Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.63

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 43 issue 4 (december 2022) : 505-510

Public Health Risk Assessment of Fluoroquinolones, Gentamicin and Tetracycline Residues in Bovine Milk of Peri-urban Area of Surat and Navsari of South Gujarat, India

N.M. Patel, R. Kumar, C.V. Savalia, I.H. Kalyani
1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Kamdhenu University, Navsari-396 450, Gujarat, India.
Cite article:- Patel N.M., Kumar R., Savalia C.V., Kalyani I.H. (2022). Public Health Risk Assessment of Fluoroquinolones, Gentamicin and Tetracycline Residues in Bovine Milk of Peri-urban Area of Surat and Navsari of South Gujarat, India. Agricultural Reviews. 43(4): 505-510. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-2335.

Background: The occurrence of antibiotic residues in milk constitutes a potential risk to the health of consumers. In the veterinary sector, various forms of antibiotics are now being used worldwide for promoting livestock growth and treatment. Fluroquinolones, Gentamicin and Tetracycline are commonly used in disease prevention and disease control. The current issues of food safety and used antimicrobial agent’s residues in food products of animal origin are a serious public health issue and health risk globally.
Methods: In this field-laboratory investigation during Nov 2018 to Jan 2019, different localities peri-urban area of Surat and Navsari of Gujarat were surveyed. A total of 120 milk samples comprised of (n=20) cattle (pooled), (n=20) buffalo (pooled) and (n=20) mix milk (pooled) of cattle and buffaloes and samples from unhealthy individual milking animal provided treatment with each antibiotics was collected after completion of recommended withdrawal period (n=20) Fluoroquinolones, (n=20) Gentamicin and (n=20) Tetracycline from various non-organized dairy farms. In the laboratory, the collected samples were evaluated for residues in bovine raw milk by c-ELISA.
Result: The investigations in the Surat and Navsari evaluated 3 antibiotics residues in bovine raw milk. Among the 3 antibiotics are deemed dangerous level risks for human health. The detectable level was higher than of recommended antibiotic residue levels (MRLs) were observed as per European Union and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The present work will be a complementary contribution to the comprehensive study of the stringent control measurements to guarantee that the milk is safe for public to drink.

  1. Aalipour, F., Mirlohi, M., Jalali, M. and Azadbakht, L. (2015). Dietary exposure to tetracycline residues through milk consumption in Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 13(1): 80.

  2. Aarestrup, F. (2012). Sustainable farming: Get pigs off antibiotics. Nature. 486(7404): 465-466. 

  3. Ahlberg, S., Korhonen, H., Lindfors, E. and Kangethe, E. (2016). Analysis of antibiotic residues in milk from small holder farms in Kenya. African Journal of Dairy Farming and Milk Production. 3(4): 152-158.

  4. Ahmed, S., Ning, J., Cheng, G., Ahmad, I., Li, J., Mingyue, L. and Yuan, Z. (2017). Receptor-based screening assays for the detection of antibiotics residues- A review. Talanta. 166: 176-186.

  5. Alomirah, H., AL-Mazeedi, H.M., AL-Zenki, S., AL-Aati, T.., Al-Otaibi, J., AL-Batel, M. and Sidhu, J. (2007). Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in milk and dairy products in the state of Kuwait. Journal of Food Quality. 30(5): 745-763.

  6. Bilandzic, N., Kolanovic, B.S., Varenina, I., Scortichini, G., Annunziata, L., Brstilo, M. and Rudan, N. (2011). Veterinary drug residues determination in raw milk in Croatia. Food Control. 22(12): 1941-1948.

  7. Centre for disease control and prevention. (2010). Get Smart: Know when antibiotics work. Centres for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, (accessed October 27, 2014).

  8. Chauhan, S.L., Priyanka, P.S., Garg, S.R. and Jadhav, V.J. (2019). Dietary exposure assessment of tetracycline residues in milk in Haryana. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 7(1): 1862-1865.

  9. Codex alimentarius commission. (2017). Maximum residue limits (MRLs) and risk management recommendations (RMRs) for residues of veterinary drugs in foods. Updated at the 40th session of Codex alimentarius commission, July 2017. 

  10. Elizabeta, D.S., Zehra, H.M., Biljana, S.D., Pavle, S. and Risto, U. (2011). Screening of veterinary drug residues in milk from individual farms in Macedonia. Macedonian Veterinary Review. 34(1): 5-13.

  11. European Commission. (2010). Commission Regulation (EU) No 37/2010 of 22 December 2009 on pharmacologically active substances and their classification regarding maximum residue limits in foodstuffs of animal origin, (Text with EEA relevance) 37/ 2010/EU. In: Official Journal of the European Union 20/01/2010, EN, L15/1- L15/72. Available at files/files/mrl/ Accessed February 3, 2018.

  12. FAO. (2011). Mapping supply and demand for animal-source foods to 2030, by T.P. Robinson and F. Pozzi. Animal Production and Health Working Paper. No. 2. Rome. http:// (accessed February 6, 2015).

  13. Fathalrhman, A.N., Osman, A.A.A., Idres, M.A. and Sid-Ahmed, M.A. (2016). Autonomous Navigation in Dynamic Environments (Doctoral dissertation, Sudan University of Science and Technology).

  14. Fisher, N.R., Purnell, C.B. and Kang, J. (2010). Comment on effect of heating on the stability of quinolones in milk. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(24): 13020- 13021.

  15. Gaurav, A., Gill, J.P.S., Aulakh, R.S. and Bedi, J.S. (2014). ELISA based monitoring and analysis of tetracycline residues in cattle milk in various districts of Punjab. Veterinary World. 7(1): 26.

  16. Gradinaru, A.C., Popescu, O. and Solcan, G. (2011). Antibiotic residues in milk from Moldavia, Romania. Human and Veterinary Medicine. 3(2): 133-141.

  17. Jank, L., Martins, M.T., Arsand, J.B., Motta, T.M.C., Feijo, T.C., dos Santos Castilhos, T. and Pizzolato, T.M. (2017). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiclass method for 46 antibiotics residues in milk and meat: Development and validation. Food Analytical Methods. 10(7): 2152-2164.

  18. Junza Martínez, A., Amatya, R., Pérez-Burgos, R., Gokce, G., Grzelak, E., Barrón Bueno, D. and Barbosa Torralbo, J. (2010). Residues of b-lactams and quinolones in tissues and milk samples. Confirmatory analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry. 21(2): 109-122.

  19. Kebede, G., Zenebe, T., Disassa, H. and Tolosa, T. (2014). Review on detection of antimicrobial residues in raw bulk milk in dairy farms. African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 6(4): 87-97.

  20. Kumar, R. and Savalia, C.V. (2020). Effect of different stress conditions on antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase positive thermo tolerant Staphylococcus aureus. Octa Journal of Biosciences. 8 (2): 62-72. 

  21. Martins, T., Rosa, A.F., Castelani, L., Miranda, M.S.D., Arcaro, J.R. and Pozzi, C.R. (2016). Intramammary treatment with gentamicin in lactating cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 36(4): 283-289.

  22. Moghaddam, A.D., Tayebi, L., Falahatpisheh, H., Mahmoudian, M., Kowsari, N., Akbarein, H. and Sabzikar, A. (2014). Evaluation of the tetracycline residues in pasteurized milks distributed in Tehran by HPLC method. Scientific and Research Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences. 11(4): 318-323.

  23. Moudgil, P., Bedi, J.S., Aulakh, R.S. and Gill, J.P.S. (2019). Antibiotic residues and mycotoxins in raw milk in Punjab (India): A rising concern for food safety. Journal of food science and technology. 56(11): 5146-5151.

  24. Noori, N., Karim, G., Raeesian, M., Khaneghahi Abyaneh, H., Bahonar, A., Akhondzadeh Basti, A. and Ghadami, F. (2013). Antibiotic residues and aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk powder used in Tehran dairy factories, Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 7(3): 221-226.

  25. Orwa, J.D., Matofari, J.W., Muliro, P.S. and Lamuka, P. (2017). Assessment of sulphonamides and tetracyclines antibiotic residue contaminants in rural and peri urban dairy value chains in Kenya. International Journal of Food Contamination. 4(1): 5.

  26. Robinson, T.P., Thornton P.K., Franceschini, G., Kruska, R.L., Chiozza, F., Notenbaert, A., Cecchi, G., Herrero, M., Epprecht, M., Fritz, S., You, L., Conchedda, G. and See, L. (2011). Global livestock production systems. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), pp 152.

  27. Roca, M., Castillo, M., Marti, P., Althaus, R.L. and Molina, M.P. (2010). Effect of heating on the stability of quinolones in milk. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 58(9): 5427-5431.

  28. Rossi, R., Saluti, G., Moretti, S., Diamanti, I., Giusepponi, D. and Galarini, R. (2018). Multiclass methods for the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: A review. Food additives and contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure and risk assessment. 35(2): 241-257.

  29. Tan, X., Jiang, Y.W., Huang, Y.J. and Hu, S.H. (2009). Persistence of gentamicin residues in milk after the intramammary treatment of lactating cows for mastitis. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 10(4): 280-284.

  30. Van Boeckel, T. P., Brower, C., Gilbert, M., Grenfell, B.T., Levin, S.A., Robinson, T.P., Teillant, A. and Laxminarayan, R. (2015). Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112(18): 5649-5654. 

  31. Ventola, C.L. (2015). The antibiotic resistance crisis: Part 1: Causes and threats. Pharmacy and therapeutics. 40(4): 277-285.

  32. Zeina, K., Pamela, A.K. and Fawwak, S. (2013). Quantification of antibiotic residues and determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles of microorganisms isolated from bovine milk in Lebanon. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 4(7): 1-9.

  33. Zhang, H. and Wang, S. (2009). Review on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sulfonamide residues in edible animal products. Journal of Immunological Methods. 350(1-2): 1-13.

  34. Zhang, Y.D., Zheng, N., Han, R.W., Zheng, B.Q., Yu, Z.N., Li, S.L., Zheng, S.S. and Wang, J.Q. (2014). Occurrence of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, sulfamethazine and quinolones in pasteurized milk and UHT milk in China’s market. Food Control. 36(1): 238-242.

Editorial Board

View all (0)