herbicides against weed flora in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 85(5): 655-60.
- Patil, R.R. and Dhonde, M.B. (2009). Weed management in wheat. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural University. 34: 149-151.
- Paul, S. and Gill, H.S. (1979). Ecology of Phalaris minor in wheat- crop ecosystem. Tropical Ecology. 20: 186-191.
- Prasad, R. and Cadogan, B.L. (1992). Influence of droplet size and density on phytotoxicity of three herbicides. Weed Technology. 6: 415-423.
- Qasem, J.R. (2013). Herbicide Resistant Weeds: The Technology and Weed Management. Herbicides-Current Research and Case Studies in Use. Publisher: InTech. 445-471.
- Ranaivoson, L., Naudin, K., Ripoche, A., Rabeharisoa, L. and Corbeels, M. (2018). Is mulching an efficient way to control weeds? Effects of type and amount of crop residue in rainfed rice based cropping systems in Madagascar. Field Crops Research. 217: 20-31.
- Rathi, A.S., Kumar, V., Singh, V.P. and Singh, D.K. (2008). Integrated weed management in irrigated wheat. Progressive Agriculture. 8: 74-75.
- Shivran, H., Yadav, R.S., Singh, S.P., Godara, A.S., Bijarniya, A.L. and Samota, S.R. (2020). Tillage and weed management effect on productivity of wheat in North-West Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 52(2): 127-131.
- Sindhu, V.K., Singh, S., Punia, S.S. and Duhan, A. (2017). Proactive Herbicide Resistant Weed Management through Synergistic Integration of Chemical and Non-chemical Tools in Wheat. The 26th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference on “Weed Science for People, Agriculture and Nature”. Kyota Japan, 19-22 September, 2017. pp. 260.
- Singh, A., Singh, Y., Singh, R. and Jat, A.L. (2017). Weed dynamics and production potential of direct-seeded rice cultivars as influenced by weed management. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 49(2): 108-112.
- Singh, A.K., Kumar, R., Singh, A.K. and Kumari, A. (2011a). Bio-efficacy of sulfosulfuron on weed flora and irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. Environmental Ecology. 29: 834-838.
- Singh, A.K., Kumar, R., Singh. A.K., Singh, N.K. and Kumari, A. (2011b). Performance of sulfosulfuron against weeds in irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environmental Ecology. 29: 831-833.
- Singh, S., Yadav, R.A., Kumar, R. and Verma, S.S. (2014). Influence of herbicides against weeds associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Bioinfolet. 11: 855-857.
- Stevenson, F.C. and Johnston, A.M. (1999). Annual broadleaf crop frequency and residual weed populations in Saskatchewan Parkland. Weed Science. 47: 208-214.
- Sudha, T., Babu, R. and Biradar, D.P. (2016). Weed management through tank mix and premix herbicides in wheat. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 48: 378-380.
- Timsina, J. and Connor, D.J. (2001). Productivity and management of rice-wheat cropping systems: Issues and challenges. Field Crops Research. 69: 93-132.
- Ulah, R.A., Rashid, A., Khan, S. and Ghulam. (1998). Effect of different mulching materials on the growth and production of wheat crop. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 14: 21-25.
- Walia, U.S. and Singh, M. (2005). Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with associated weeds. Journal Plant Science Research. 21: 32-39.
- Widderick, M., Lemerle, D., Taylor, C., Johansen, C., Hashem, A., Osten, V. and Storrie, A. (2018). Research Priorities for Weed Suppression by Crops in Australia. In 21st Australasian Weeds Conference, “Weed Biosecurity- Protecting our Future”, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 9-13 September 2018. pp. 133-136.
- Wozniak, A. (2019). Effect of crop rotation and cereal monoculture on the yield and quality of winter wheat grain and on crop infestation with weeds and soil properties. International Journal of Plant Production. 13(3): 177-182.
- Yadav, A. and Malik, R.K. (2005). Herbicide Resistant Phalaris minor in Wheat-A Sustainability Issue. Hisar, India: Resource Book-Department of Agronomy and Directorate of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University. 152.
- Yadav, A., Malik, R.K., Banga, R.S., Singh, S., Chauhan, B.S., Yadav, D.B., Murti, R. and Malik, R.S. (2002a). Long- term Effects of Zero-Tillage on Wheat in Rice-wheat Cropping System. In: Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero Tillage in Rice-wheat Cropping System. [Malik, R.K., Balyan, R.S., Yadav, A., Pahwa, S.K. (eds.)]. CCSHAU, Hisar, India. pp. 158-161.
- Yadav, A., Sirohi, R.M., Chauhan, B.S., Bellinder, R. and Malik, R.K. (2002). Alarming contamination of wheat produce with resistant Phalaris minor. Pestology. 26: 41-44.
- Zimdahl, R.L. (2013). Fundamentals of Weed Science, Fourth ed. Academic Press.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.