Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.63

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 43 issue 3 (september 2022) : 288-295

​Erythrocyte Parameters as a Diagnostic Tool in Canine Medicine: A Review

S.N. Yadav, N. Ahmed, A.J. Nath, P.K. Boro
1Department of Veterinary Medicine, Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Joyhing, North Lakhimpur-787 051, Assam, India.
Cite article:- Yadav S.N., Ahmed N., Nath A.J., Boro P.K. (2022). ​Erythrocyte Parameters as a Diagnostic Tool in Canine Medicine: A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 43(3): 288-295. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-2112.
The haematological analysis is one of the essential diagnostic and prognostic tools for the health practitioner. Routine hematology consists of erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet parameters estimation. Erythrocyte parameters (RBC, RDW, haemoglobin, haematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC) estimation plays a crucial role in identifying anemia and several other acute and chronic conditions. Accurate and precise haematology results depend on correct blood collection procedures, suitable anticoagulants, proper storage and effective blood transport. The individual reference value variance can be due to age, sex, stress, diet, body condition, hydration status and reproductive status. Automatic haeamtology analyzer can yield quick and accurate results provided the sample is free from any artifacts. In conclusion, the accuracy of the result of automatic haematology analyzer in canine medicine is impeded by the lack of precise and rapid comparison procedure, instability and complexity of blood cells. Therefore the findings of the automatic haemotolyzer should always be corroborated with the clinical findings and another laboratory test.

  1. Adili, N. and Melizi, M. (2014). Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells morphometry on the species determinism of domestic animals. Veterinary World. 7(4): 219-223.

  2. Adili, N., Melizi, M. and Belabbas, H. (2016). Species determination using the red blood cells morphometry in domestic animals Veterinary Wold. 9(9): 960-963.

  3. Anonymous. (2013) Hematocrit. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor. [Jorg M. and Thomas M.D. editors]. 10th Edn, W.B. Saunders. pp622-623. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-3969-3.00362-0.

  4. Arslan, H.H., Guzel, M., Meral, Y, Dalgin, D., Gokalp, G. and Ozcan, U. (2017). A New Approach to Blood Parameters in Dogs with Hemorrhagic Enteritis. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. 45: 1458.

  5. Athanasiou, L.V., Polizopoulou, Z., Kalafati, M.R., Ntararas, G. and Kontos, V. (2016). Effects of pre-analytical handling on selected canine hematological parameters evaluated by automatic analyzer. Veterinary Research Forum. 7(4): 281-285.

  6. Bailey, J.E. and Pablo, L.S. (1998). Practical approach to acid- base disorders. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice. 28(3): 645-662.

  7. Becker, M., Moritz, A. and Giger, U. (2008). Comparitive clinical study of canine feline total blood cell count results with seven in clinic and two commercial laboratory hematology analyzer. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 37(4): 373-384.

  8. Bhavani, M.S., Kavitha, S., Variamuthu, S., Vijayrani, K. and Bhat, A.A.(2021). Clinical Signs, Activity Indices and Prognostic Indicators in Dogs with Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease Indian Journal of Animal Research. DOI: 10. 18805/IJAR.B-4399.

  9. Bienzle, D., Stanton, J.B., Embry, J.M., Bush, S.E. and Mahaffey, E.A. (2000). Evaluation of an in-house centrifugal hematology analyzer for use in veterinary practice.Journal of the American Medical Veterinary Association. 217: 1195-1200.

  10. Brenten, T., Morris, P.J., Salt, C., Raila, J., Kohn, B., Schweigert, F.J. and Zentek, J. (2016). Age-associated and breed associated variations in haematological and biochemical variables in young labrador retriever and miniature schnauzer dogs. Veterinary Record Open. 3: e000166. 

  11. Brigden, M.L. and Dalal, B.I. (1999). Cell counter-related abnormalities. Lab Medicine. 30: 325-334.

  12. Brockus, C.W. (2011). Erythrocytes. In: Duncan and Prasse’s veterinary laboratory medicine: clinical pathology.  [Latimer, K.S. editor.] 5th Edn,Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp3-44.

  13. Clark, P., Holz. P. and Duignan, P.J. (2017). Collection and handling of blood sample. Available at: collection-and-handling-of-blood-samples [Accessed on 02-09-2020].

  14. Chakarborty, A. (2008). Text book of Veterinary Clinical Medicine. 8th Edn, Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi, India. Pp. 422-445.

  15. Choi, S.Y., Hwang, J.S., Kim, I.H., Hwang, D.Y. and Kang, H.G. (2011). Basic data on the hematology, serum biochemistry, urology and organ weights of beagle dogs. Laboratory Animal Research. 27(4): 283-291.

  16. Ettinger, S.J. and Feldman, E.C. (2010). Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Diseases of the dog and the cat. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

  17. Gonul, R., Koenhemsi, L., Bayrakal, A., Yildiz, K., Bahceci, T., Or, M.E. and Uysal, A. (2020). Hepatorenal arterial resistive and pulsatility indexes in dogs with ascites. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 54(3): 359-362. 

  18. [Accessed on 12-08-20]

  19. [Accessed on 18-08-20]

  20. [Accessed on 07-08-20]

  21. [Accessed on 07-07-20]

  22. Indhu, M.S., Sesh, P.S.L., Loganathasamy, K., Jeyaraja, K., Padmanath, K. Pandiyan, V. (2019). Analysis of certain blood biochemical parameters in relation to oxidative stress in chronic mitral valve insufficiency of dogs with heart failure. Indain Journal of Animal Research. 53(9): 1181-1187.

  23. Jensen, A.L., Wenck, A., Koch, J. and Poulsen, J.S.D. (1994). Comparison of result of haematological and clinical chemical analyses of blood samples obtained from cephalic and external jugular vein. Res. Vet. Sci. 56 (1): 24-29.

  24. Jeong, E., Han, S.C., Cha, S.W., Lee, H.S., Ha, C.S. and Kim, C.Y. (2007). Hematological and blood biochemical values of laboratory beagle dogs. Laboratory Animal Research. 23(3): 223-229.

  25. Keenan, C.M., Hendricks, L.D., Lightner, L., Webster, H.K. and Johnson, A.J. (1984). Visceral Leishmaniasis in the German Shepherd Dog. Infection, Clinical Disease and Clinical Pathology. Veterinary Pathology. 21(1): 74-79.

  26. Kahn, C.M. and Line, S. (2010). The Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th Edn, Merck and CO., I.N.C., White Station, NJ, USA. pp2824-2827.

  27. Khan, S.A., Epstein, J.H., Olival, K.J., Hassan, M.M., Hossain, M.B., Rahman, K.B., Elahi, M.F., Mamun, M.A., Haider, N., Yasin, G. and Desmond, J. (2011). Hematology and serum chemistry reference values of stray dogs in Bangladesh. Open veterinary journal. 1(1): 13-20.

  28. King, L.G., Giger, U., Diserens, D. and Nagode, L.A. (1992), Anaemia of Chronic Renal Failure in Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 6: 264-270. 

  29. Klaassen, J.K. (1999). Reference values in veterinary medicine. Laboratory Medicine. 30: 194- 197.

  30. Kraft, W. and Durr, U.M. (2005). Klinische Labordiagnostik in der Tiermedizin [Clinical laboratory diagnostics in veterinary medicine], 6th Edn. Schattauer, Stuttgart, Germany. In German.

  31. Krimer, P.M. (2011). Generating and interpreting test results: test validity, quality control, reference values and basic epidemiology. In: Duncan and Prasse’s veterinary laboratory medicine: clinical pathology. [Latimer, K.S. Editor]. 5th Edn. Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp365-382.

  32. Kumiega, E., Michalek, M., Kasztura, M. and Noszczyk- Nowak. A. (2020). Analysis of red blood cell parameters in dogs with various stages of degenerative mitral valve disease. Journal of Veterinary Research. 64(2): 325-332. 

  33. Lobetti. R. (2002). Infectious Causes of Anaemia. Available at https:/ / id=3846 206andpid=11147 [Accessed on 05-09-2020].

  34. March, H., Barger, A., McCullough, S., Schaeffer, D. and MacWilliams, P. (2005). Use of the ADVIA 120 for differentiating extracellular and intracellular hemoglobin. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 34: 106-109.

  35. Martinez, C., Mooney, C.T., Sheil, R.E., Tang, P.K. Mooney, L. and O Neil, E.M. (2019). Evaluation of red cell distribution width in dogs with various illness. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 60(9): 964-971.

  36. Mazzotta, E., Guglielmini, C., Menciotti, G., Contiero, B., Baron Toaldo, M., Berlanda, M. and Poser, H. (2016). Red Blood Cell Distribution Width, Hematology and Serum Biochemistry in Dogs with Echocardiographically Estimated Precapillary and Postcapillary Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 30(6): 1806-1815.

  37. Megha, K., Swamy, N.S., Ranganath, L., Rao, S., Shridhar, N.B., Veena, M.P., Ramesh, P.T. (2018). Thyroid hormones and lipid profile in Labrador Retreiver male dogs. Indian Journal of Animal Resaerch. 52(5): 674-677.

  38. Mundim, A.V., Aperacida de, M., Tavres, M., Cury, M.C., Mundim, M.J.S. (2008). Clinical and hematological signs associated with dog naturally infected by Hepatozoon sp. and with other hematozoa: A retrospective study in Uberlandia, Minas Gerias, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology. 153: 3-8

  39. Moritz, A. and Becker, M. (2010). Automated hematology systems. In: Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. [Weiss, D.J. and Wardrop, K.J. editors]. 6th Edn. Blackwell Publishing, Ames. pp1054-1066.

  40. Nadia, H. (2019). Algerian Indigenous Dog: Haemato-biochmeical Profile in Healthy and Gastroenteritis Diseased Case. Agricultural Science Digest. 39(3): 244-249.

  41. Paltrinieri, S., Preatoni, M. and Rossi, S. (2010) Microcytosis does not predict serum iron concentrations in anaemic dogs. The Veterinary Journal. 185(3): 341-343. 

  42. Paltrinieri, S. (2014). The diagnostic approach to anaemia in the dog and cat. Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society. 65(3): 149-164. 

  43. Penny, R.H.C., Carlisle, C.H., Prescott, C.W. and Davidson, H.A. (1967). Some observations on the effect of the concentration of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on the packed cell volume of domesticated animals. Brtish Veterinary Journal. 123: 145.

  44. Poitout Belissent, F., Aulbach, A., Tripathi, N. and Ramaiah, L. (2016). Reducing blood volume requirements for clinical pathology testing in toxicologic studies-points to consider. Veterinary Clincal Pathology. 45: 534-551.  

  45. Porter, J.A. Jr. and Canaday, W.R. Jr. (1971). Hematologic values in mongrel and greyhound dogs being screened for research use. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. 159: 1603-1606.

  46. Randolph, J.F. (2010). Erythrocytosis and Polycyhemia. In: [Kahn, C.M., Line, S. et al, editors]. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th Edn. Merck and Co. Inc., White House Station., N.J, USA. pp 40-42.

  47. Roland, L., Drillich, M. and Iwersen, M. (2014). Hematology as a diagnostic tool in bovine medicine. Journa of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 26(5): 592-598.

  48. Rim, J.H., Chang, M.H., Oh, J., Gee, H.Y., Kim, J.H. and Yoo, J. (2018). Effects of Cold Agglutinin on the Accuracy of Complete Blood Count Results and Optimal Sample Pretreatment Protocols for Eliminating Such Effects. Annals of Laboratory Medicine. 38(4): 371-374.

  49. Schalm, O.W. (1976). Erythrocyte macrocytosis in miniature and toy poodles. Canine Practice. 3: 55-57.

  50. Scoffin, K. (2014). Hematology Analyzers-From Complete Blood Counts to Cell Morphology. Available at: https://www. Analyzers-From-Complete-Blood-Counts-to-Cell-Morphology/ [Accessed on 23-09-2020]

  51. Stanley, E., Appleman, E., Schlag, A. and Siegel, A. (2019). Relationship between cobalamin and folate deficiencies and anaemia in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 33(1): 106-113. 

  52. Steinberg, J.D. and Olver, C.S. (2005). Hematologic and biochemical abnormalities indicating iron deficiency are associated with decreased reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) and reticulocyte volume (rMCV) in dogs. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 34: 23-27

  53. Stockham, S.L. and Scott, M.A. (2008). Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2nd Edn. Blackwell Publishing, Ames.

  54. Tanabe, Y. (2006). Phylogenetic studies of dogs with emphasis on Japanese and Asian breeds. Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences. 82: 375-387.

  55. Tasker, S., Cripps, P.J. and Mackin, A.J. (2001). Evaluation of methods of platelet counting in the cat. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 42: 326-332.

  56. Takahira RK. (2009) Chronic Nonregenerative Anaemia: A Challenge?. Available at : 1.aspx?pId=11290andid=4252697. [Accessed on 05-09- 2020].

  57. Thongsahuan, S. Fonghoi. L. Kaewfai. S. and Srinoun, K. (2020). Precision and accuracy of the Mindray BC 5000Vet hematology analyzer for canine and feline blood. Veterinary Clinical Patholology. 49: 207-216. 

  58. Tvedten, H. (2005). Basic Approach to Anaemia Diagnosis. Available from 1. aspx?pId=11196andcatId=30756andid=3854233. [Accessed on 01-09-2020)]

  59. Tvedten, H. (2010). Laboratory and clinical diagnosis of anaemia. In: Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. [Weiss, D.J. and Wardrop, K.J. editors.] 6th Edn. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, pp 152-161.

  60. Udegbunam, R.I., Njaka, C.S., Okereke, H.N. and Udegbunam, S.O. (2020). Comparitive evaluation of the in-vitro viability of canine and human blood preserved in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA)-1 anticogaulated blood bag. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 54(5): 549-552.

  61. Villiers, E. and Blackwood, L. (2005). BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Clinical Pathology. 2nd Edn. BSAVA, Gloucester.

  62. Waner, T. (2008). Haematopathological changes in dogs infected with Ehrichilia canis. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 63(1): 19-23.

  63. Wood, D., Quiroz-Rocha, G.F. (2010). Normal hematology of cattle. In: Schalm’s veterinary hematology. [Weiss, D.J. and Wardrop, K.J. editors.] 6th Edn. Wiley, Ames, IA. pp829- 835.

  64. Wu, A.H. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests - E-Book. Saunders.

  65. Zhao, Z., Liu, T., Li, J., Yang, W., Liu, E. and Li, G. (2014). Elevated red cell distribution width level is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in a canine model of rapid atrial pacing. International Journal of Cardiology. 174(1): 174-176. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)