Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma
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Development of Watershed Programme for Environment and Agriculture Sustainability in SAT Region, Central India
First Online 10-08-2021|
Methods: To evaluate the economic feasibility and crop productivity along with agroforestry was worked out on the basis of survey and sampling. To get uniform samples of crops from cultivated fields some specific area selected (1 m x 1 m size) and get about 80 crop samples for measurements from whole watershed. All data has been collected through survey of 40% households of watershed and then all these data subjected to statistical analysis in the laboratory. To minimize the problem and rejuvenate the water body, water resource development plan helps in identify the available sources so that appropriate and effective with durable solutions can be formulated. The net return of crop cultivated was calculated by subtracting the cost of cultivation incurred from sowing to harvesting, for each crop from the gross return and then benefit-cost ratio was estimated for further improvement or scaled up and livelihood security of former.
Result: The study has revealed that after watershed interventions and agroforestry based Crop cultivation, water level increased 2-6 m, crop production increased by 45-47%, cropping intensity increased 97-98% from 44-46% and migration decreased by 70-72%. During both season, the expenses on irrigation and labour will decrease, crop productivity will improve and benefit-cost ratio increased. Nutrition based food production provided the base for food security as it is a key determination of food availability.
India’s agricultural land is 142 million ha with 135% cropping intensity (NAAS, 2009) and 60% is rainfed which is characterized by water scarcity, land degradation, low inputs use and low productivity. Agricultural productivity of these areas oscillates between 0.5 and 2.0 ton/ha with average of one ton per ha (Rockstrom et al., 2010; Wani et al., 2011a,2011b). Irrigated land which covers 40% of total agricultural area significantly contributes in satisfying 55% of total food requirement of the country (GOI, 2012) but on the other hand it consumes almost 70% of fresh water resources and has left limited scope for expanding irrigated area further (CWC, 2005). Thus achieving food security of the country in future is largely dependent on rainfed agriculture (Wani et al., 2009, 2012).
Here, this study interpretates the analysis in SAT region, central India of natural resource management which improve ecosystem services, increase the life living status of mankind specially formers and maintain the environmental status.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The agro-climate is characterized by dry and hot summer, warm and moist rainy season and cool winter with occasional rain showers. Mean annual temperature ranges from 24 to 25oC. The mean summer (April-May-June) temperature is 34oC which may rise to a maximum of 46 to 49oC during the month of May and June. The mean winter temperature (December-January-February) is 16oC which may drop to 3-5oC in December and January.
The geology of the study area is dominated by hard rocks of Archaen granite and gneiss and largely composed of crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks (Tyagi, 1997), Due to undulated topography, poor groundwater potential, high temperature, poor and erratic rainfall, agricultural productivity in this region is very poor (0.5-1.5 t ha-1).
Monitoring of crop productivity
The area and productivity of cultivated crops were noted yearly through survey and sampling. To get uniform samples of crops from cultivated fields some specific area selected (1mx1m size) and get about 80 crop samples for measurements from whole watershed (Fig 1). All data has been collected through survey of 40 % households of watershed and then all these data subjected to statistical analysis in the laboratory.
Water resources development plan
Low rainfall, long dry spells and droughts are common features of the watershed and due to that result water scarcity problem increased. To minimize the problem and rejuvenate the water body, water resource development plan helps in identify the available sources so that appropriate and effective with durable solutions can be formulated. The irrigation intensity has been enhanced through improved recharge of these wells by constructing rainwater harvesting structures at appropriate interval in the ephemeral drains. In water resource development plan various interventions were adopted such as checkdams, low cost checkdams, nalla plug, gabions, spillways, bunding and resized filed along with agroforestry.
Economic feasibility of crop production
To evaluate the economic feasibility of crop production, the economics of all the crops grown during kharif and rabi was worked out. All the fields were digitized in the QGIS environment and the coverage of different crops in both the seasons was marked on a map and estimated using QGIS version 2.6.1. All the in formations about the crops production and its impaction on employment generation were gathered by personal interview using well-structured questionnaires. The net return of crop cultivated was calculated by subtracting the cost of cultivation incurred from sowing to harvesting, for each crop from the gross return and then benefit-cost ratio was estimated for further improvement or scaled up and livelihood security of former.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Watershed development program is a best and appropriate technology to rejuvenate the riverine system as well as to enhance the recharge of shallow open dug wells during rainy season. It improves the yield of wells for sustainable irrigation and water supply for crop cultivation. The water availability in watershed has increased in time and scale. Interventions are developed in cost effective with sustainability. These water management interventions included checkdams, low cost checkdams, nalla plug, gabions, spillways, bunding and resized filed etc. supports to enhance the water availability and generate the base flow 2-3 times and increase the water level 2-6 m results the supply of water during whole year (Table 1).
Transformation of watertable depth and its behaviour
After interventions, runoff reduced with increasing infiltration rate which generate the base flow and this base flow increases the water level in the shallow wells as well as rejuvenate the riverine system by enhancing groundwater recharge. Average water column for the months of June and October was recorded as 1.95 and 4.32 m respectively. Water column depth is being satisfactory in whole year through generation of base flow by 2-3 times and increased the water table by 2-6 m (Fig 2).
Transformation of crop productivity
Crop production of rabi crops
The productivity of major rabi crops like wheat, gram, pea,mustard and barley was increased and maximum production was also recorded in wheat crop which increased about 82.22% as compared to rest crops while overall production was increased by 45.75%. The productivity of wheat and mustard crops is increased rapidly while in gram, pea and barley production gradually increased (Fig 3).
Crop production of kharif crops
After interventions of NRM, productivity of kharif crops viz. sorghum, groundnut, sesame and black gram was increased and maximum production was undertaken in sorghum as 0.55 tonne/ha with respect to overall production of 1.26 tonne/ha for kharif crops. Overall transformation of production in kharif crops was observed in increasing nature and recorded as 46.32%. The graph of crops production shows that production of sorghum is more effective after interventions of NRM comparison to remaining crops (Fig 4).
Transformation of cultivated area and cropping intensity
Changes in cultivated area under rabi crops
Availability of sufficient amount of water for irrigation is a great challenge for such type of area but after interventions of NRM patches of crops and cultivated area increased viz. wheat, gram and barley by 148, 23, 5.72 ha, respectively (Table 2). The cropping intensity increased by 98.39 % from 46.39%. The cultivated area increased rapidly for wheat crops and gradually for area of pea and mustarded crops reduced and it shifted for wheat crops due to availability of sufficient amount of water and less risk of damage (Fig 5).
Changes in cultivated area under kharif crops
The area for kharif crops increased as well decreased at different levels viz. 6.10, 12.60, 109.30 and 8.60 ha corresponding to crops as sorghum, groundnut, sesame and blackgram with respect to overall 142.70 ha cultivated area (Table 3). Cropping intensity was recorded as 52.26% after interventions of NRM. After interventions of NRM the maximum area covered by sesame crops as compared to others due to less expenditure and less protection and cultivated area also minimized of rest crops (Fig 6).
Transformation of migration scenario
People were migrating to meet their needs and livelihood security because most of the cultivated area lying empty/fellow due to lack of water and in remaining area, production was very hardly and costly. After interventions of NRM, protection of crops possible by different fencing weeds viz. canacia selegon and full fill the complete requirement of water which provide livelihood facility and due to result, migration of people decreased as 70.74% whereas 62.75% male and 81.78% female migration decreased.
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