Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus

Impact of Pesticide Exposure on Environment and Biodiversity: A Review

J.K. Sathish Kumar1,*, S.S. Monica1, B. Vinothkumar1, A. Suganthi1, M. Paramasivam1
1Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

The use of pesticide in modern agriculture and public health sector has been increased tremendously. Only 0.1% of pesticide applied to crops truly reaches the target, the rest of it enters into the environment. Several pesticides can persist in an ecosystem for longer periods accumulate in the body tissues of organisms and cause more health problems. Pesticide exposure generally occurs through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact or absorptions by intentionaly or unintentionaly which leads to acute and chronic health problems in non target organisms such as animals, birds, aquatic animals and human. A total of more than 100 articles related to impact of pesticide exposure were reviewed. To review the literature, we reviewed a number of studies, report and abstract between 1950 to 2020 using key words effect of pesticide on animals, birds, human, environment we used this term to search in in PubMed, ResearchGate and google scholar. Searching strategy also include cross-referencing of research and review article Improving epidemiological studies, metabolic studies, residue monitoring and experimental research on pesticide exposure can reduces human health risks of pesticide exposure. This article clearly explains how the pesticide enter into the atmosphere, soil and water and its adverse effect on birds, animals and human, major incidence regarding pesticide exposure and effort should be taken prevent the pesticide poisoning.

In India pesticides are mainly used in agriculture and public health sector (Gupta, 2004). In Asia India is the second largest manufacturer of pesticides and ranks twelfth in world. Worldwide pesticides consumption is about 2 million tonnes per year, in that about 24% is consumed in the USA, 45% in Europe and 25% in the rest of the world. India’s share is only 3.75% (Gupta, 2004). Total pesticide consumption in India is about 62,193 MT in (2020) (DPPQS, 2021). In India 1999-2000 out of the total consumption of pesticides 60% are in the form of insecticides, 14% are herbicides, 21% is fungicide and less than 5% are others (Agnihotri, 2000). Pesticide exposure to the human body happens through ingestion, inhalation, skin contact and skin absorptions which results in acute and chronic health problems (Damalas and Koutroubas, 2016). About 64% of global agricultural land (approximately 24.5 million km2) is at risk of pesticide pollution by more than one active ingredient, in that 31% is at high risk (Tang, 2021). In India, National Occupational Health Centre (NIOH) and Indian Council of Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR) are responsible for monitoring of health status and pesticide-residues in various samples. Roughly 5 billion kilograms of pesticides are applied worldwide per year, which has serious effects on biodiversity, nontarget organisms, and the food chain, risks to the environment and human health (Verger and Boobis, 2013). According to WHO estimates about 3 million cases of acute poisoning occur each year due to the unsafe handling and use of pesticides with 220,000 deaths (WHO, 1990; Blair et al., 2015) 70 % of these deaths are mainly due to occupational exposure (Yerena et al., 2005). The term “occupational exposure” refers to a potentially harmful exposure to hazards chemicals in the occupation place (Doxtader, 1992). Occupational exposure to pesticides occurs in agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry and eradicator of house pests. Non-occupational exposure to pesticides happens through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residue. Environment exposure is via water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff and spray drift, which has harmful effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms (Damalas and Eleftherohorinos, 2011).
 
Environmental exposure
 
The intensive use of pesticide leads to an enlarged risk of contamination of the environment and harmful effects on biodiversity, food security and water resources (Malaj et al. 2014; Queyrel et al., 2016). It is estimated that less than 0.1% of pesticide applied to crops truly reaches the target, the rest of it enters into the environment (Pimentel and Levitan, 1986). Attention to the impacts of pesticide use on the environment and ecosystems is due to the book Silent Spring written by Rachel Carson published in 1962. Several pesticides can persist in an ecosystem for longer periods. for example, organochlorine insecticides, for instance, are still detectable in surface waters 30 years after their use and had been banned (Larson, 2019). In the food chain, pesticide meet with nontarget organisms and accumulate in the body tissues of organisms and cause more health problems (Lancet, 1989). Pesticide fate in the environment occur in different environmental compartments, such as air (Bedos et al., 2002), soil (Barriuso et al. 2008), plant (Fantke et al., 2011) and surface and groundwater (Baran et al., 2008). Although pesticides are directly applied in soils and plants, only 1% of pesticide sprayed is delivered to the intended target. For proper management of pesticides, it is essential to accurately assess the status of their contamination in soil, water and air (Knapton et al., 2006).
 
Pesticides and the atmosphere
 
Outside the food chain, the atmosphere is possibly the most important medium for long-distance dispersal of pesticides. Drift and evaporation during aerial application, volatilization from crops and agricultural soils, wind erosion of contaminated soils, and emissions from manufacturing and disposal processes repetitively add of pesticides level in the atmosphere. Prevailing air currents transport these pesticides and their alteration products to a great distance (Durham, 1976; Wolfe, 1976).
 
Spray application
 
Massive amounts of pesticides are released into the atmosphere while spraying to crops. The amount of a pesticide that grasps a target depends on a number of factors like the amount of material sprayed, the physicochemical properties of the pesticide and dispersion vehicle, the particle size distribution, the height at which the material is released, wind speed and atmospheric turbulence (Polyrakis, 2009). Spray droplets of less than 30-mm volume mean diameter drift great distances (Yeo, 1959; Murray and Vaughan, 1970). According to (Woodwell et al., 1971) during aerial application of DDT to forests, less than 50% reached the target area. More than 40% of the original aqueous spray volume from an air-blast sprayer has been lost by evaporation before the droplets had fallen 11 m (Cunningham et al., 1962). According to (Ware et al., 1970) less than 50% of aerially applied pesticides were deposited on agricultural targets in Arizona, during summer months. During spray application spray man, helper and bystander are exposed to pesticide due to drift. so they are advised to wear protection equipment.
 
Volatilization from crops and soils
 
Pesticides mainly enter into the atmosphere is through volatilization from treated agricultural soils and plant foliage. This process competes with direct input during spray application. over 90% of the pesticide contamination of the air is only by these two routes (Lewis and Lee, 1976). Factors determining the volatilization process include physico chemicals properties of pesticides, environmental conditions, and agricultural practices. Pesticides sprayed on to fields and used to fumigate soil can give off chemicals called volatile organic compounds, which can react with other chemicals and form a pollutant called tropospheric ozone. Pesticide use accounts for about 6 per cent of total tropospheric ozone levels (UC IPM). Volatilization may leads to the inhalation exposure of toxic chemical which lead to many health problem.
 
Entrainment as dust
 
Later reports of pesticide residues in airborne matter collected in non-agricultural areas shows long-distance transport of pesticides in the atmosphere (Tabor, 1965). Collected airborne dust on the coast of Barbados during 1965-1966 and found airborne dust contain 1-164 ng/g of chlorinated pesticides. The dust had originated in west coast of Africa, entrained in the atmosphere, and was transported about 4,500 km by the northeast trade winds (Costa, 2008).
 
Manufacturing and formulating processes
 
Atmospheric pollution is mainly associated with the manufacture, formulation, and packaging of pesticides. Rarely, large amounts of pesticides are released into the atmosphere from chemical manufacturing processes due to accidents or carelessness. Table 1 summarizes some incident of pesticide poisoning occur during pesticide manufacturing.

Table 1: Effect of pesticide during manufacturing.


 
Pesticides and soil
 
Generally, most of the pesticide comes into contact with soil, which is a major “incubation” chamber for the decomposition. Pesticides do not remain stationary in the soil, but they move within the soil. They move by both diffusion throughout the medium and mass flow of the water in the soil (Polyrakis, 2009). Usually, nonpersistent pesticides disappear in less than 1 month from soil, while moderately persistent chemicals take from 1 to 3 months. Persistent pesticides are present for many months after application (Doxtader, 1992). Applied pesticide can be completely degraded by chemical degradation, photodegradation, degradation by soil microorganisms, leaching, adsorption-desorption, uptake by higher organisms and aerial movement. Common landscape herbicides disrupt this process: triclopyr inhibits soil bacteria that transform ammonia into nitrite (Pell et al., 1998), glyphosate reduces the growth and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil (Santos and Flores, 1995) and 2,4-D reduces nitrogen fixation by the bacteria that live on the roots of bean plants (Arias and de Peretti, 1993), reduces the growth and activity of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae (Singh and Singh, 1989) and inhibits the transformation of ammonia into nitrates by soil bacteria (Frankenberger and Tabatabai, 1991). The growth of certain species of mycorrhizal fungi were inhibited by oryzalin and trifluralin. (Kelley and South, 1978).
 
Pesticides and water
 
The main purposes of water used by human beings is for public water supply, aesthetics and recreation, agriculture, industry and aquatic life. The applied pesticides might reach surface and groundwater through runoff, run-in and leaching (Bicki, 1989).
1.  Runoff means pollutants are physically transport over the soil surface by rain or irrigation water that does not soak into the soil. Pesticide runoff can occur either with the pesticide as a solute or pesticide as adsorbed soil particles (soil erosion).
2.  Run-in means pollutants are physically transport directly to groundwater in areas of karst carbonate (limestone) aquifers, which contain sinkholes and porous or fractured bedrock. Rain or irrigation water can take pesticides through sinkholes or fractured bedrock directly into groundwater.
3. Leaching the greatest potential for pollution effects of pesticides is through contamination of the hydrological system. Through primary pathway water pesticides are transported from the site of their first application to other areas of the environment.
 
Pesticides and surface water
 
Pesticides can reach surface water through runoff from treated plants and soil (Kole et al., 2001). Pesticides were detected in all samples from major rivers with mixed agricultural and urban land use influences and 99% of samples of urban streams (Bortleson and Davis, 1987) The surface water pollution by pesticides consists of two main categories, i.e., intentional and unintentional. Intentional includes the direct application of pesticides to water to control harmful insects or waterweeds. Unintentional pollution of water occurs in some cases, e.g., during the spraying of crops near streams, lakes, dishes, etc. Also, pesticides frequently volatilize into the air.  They may then return to the ground through rainfall, Organophosphorus insecticides and carbamates, and generally the new generation of compounds will not create side effects like chlorinated hydrocarbons and degraded in a period of 2–4 days in lakes and marshes. Also, the pyrethrin deltamethrin has an active life of 1 h in water (Polyrakis, 2009). Pesticide pollution that occurred in surface water are discussed in Table 2.
 

Table 2: Pesticide pollution on surface water.



Pesticides and groundwater
 
Pesticides applied to a site moved downward along with rain or irrigation water, reaching the water table below is known non-point source pollution. Pesticides may enter directly into ground from spillage or back-siphoning is called point source pollution. Pesticides continue to break down slower rate after reaching groundwater because of less available light, heat, and oxygen. When groundwater becomes contaminated, the polluted water may eventually appear in the surface water of streams, rivers, and lakes. Even if the contamination is stopped, it may take years before an aquifer can purify itself through natural processes (Polyrakis, 2009).

In India, 58% of drinking water samples drawn from various hand pumps and wells around Bhopal were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides above the EPA standards (Kole and Bagchi, 1995). Whether a pesticide to reach groundwater determine by three major factors. They are pesticide properties (persistence and adsorption), soil properties (permeability, organic matter, soil texture, structure, and moisture), and site conditions (including rainfall, irrigation, and depth to groundwater.
 
Pesticides and biodiversity
 
Biodiversity means variety of life (plants, animals, and microorganisms) exist in the surrounding environment also consider the number of species present, the amount of genetic variation within a species, and the habitats in which the species live (Polyrakis, 2009). About 25-50% of aerially applied pesticides and 70-90% of ground-applied pesticides truly reaches the target area (WWF, 1999). The remaining chemicals cause potential to impact nontarget organisms (vertebrates, invertebrates, microorganisms and plants) and widely spread in the environment. by numerous ways pesticides can “drift” from the site of application which include transport of airborne particles via air currents, runoff from fields into surface waters, leaching through soils into groundwater, transport by ocean currents carrying the pesticides between continents, etc.). Some chemicals to persist in the environment for a number of years which the potentially affect an immense variety of wildlife, from birds feeding on infested seeds to polar bears feeding on saltwater fish, hundreds of kilo meters away mode of action is the most significant parameter for the potential impact of pesticides on nontarget organisms. The drawback is that in some cases the mode of action is completely unknown.
 
Birds exposure
 
Pesticides can harm or kill birds when they hurt their food resources contaminated with pesticide. Some pesticide cause anorexia or loss of appetite in birds causing them to starve to death. this effect is documented in several large bird that kills during migration. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that 67 million birds die from pesticide poisoning each year and more than 600 million birds are exposed (Pimentel et al., 1992). Once a bird is killed by a pesticide, bird of prey or a mammalian scavenger, feed on pesticide-poisoned prey which can then in turn be poisoned. Raptors such as red-tailed hawks and great horned owls frequently feed on pesticide-poisoned prey. Many experts believe birds are amongst the most vulnerable species when it comes to pesticide exposure and serve as sentinels of the quality of the environment (Wildlife, 1947). According to (Costa, 2008) resident birds in India had the highest residues of HCHs compare to the migratory birds of South India. Major Impact of pesticide on birds include eggshell thinning and decrease in egg production. Various other incidence of bird’s mortality due to pesticide exposure are summarized in (Table 3).

Table 3: Impact of pesticide on birds.


 
Aquatic exposure
 
Primary route of pesticide exposure to Fish and aquatic animals are dermally while swimming in pesticide-contaminated waters, breathing through gills, orally, by drinking pesticide-contaminated water or feeding on pesticide-contaminated prey. Secondary poisoning is by feeding on dying insects poisoned by insecticides may kill themselves if the insects they consume contain large quantities of pesticides or their toxic by-products (Helfrich et al., 2009). Pesticide exposure to fish and other aquatic animals mainly depends on its bioavailability, bioconcentration, biomagnification and persistence of pesticide in the environment.  Pesticides can decrease the availability of plants and insects that serve as habitat and food for fish and other aquatic animals. Sublethal doses of some pesticides can lead to changes in behaviour, inability to avoid predators, lowered tolerance to extreme temperatures, weight loss and impaired reproduction (Helfrich et al., 2009).

Current studies of major rivers and streams documented that 96% of all fish, 100% of all surface water samples and 33% of major aquifers contained one or more pesticides at detectable levels. The pesticide used for lawn treatments are most commonly found. pesticides at low level concentrations are highly toxic to aquatic wildlife and which decreased their populations by nearly 70 per cent. OC insecticides and pyrethroids PYs, especially synthetic ones, is the toxic group of insecticides to fish and aquatic invertebrates. PYs are highly toxic to aquatic animals because they are strongly absorbed to bottom muds (Anderson, 1989).

OP insecticides can bioconcentrate in tadpoles, frogs, fish, and toads to levels that stance hazards to their predators. OP and CB insecticides are water soluble and metabolized quickly. They generally have short persistence and so their residues do not long-term problems for aquatic animals. The CB insecticide is extremely toxic to wildlife and fish (Helfrich et al., 2009). Fish kills occur when pesticides are improperly applied or mix in water bodies through drift or misapplication (Sharma et al., 2012) accidental killing due to contamination in most common (Modra and Svobodova, 2009). Herbicide had more impact on aquatic animals. Table 4 lists various effect of pesticide on aquatic animals that occur in different part of world.

Table 4: Impact of pesticide on Aquatic animals.


 
Animals exposure
 
Poisoning is an important cause of wildlife mortality, and is responsible for extensive population declines (Green et al., 2004) Primary exposure to poisons happens when wildlife is intentionally poisoned for hunting (Ogada, 2014) nor due to human-wildlife conflict (Venkataramanan et al., 2008). Accidental poisoning may occur by secondary exposure to poisons in the environment or via contaminated food source. Amphibians are now considered the most threatened and rapidly decreasing species on Earth. (Bruhl et al., 2013) suggested that frogs are sensitive to the toxicity of pesticides that are currently used in agriculture. OCPs are among the substances restricted or banned globally under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Programme, 2001). These compounds are environmentally persistent (Dimond and Owen, 1996), toxic and apt to bioaccumulation (Nakata et al., 2002) and have adverse effects on animals (Doxtader, 1992). Even though these substances are stored in the fat and muscles of the animals, some of them can also be found in the brain, lungs, liver, and other offal. Because milk and other dairy products contain a range of fat, these foods also contain a number of pesticides. Table 5 summarize the various effect of pesticide exposure on animals.

Table 5: Impact of pesticide on animals.


 
Humane exposure
 
Human are directly exposed to pesticide by missing personal protective equipment (gloves, goggles, respirator, long pant, cap) and drift while spraying. Indirect exposure is by work in pesticide treated area, drift from neighbor field, contact with residue from crop field. (Damalas and Koutroubas, 2016). Pesticide exposure causes acute health problems like e.g., dizziness, headaches, nausea and skin problems. Chronic health effects like e.g., asthma, allergies, hypersensitivity, cancers, hormone disruption, neurological disturbance and respiratory diseases. For women reproduction, fetal development, cause early menopause and development of the child in later life (van der Maden et al., 2014). These substances are stored in the fat and muscles of the animals, some can also find in the brain, lungs, liver and other offal. Because milk and other dairy products contain a range of fat, these foods may also contain a number of pesticides. Different incidents that occur due to pesticide exposure on human are discussed in (Table 6). Intentional or unintentional exposure of pesticide to human may cause acute and chronic health problems. Organophosphate, organochloride, and carbamate insecticide plays major role in causing such disease (Table 7).

Table 6: Incident of pesticide poisoning on human.



Table 7: Human Diseases due to pesticide exposure.

The evaluation of the occupational exposure of farm workers to pesticides is an essential part of the risk assessment for product safety and regulatory purposes. Exposure of toxic pesticide has detrimental effect on non-target organism. Pesticide exposure can be reduced by using personal protection equipment while spraying. training for farmer regarding how to handle pesticide. use of less persistent pesticide, Alternate method of pest control like IPM, biocontrol and biotechnological approach can be used to control pest and using robotics in pesticide spraying.

  1. Adkesson, M.J., Levengood, J.M., Scott, J.W., Schaeffer, D.J., Langan, J.N., Alayza, S.C., Puente, S.D., Majluf, P. and Yi, S. (2018). Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the blood of Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 54(2): 304-314.

  2. Agnihotri, N.P. (2000). Pesticide consumption in agriculture in India- an update. Pesticide Research Journal. 12(1): 150-155.

  3. Allsop, M., Huxdorff, C., Johnston, P., Santillo, D. and Thompson, K. (2015). Pesticides and our Health, A Growing Concern. University of Exeter Exeter EX4 4RN United Kingdom: Greenpeace Research Laboratories School of Biosciences Innovation Centre Phase 2.

  4. Anderson, R.L. (1989). Toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids to freshwater invertebrates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: An International Journal. 8(5): 403-410.

  5. Arias, R.N. and Fabra de Peretti, A. (1993). Effects of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on Rhizobium sp. growth and characterization of its transport. Toxicology letters. 68(3): 267-273.

  6. Arora, S.K., Batra, P., Sharma, T., Banerjee, B.D. and Gupta, S. (2013). Role of organochlorine pesticides in children with idiopathic seizures. International Scholarly Research Notices 2013.

  7. Baran, N., Lepiller, M. and Mouvet, C. (2008). Agricultural diffuse pollution in a chalk aquifer (Trois Fontaines, France): Influence of pesticide properties and hydrodynamic constraints. Journal of Hydrology. 358(1-2): 56-69.

  8. Barriuso, E., Benoit, P. and Dubus, I.G. (2008). Formation of pesticide nonextractable (bound) residues in soil: Magnitude, controlling factors and reversibility. Environmental science and technology. 42(6): 1845-1854.

  9. Bedos, C., Cellier, P., Calvet, R., Barriuso, E. and Gabrielle, B. (2002). Mass transfer of pesticides into the atmosphere by volatilization from soils and plants: overview. Agronomie. 22(1): 21-33.

  10. Bennett, R.S., Williams, B.A., Schmedding, D.W. and Bennett, J.K. (1991). Effects of dietary exposure to methyl parathion on egg laying and incubation in mallards. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: An International Journal. 10(4): 501-507.

  11. Bertazzi, P.A., Zocchetti, C., Guercilena, S., Consonni, D., Tironi, A., Landi, M.T. and Pesatori, A.C. (1997). Dioxin exposure and cancer risk: A 15-year mortality study after the Seveso accident. Epidemiology: 646-652.

  12. Bicki, T.J. (1989). Pesticides and Groundwater: Pesticides as Potential Pollutants. Land and Water (Urbana, Ill.)(USA).

  13. Blair, A., Ritz, B., Wesseling, C. and Freeman, L.B. (2015). Pesticides and human health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 72(2): 81-82.

  14. Bortleson, G. and Davis, D. (1987). US Geological Survey and Washington State Department of Ecology. Pesticides in selected small streams in the Puget Sound Basin: 1-4.

  15. Brühl, C.A., Schmidt, T., Pieper, S. and Alscher, A. (2013). Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: An underestimated cause of global decline? Scientific reports. 3(1): 1-4.

  16. Cannon, S.B., Veazey Jr, J.M., Jackson, R.S., Burse, V.W., Hayes, C., Straub, W.E., Landrigan, P.J. and Liddle, J.A. (1978). Epidemic kepone poisoning in chemical workers. American journal of epidemiology. 107(6): 529-537.

  17. Carlson, L.A. and Hedman, B.K. (1972). Hyper á lipoproteinemia in men exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. Acta Medica Scandinavica. 192(16): 29-32.

  18. Chacko, S. (2021). Using insecticide-treated mosquito nets for fishing could lead to collapse of fisheries and health hazards.

  19. Chrysoyelos. (1988). Pesticides: their invasion and dominion in the Greek area. Proceedings of the International Symposium: “Pesticides: Problems and Alternative Solutions.” Athens, Sept 1988 (in Greek).

  20. Costa, R. (2008). Predictive Modeling and Risk Assessment. Vol. 4: Springer Science and Business Media.

  21. Cunningham, R.T., Brann Jr, J.L. and Fleming, G.A. (1962). Factors affecting the evaporation of water from droplets in airblast spraying. Journal of Economic Entomology. 55(2): 192-199.

  22. Dalton, E.H. and Tyrone. (2021). Fish, yabbies and aquatic life dead after ‘toxic’ herbicide treatment in irrigation channel. accessed 20.1.21. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-01- 23/dead-fish-after-herbicide-acrolein-used-in-irrigation- channel/13084030.

  23. Damalas, C.A. and Eleftherohorinos, I.G. (2011). Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. International journal of environmental research and public health. 8(5): 1402-1419.

  24. Damalas, C.A. and Koutroubas, S.D. (2016). Farmers’ exposure to pesticides: toxicity types and ways of prevention. Toxics. 4(1): 10.

  25. DeJongh, J. and Blaauboer, B.J. (1997). Simulation of lindane kinetics in rats. Toxicology. 122(1-2): 1-9.

  26. Dimond, J.B. and Owen, R.B. (1996). Long-term residue of DDT compounds in forest soils in Maine. Environmental Pollution. 92(2): 227-230.

  27. Dominah, G.A., McMinimy, R.A., Kallon, S. and Kwakye, G.F. (2017). Acute exposure to chlorpyrifos caused NADPH oxidase mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in a striatal cell model of Huntington’s disease. Neurotoxicology. 60: 54-69.

  28. Doxtader, K.G. and Croissant, R.L. (1992). Fate of pesticides in soil. accessed 23.1.21. https://hdl.handle.net/10217/182515.

  29. DPPQS. (2021). Consumption of Chemical Pesticides in Various States/Utsaccessed 23.06.2021. http://www.ppqs.gov.in/ statistical-database.

  30. Durham, W.F. (1976). Human health hazards of respiratory exposure to pesticides. CRC Press

  31. Fantke, P., Charles, R., Felippe de Alencastro, L., Friedrich, R. and Jolliet, O. (2011). Plant uptake of pesticides and human health: dynamic modeling of residues in wheat and ingestion intake. Chemosphere. 85(10): 1639-1647.

  32. Filippini, T., Fiore, M., Tesauro, M. Malagoli, C., Consonni, M., Violi, F., Arcolin, E., Iacuzio, L., Conti, G.O. and Cristaldi, A. (2020). Clinical and lifestyle factors and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based case-control study. International journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(3): 857.

  33. Fleischli, M.A., Franson, J.C., Thomas, N.J., Finley, D.L. and Riley, W. (2004). Avian mortality events in the United States caused by anticholinesterase pesticides: A retrospective summary of National Wildlife Health Center records from 1980 to 2000. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 46(4): 542-550.

  34. Flickinger, E.L., White, D.H., Mitchell, C.A. and Lamont, T.G. (1984). Monocrotophos and dicrotophos residues in birds as a result of misuse of organophosphates in Matagorda County, Texas. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 67(4): 827-828.

  35. Frankenberger, W.T. and Tabatabai, M.A. (1991). L-Asparaginase activity of soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 11(1): 6-12.

  36. Frumkin, H. (2003). Agent Orange and cancer: an overview for clinicians. CA: A cancer journal for clinicians. 53(4): 245-255.

  37. Garabrant, D.H., Held, J., Langholz, B., Peters, J.M. and Mack, T.M. (1992). DDT and related compounds and risk of pancreatic cancer. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 84(10): 764-771.

  38. Gilbertson, M. and Fox, G.A. (1977). Pollutant-associated embryonic mortality of Great Lakes herring gulls. Environmental Pollution (1970). 12(3): 211-216.

  39. Goldstein, M.I., Lacher, T.E., Zaccagnini, M.E., Parker, M.L. and Hooper, M.J. (1999). Monitoring and assessment of Swainson’s Hawks in Argentina following restrictions on monocrotophos use, 1996-97. Ecotoxicology. 8(3): 215-224.

  40. Green, R.E., Newton, I., Shultz, S., Cunningham, A.A., Gilbert, M., Pain, D.J. and Prakash, V. (2004). Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent. Journal of Applied Ecology. 41(5): 793-800.

  41. Gupta, P.K. (2004). Pesticide exposure-Indian scene. Toxicology. 198(1-3): 83-90.

  42. Heggestad, H.E. (1974). Air pollutants from, and effects on, agriculture. Specialty Conference on Control Technology for Agricultural Air Pollutants.

  43. Helfrich, L.A., Weigmann, D.L., Hipkins, P.A. and Stinson, E.R. (2009). Pesticides and aquatic animals: A guide to reducing impacts on aquatic systems.

  44. Herbst, M. (1991). Lindane: World Health Organization.

  45. Hjelde, T., Mehl, A., Schanke, T.M. and Fonnum, F. (1998). Teratogenic effects of trichlorfon (Metrifonate) on the guinea-pig brain. Determination of the effective dose and the sensitive period. Neurochemistry International. 32(5-6): 469-477.

  46. Hooper, M.J. (2002). Swainson’s hawks and monocrotophos, Texas. IPM, UC. State wise ipm. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/.

  47. Kannan, K., Tanabe, S., Borrell, A., Aguilar, A., Focardi, S. and Tatsukawa, R. (1993). Isomer-specific analysis and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in striped dolphins affected by an epizootic in the western Mediterranean Sea. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 25(2): 227-233.

  48. Karunakaran, C.O. (1958). The Kerala food poisoning. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 31(5): 204-207.

  49. Keifer, M.C. and Mahurin, R.K. (1997). Chronic neurologic effects of pesticide overexposure. Occupational Medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.). 12(2): 291-304.

  50. Kelley, W.D. and South, D.B. (1978). Weed Sci. Soc. America Meeting. Auburn, Alabama: Auburn University, vitro effects of selected herbicides on growth and mycorrhizal fungi: 38.

  51. Kidd, H. and James, D.R. The agrochemicals Handbook. 3rd edn, (1991). Royal Society of Chemistry Information Services, Cambridge, UK (as updated).

  52. Knapton, D., Burnworth, M., Rowan, S.J. and Weder, C. (2006). Fluorescent organometallic sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent mimics. Angewandte Chemie. 118(35): 5957-5961.

  53. Kole, R.K. and Bagchi, M.M. (1995). Pesticide residues in the aquatic environment and their possible ecological hazards. J. Inland Fish Soc India. 27(2): 79-89.

  54. Kole, R.K., Banerjee, H. and Bhattacharyya, A. (2001). Monitoring of market fish samples for Endosulfan and Hexachloro- cyclohexane residues in and around Calcutta. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 67(4): 554-559.

  55. Koutros, S., Harris, S.A., Spinelli, J.J., Blair, A., McLaughlin, J.R., Zahm, S.H., Kim, S., Albert, P.S., Kachuri, L. and Pahwa, M. (2019). Non-hodgkin lymphoma risk and organophosphate and carbamate insecticide use in the north American pooled project.  Environment International. 127: 199-205.

  56. Krief, S., Berny, P., Gumisiriza, F., Gross, R., Demeneix, B., Fini, J.B., Chapman, C.A., Chapman, L.J., Seguya, A. and Wasswa, J. (2017). Agricultural expansion as risk to endangered wildlife: Pesticide exposure in wild chimpanzees and baboons displaying facial dysplasia. Science of the Total Environment. 598: 647-656.

  57. Kumar, B. and Benerjee, V. (1990). Effects of sub lethal toxicity of sevin on blood parameters in Clarias batrachus (L).  Him. J. Environ. Zool. 4: 166-172.

  58. Laetz, C.A., Baldwin, D.H., Collier, T.K., Hebert, V., Stark, J.D. and  Scholz, N.L. (2009). The synergistic toxicity of pesticide mixtures: Implications for risk assessment and the conservation of endangered Pacific salmon. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(3): 348-353.

  59. Lancet. (1989). Round The World: India - Long Term Effects of MIC.  Predictive Modeling and RiskAssessment. 4(644.): 201-224.

  60. Larson, S.J. (2019). Pesticides in surface waters: Distribution, trends and governing factors. Vol. 3: CRC Press.

  61. Lee, D., Lind, P.M., Jacobs Jr, D.R., Salihovic, S., Bavel, B.V. and Lind, L. (2016). Association between background exposure to organochlorine pesticides and the risk of cognitive impairment: A prospective study that accounts for weight change. Environment International. 89: 179-184.

  62. Lewis, R.G. and Lee Jr, R.E. (1976). Air pollution from pesticides: sources, occurence, and dispersion. Air pollution from pesticides and agricultural processes. Lee, R.E., Jr., Ed., CRC Press Boca Raton, FL, 5-50.

  63. Liong, P.C., Hamzah, W.P. and Murugan, V. (1988). Toxicity of some pesticides towards freshwater fishes: Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

  64. Lotti, M. and Moretto, A. (2005). Organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy. Toxicological reviews. 24(1): 37-49.

  65. Lyon, F. (1994). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Some industrial chemicals. 60: 389-433.

  66. Maitra, S.K. and Mitra, A. (2008). Testicular functions and serum titers of LH and testosterone in methyl parathion-fed roseringed parakeets.  Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 71(1): 236-244.

  67. Malaj, E., Peter, C., Grote, M., Kühne, R., Mondy, C.P., Polatera, P.U., Brack, W. and Schäfer, R.B. (2014). Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111(26): 9549-9554.

  68. Manea, L., Eklo, O.M. and Stenrod, M. (2017). Economic importance and environmental impact of pesticides: A review of the literature. Annals Food Science and Technology. 18(2): 324-332.

  69. Martin, P.A. and Solomon, K.R. (1991). Acute carbofuran exposure and cold stress: interactive effects in mallard ducklings.  Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 40(2): 117-127.

  70. Mathew. (2009). No end to Endosulfan tragedy. The Hindu, accessed 20.1.21.https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Thiruvana nthapuram/No-end-to-Endosulfan-tragedy/article1688 8527.ece.

  71. Mills, J.A. (1973). Some observations on the effects of field applications of fensulfothion and parathion on bird and mammal populations. Proceedings (New Zealand Ecological Society).

  72. Modrá, H. and Svobodová, Z. (2009). Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: Current situation.  Interdisciplinary Toxicology. 2(2): 48-51.

  73. Mohan. (2018). Pesticide poisoning claimed 272 lives of farmers in Maharashtra. The times of india accessed 21.01.21. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/pesticide -poisoning-claimed-272-lives-of-farmers-in-maharashtra- in-4-years/articleshow/63194105.cms.

  74. Monge, P., Wesseling, C., Guardado, J., Lundberg, I., Ahlbom, A., Cantor, K.P., Weiderpass, E. and Partanen, T. (2007). Parental occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of childhood leukemia in costa rica. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health: 293-303.

  75. Murray, J.A. and Vaughan, L.M. (1970). Measuring pesticide drift at distances to four miles. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 9(1): 79-85.

  76. Nakata, H., Kawazoe, M., Arizono, K., Abe, S., Kitano, T., Shimada, H., Li, W. and Ding, X. (2002). Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in foodstuffs and human tissues from China: Status of contamination, historical trend, and human dietary exposure. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 43(4): 0473-0480.

  77. Nakata, H., Tanabe, S., Tatsukawa, R., Koyama, Y., Miyazaki, N., Belikov, S. and Boltunov, A. (1998). Persistent organochlorine contaminants in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the Kara Sea, Russian Arctic. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: An International Journal. 17(9): 1745-1755.

  78. Naoroji, R. (1997). Contamination in egg shells of Himalayan Grey headed Fishing Eagle Ichthyaetus nana plumbea in Corbett National Park, India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society. 94: 398-400.

  79. Ogada, D.L. (2014). The Power of Poison: Pesticide Poisoning of Africa’s Wildlife. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1322(1): 1-20.

  80. Osibanjo, O. and Jensen, S. (1980). Ecological and environmental health perspectives of pesticide pollution. Proc. of the first National Conference on water Pollution and Pesticide Resiues in food. University of lbadan. Pg.

  81. Oulmi, Y., Negele, R.D. and Braunbeck, T. (1995). Segment specificity of the cytological response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) renal tubules following prolonged exposure to sublethal concentrations of atrazine. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 32(1): 39-50.

  82. Peakall, D.B. (1993). DDE-induced eggshell thinning: An environmental detective story.  Environmental Reviews. 1(1): 13-20.

  83. Peakall, D.B. (1985). Behavioral responses of birds to pesticides and other contaminants. Residue Reviews: 45-77.

  84. Pell, M., Stenberg, B. and Torstensson, L. (1998). Potential denitrification and nitrification tests for evaluation of pesticide effects in soil. Ambio: 24-28.

  85. Pimentel, D., Acquay, H., Biltonen, M., Rice, P., Silva, M., Nelson, J., Lipner, V., Giordano, S., Horowitz, A. and D’amore, M. (1992). Environmental and economic costs of pesticide use.  Bioscience. 42(10): 750-760.

  86. Pimentel, D. and Levitan, L. (1986). Pesticides: Amounts applied and amounts reaching pests. Bioscience. 36(2): 86-91.

  87. Polyrakis, I.T. (2009). Environmental Pollution from Pesticides. In Predictive Modeling and Risk Assessment, 201-224. Springer.

  88. Prakash, P.J., Rajashekhar, G., Krishnappa, H., Sulaiman, S.M. and Rao, K.V. (2009). Acute toxic effects of Endosulfan 35 EC (Endocel) upon oral gavage and dietary admixture in Japanese quails.  Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 3(3): 124-131.

  89. Programme, United Nations Development. (2001). Human Development Report: Making New Technologies Work for Human Development. 2001: Oxford University Press.

  90. Queyrel, W., Habets, F., Blanchoud, H., Ripoche, D. and Launay M. (2016). Pesticide fate modeling in soils with the crop model STICS: Feasibility for assessment of agricultural practices. Science of the Total Environment. 542: 787-802.

  91. Radhakrishnan, S. (2018). A note on wildlife poisoning cases from Kerala, South India. European Journal of Wildlife Research. 64(5): 1-5.

  92. Raloff, J. (1998). Common pesticide clobbers amphibians. Science News. 154(10): 150-150.

  93. Rauh, V.A., Perera, F.P., Horton, M.K., Whyatt, R.M., Bansal, R., Hao, X., Liu, J., Barr, D.B., Slotkin, T.A. and Peterson, B.S. (2012). Brain anomalies in children exposed prenatally to a common organophosphate pesticide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109(20): 7871-7876.

  94. Recio, R., Robbins, W.A., Aburto, V.B., Martinez, J.M., Froines, J.R., Hernandez, R.M. and Cebrián, M.E. (2001). Organo phosphorous pesticide exposure increases the frequency of sperm sex null aneuploidy. Environmental Health Perspectives. 109(12): 1237-1240.

  95. Richardson, J.R., Roy, A., Shalat, S.L., Von Stein, R.T., Hossain, M.M., Buckley, B., Gearing, M., Levey, A.I. and German, D.C. (2014). Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurology. 71(3): 284-290.

  96. Sang, S., Petrovic, S. and Cuddeford, V. (1999). Lindane- a review of toxicity and environmental fate. World Wild Fund Can 1724.

  97. Santos, A. and Flores, M. 1995. Effects of glyphosate on nitrogen fixation of free living heterotrophic bacteria. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 20(6): 349-352.

  98. Saoke, P. (2005). Kenya pops situation report: DDT, pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR)-Kenya.

  99. Satyavani, G., Gopi, R.A., Ayyappan, S., Balakrishnamurthy, P. and Neelakanta Reddy, P. (2011). Toxicity effect of expired pesticides to freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Journal of Agriculture and Environment. 12: 1-9.

  100. Settimi, L., Masina, A., Andrion, A. and Axelson, O. (2003). Prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides in agricultural settings. International Journal of Cancer. 104(4): 458-461. 2003. Prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides in agricultural settings.  International Journal of Cancer. 104(4): 458-461.

  101. Sharma, A., Kumar, V., Shahzad, B., Tanveer, M., Preet Singh Sidhu, G., Handa, N., Kohli, S.K., Yadav, P., Bali, A.S. and Parihar, R.D. (2019). Worldwide pesticide usage and its impacts on ecosystem. SN Applied Sciences. 1(11): 1-16.

  102. Sharma, M., Pandey, G. and Mandloi, A.K. (2012). Toxicity of certain pesticides in fishes.  Biochem. Cell. Arch. 12: 249-253.

  103. Singh, J.B. and Singh, S. (1989). Effect of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and maleic hydrazide on growth of bluegreen algae (cyanobacteria) Anabaena doliolum and Anacystis nidulans.  Sci. Cult. 55: 459-460.

  104. Singh, N.N. and Srivastava, A.K. (1992). Blood dyscrasis in the freshwater Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis after acute exposure to a sublethal concentration of propoxur.  Acta Hydrobiologica. 1(34): 189-195.

  105. Soto, A.M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K.L., Fernandez, M.F., Olea, N. and Serrano, F.O. (1995). The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: An update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environmental health perspectives. 103(suppl 7): 113-122.

  106. Summerford, W.T., Hayes Jr, W.J., Johnston, J.M., Walker, K. and Spillane, J. (1953). Cholinesterase response and symptomatology from exposure to organic phosphorus insecticides. Arch. Indust. Hyg. and Occupational Med. 7(5): 383-398.

  107. Tabor, E.C. (1965). Pesticides in urban atmospheres. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 15(9): 415-418.

  108. Tang, F.H.M., Lenzen, M. And McBratney, A. (2021). Risk of pesticide pollution at the global scale. Nat. Geosci. 14: 206-210. 

  109. Tattersall, A. (1991). How many dead birds are enough? Cancellation of diazinon’s uses on golf courses. Journal of Pesticide Reform: A publication of the Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides (USA).

  110. van der Maden, E.C., Wulansari, M. and Koomen, I. (2014). Occupational pesticide exposure in vegetable production: A literature and policy review with relevance to Indonesia. Wageningen University and Research centre.

  111. Venkataramanan, R., Sreekumar, C. and Kalaivanan, N. (2008). Malicious carbofuran poisoning of a leopard (Panthera pardus) in Sandynallah Reserve Forest, India. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 29(1): 15-17.

  112. Verger, Philippe, J.P. and Boobis, A.R. (2013). Reevaluate pesticides for food security and safety. Science. 341(6147): 717-718.

  113. Walker, C.H. and Livingstone, D.R. (2013). Persistent pollutants in marine ecosystems: Elsevier.

  114. Wang., Ning/, Jiang, Q., Han, L., Zhang, H., Zhu, B.and Liu, X. (2019). Epidemiological characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2007 to 2016. Scientific reports. 9(1): 1-8.

  115. Ware, G.W., Cahill, W.P., Gerhardt, P.D. and Witt, J.M. (1970). Pesticide drift IV. On-target deposits from aerial application of insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology. 63(6): 1982-1983.

  116. Wheeler, M.A., Jaronen, M., Covacu, R., Zandee, S.E., Scalisi, G., Rothhammer, V., Tjon, E.C., Chao, C., Kenison, J.E. and Blain, M. (2019). Environmental control of astrocyte pathogenic activities in CNS inflammation. Cell. 176(3): 581-596. e518.

  117. WHO. (1990). Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture: World Health Organization.

  118. Wildlife, Defenders of. (1947). The Dangers of Pesticides to Wildlife A White PaperbyDefendersofWildlife.http://www.defenders. org/wildlife/birds/pesticides.html.

  119. Wolfe, H.R. (1976). Field exposure to airborne pesticides. Air Pollution from Pesticides and Agricultural processes: 137-161.

  120. Woodwell., George, M., Craig, P.P. and Johnson, H.A. (1971). DDT in the biosphere: where does it go? Science. 174(4014): 1101-1107.

  121. WWF. (1999). accessed11.1.21.http://www.neteffect.ca/pesticides/ resources/bugs-at-risk.pdf.

  122. Xu, Shaoqing, Yang, X., Qian, Y., Wan, D., Sun, F., Luo, Q., Song, Y. and Xiao, Q. (2020). Interaction Between Genetic Variants and Serum Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides Contributes to Parkinson’s Disease.

  123. Yeo, D. (1959). The Problem of Distribution, the Physics of Falling Droplets and Particles, the Drift Hazard. 1st International Agricultural Aviation Conference.

  124. Yerena, C.E., Hernández-Kelly, L., Ramírez, J., Riaño, M.E., López, M.R., Fernández, S. and Ortega, A. (2005). Role of CYP2E1 genetic polymorphism in the risk of acute pesticide intoxication. Bioquimia. 30(3): 68-75.

Editorial Board

View all (0)