Feeding Total Mixed Ration (TMR) on Production and Reproductive Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-208    | Article Id: R-208 | Page : 29-37
Citation :- Feeding Total Mixed Ration (TMR) on Production and Reproductive Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2022.(43):29-37
R.H.W.M. Karunanayaka, R.T.P. Liyanage, W.A.D. Nayananjalie, M.A.A.P. Kumari, S.C. Somasiri, A.M.J.B. Adikari, W.V.V.R. Weerasingha deepthin@agri.rjt.ac.lk
Address : Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Puliyankulama, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
Submitted Date : 5-06-2021
Accepted Date : 17-09-2021


The development of the dairy sector is economically important to many countries of the world. However, the dairy sector has faced many constraints due to the unavailability of quality and quantity of feed resources and their responses on growth, health and reproduction in dairy animals. The total mixed ration (TMR) is an alternate strategy to overcome the feed shortage of lactating cows by utilizing available feed resources effectively and efficiently. This review article elaborates the effects of TMR on the production and reproduction performance of lactating dairy cows. Interestingly, TMR feeding has a significant effect on the body weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, milk yield and composition and reproductive performances of lactating dairy cows. Feeding TMR to dairy animals was investigated to provide a balanced diet, reduce feed wastage and save labour cost and time. Hence, feeding TMR as per the animal requirement is more efficient as compared to traditional feeds.


Body condition Feed efficiency Milk composition Milk yield Quality feed Reproduction


  1. Abudabos, A.M., Abdelrahman, M.M., Alatiyat, R.M., Aljumaah, M.R., Jassim, R.Al. and Stanley, D. (2020). Effect of dietary inclusion of graded levels of distillers dried grains with solubles on the performance, blood profile and rumen microbiota of Najdi lambs. Heliyon. 6: 1-10. DOI:10.1016/ j.heliyon.2020.e05683.
  2. Alves, J.P.M., Fernandes, C.C.L., Rossetto, R., Silva, C.P. da, Galvão, I.T.O.M., Bertolini, M. and Rondina, D. (2019). Impact of short nutrient stimuli with different energy source on follicle dynamics and quality of oocyte from hormonally stimulated goats. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 54(9): 1206-1216. DOI:10.1111/rda.13500.
  3. Archimede, H., Sauvant, D. and Schmidely, P. (1997). Original article quantitative review of ruminal and total tract digestion of mixed diet organic matter and carbohydrates. Reproduction Nutrition Development. 37(590): 173-189.
  4. Aschenbach, J.R., Penner, G.B., Stumpff, F. and Gäbel, G. (2011). Ruminant nutrition symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH. Journal of Animal Science. 89(4): 1092-1107. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3301.
  5. Bach, A., Iglesias, C. and Devant, M. (2007). Daily rumen pH pattern of loose-housed dairy cattle as affected by feeding pattern and live yeast supplementation. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 136(1-2): 146-153. DOI:10.1016/ j.anifeedsci.2006.09.011.
  6. Baker, L.D., Ferguson, J.D. and Chalupa, W. (1995). Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 78(11): 2424-2434. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76871-0.
  7. Bargo, F., Muller, L.D., Delahoy, J.E. and Cassidy, T.W. (2002a). Milk response to concentrate supplementation of high producing dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances. Journal of Dairy Science. 85(7): 1777-1792. DOI:10.3168/ jds.S0022-0302(02)74252-5.
  8. Bargo, F., Muller, L.D., Delahoy, J.E. and Cassidy, T.W. (2002b). Performance of high producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations. Journal of Dairy Science. 85(11): 2948- 2963. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74381-6.
  9. Bargo, F., Muller, L.D., Kolver, E.S. and Delahoy, J.E. (2003). Invited review: Production and digestion of supplemented dairy cows on pasture. Journal of Dairy Science. 86(1): 1-42. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73581-4.
  10. Beauchemin, K. (2002). Applying nutritional management to rumen health. In: Pennsylvania State Dairy Cattle Nutrition (pp. 107-114). http://dasweb.psu.edu/pdf/beauchemin.pdf.
  11. Beigh, Y.A., Ganai, A.M. and Ahmad, H.A. (2017). Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review. Veterinary World. 10(4): 424-437. DOI:10.14202/vetworld. 2017.424-437.
  12. Belyea, R.L., Coppock, C.E. and Lake, G.B. (1975). Effects of silage diets on health, reproduction and blood metabolites of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 58(9): 1336-1346. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84715-1.
  13. Bodahewa, A.P., Weerasinghe, W.M.P.B. and Palliyeguru, M.W.C.D. (2014). Effects of feeding total mixed ration (TMR) on the production performance of dairy cows. The Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal (Supplement). 11: 6.
  14. Butler, S.T. (2014). Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems. Animal. 8(SUPPL. 1). 15-26. DOI:10.1017/S1751731114000834.
  15. Callaghan, T.F.O., Rosa, V., Serra-cayuela, A., Dong, E., Mandal, R., Hennessy, D., Mcauliffe, S., Dillon, P., Wishart, D.S., Stanton, C. and Ross, R.P. (2018). Pasture feeding changes the bovine rumen and milk metabolome. Metabolites. 8(27): 1-24. DOI:10.3390/metabo8020027.
  16. Cardoso, F.C., Kalscheur, K.F. and Drackley, J.K. (2020). Symposium review: Nutrition strategies for improved health, production and fertility during the transition period. Journal of Dairy Science. 103(6): 5684-5693. DOI:10.3168/jds.2019-17271.
  17. Cardoso, F.C., Leblanc, S.J., Murphy, M.R. and Drackley, J.K. (2013). Prepartum nutritional strategy affects reproductive performance in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 96(9): 5859-5871. DOI:10.3168/jds.2013-6759.
  18. Charlton, G.L., Rutter, S.M., East, M. and Sinclair, L.A. (2011). Preference of dairy cows: Indoor cubicle housing with access to a total mixed ration vs. access to pasture. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 130(1-2), 1-9. DOI:10.1016/ j.applanim.2010.11.018.
  19. Coppock, C.E., Woelfel, C.G. and Belyea, R.L. (1981). Forage and feed testing programs-problems and opportunities. Journal of Dairy Science. 64(7)L 1625-1633. DOI:10.3168/jds. S0022-0302(81)82736-1.
  20. Dewhurst, R.J., Scollan, N.D., Youell, S.J., Tweed, J.K.S. and Humphreys, M.O. (2001). Influence of species, cutting date and cutting interval on the fatty acid composition of grasses. Grass and Forage Science. 56(1): 68-74. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2494.2001.00247.x.
  21. Drackley, J.K. and Cardoso, F.C. (2014). Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems. Animal. 8(SUPPL. 1): 5-14. DOI:10.1017/S1751731114000731.
  22. Du, Z., Yamasaki, S., Oya, T., Nguluve, D., Tinga, B., Macome, F. and Cai, Y. (2020). Ensiling characteristics of total mixed ration prepared with local feed resources in Mozambique and their effects on nutrition value and milk production in Jersey dairy cattle. Animal Science Journal = Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. 91(1): e13370. DOI:10.1111/asj.13370.
  23. Eastridge, M.L. (2006). Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 89(4): 1311-1323. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72199-3.
  24. Elgersma, A., Tamminga, S. and Ellen, G. (2006). Modifying milk composition through forage. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 131(3-4): 207-225. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci. 2006.06.012.
  25. Endo, N., Nagai, K., Tomomi, T. and Kamomae, H. (2013). Changes in plasma progesterone levels in the caudal vena cava and the jugular vein and luteinizing hormone secretion pattern after feeding in lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. Journal of Reproduction and Development. 59(2): 107-114. DOI:10.1262/jrd.2012-129.
  26. FAO (2012). Use of lesser-known plants and plant parts as animal feed resources in tropical regions, by Emmanuel S. Quansah and Harinder P.S. Makkar. Animal Production and Health Working Paper. No. 8. Rome.
  27. Felton, C. A. and DeVries, T.J. (2010). Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior and milk production of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 93(6): 2651-2660. DOI:10.3168/jds.2009-3009.
  28. Gaafar, H.M.A., Abdel-Raouf, E.M. and El-Reidy, K.F.A. (2010). Effect of fibrolytic enzyme supplementation and fibre content of total mixed ration on productive performance of lactating buffaloes. Slovak Journal of Animal Science. 43(3): 147-153.
  29. Garnsworthy, P.C., Lock, A., Mann, G.E., Sinclair, K.D. and Webb, R. (2008). Nutrition, metabolism and fertility in dairy cows: 1. Dietary energy source and ovarian function. Journal of Dairy Science. 91(10): 3814-3823. DOI:10.3168/jds. 2008-1031.
  30. Geppert, T.C., Meyer, A.M., Perry, G.A. and Gunn, P.J. (2017). Effects of excess metabolizable protein on ovarian function and circulating amino acids of beef cows: 2. Excessive supply in varying concentrations from corn gluten meal. Animal. 11(4): 634-642. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731116001890.
  31. Gilbert, R.O., Shin, S.T., Guard, C.L., Erb, H.N. and Frajblat, M. (2005). Prevalence of endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of dairy cows. Theriogenology. 64(9): 1879-1888. DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005. 04.022.
  32. Gong, J.G., Lee, W.J., Garnsworthy, P.C. and Webb, R. (2002). Effect of dietary-induced increases in circulating insulin concentrations during the early postpartum period on reproductive function in dairy cows. Reproduction. 123: 419-427. DOI:10.1530/rep.0.1230419.
  33. Gordon, F.J., Patterson, D.C., Yan, T., Porter, M.G., Mayne, C.S. and Unsworth, E.F. (1995). The influence of genetic index for milk production on the response to complete diet feeding and the utilization of energy and nitrogen. Animal Science. 61(2): 199-210. DOI: 10.1017/S1357729800013722.
  34. Grummer, R.R. (1991). Effect of feed on the composition of milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science. 74(9): 3244-3257. DOI:10.3168/ jds.S0022-0302(91)78510-X.
  35. Houwers, W., Wouters, B. and Vernooij, A. (2015). Sri Lanka fodder study. Livestock Research Report. 26(3): 33-41. www.wageningen UR.nl/livestockresearch.
  36. Hristov, A.N., Harper, M., Oh, J., Giallongo, F., Lopes, J.C., Cudoc, G., Clay, J., Ward, R. and Chase, L.E. (2018). Short communication: Variability in milk urea nitrogen and dairy total mixed ration composition in the northeastern United States. Journal of Dairy Science. 101(2): 1579-1584. DOI:10.3168/jds.2017-12925.
  37. Humer, E., Petri, R.M., Aschenbach, J.R., Bradford, B.J., Penner, G.B., Tafaj, M., Südekum, K.H. and Zebeli, Q. (2018). Invited review: Practical feeding management recommendations to mitigate the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 101(2): 1-17. DOI:10.3168 /jds.2017-13191.
  38. Hundal, J.S., Gupta, R.P., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. (2004). Effect of feeding total mixed ration on the productive performance of dairy cattle. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology. 4: 179-186. DOI:10.33785/ijds.2020.v73i 05.018.
  39. Ibrahim, M.N.M. and Jayatileka, T.N. (2000). Livestock production under coconut plantations in Sri Lanka: Cattle and buffalo production systems. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 13(1): 60-67. DOI:10.5713/ajas.2000.60.
  40. Ingvartsen, K.L., Aaes, O. and Andersen, J.B. (2001). Effects of pattern of concentrate allocation in the dry period and early lactation on feed intake and lactational performance in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science. 71(2-3) : 207-221. DOI:10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00192-0.
  41. Istasse, L., Reid, G.W., Tait, C.A.G. and Orskov, E.R. (1986). Concentrates for dairy cows: Effects of feeding methos, proportion in diet and type. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 15: 167-182.
  42. Jonker, J.S., Kohn, R.A. and High, J. (2002). Dairy herd management practices that impact nitrogen utilization efficiency. Journal of Dairy Science. 85(5): 1218-1226. DOI:10.3168/jds.S00 22-0302(02)74185-4.
  43. Khan, N., Sultan, S., Shah, S., Ali, J. and Khan, S. M. (2018). Effect of variable dietary energy levels on reproductive hormonal profile, body condition score, body weight and blood metabolites concentration of early lactating cows. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 6(2): 1172-1176.
  44. Kolver, E.S. and Muller, L.D. (1998). Performance and nutrient intake of high producing holstein cows consuming pasture or a total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Science. 81(5): 1403-1411. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75704-2.
  45. LeBlanc, S.J., Duffield, T.F., Leslie, K.E., Bateman, K.G., Keefe, G.P., Walton, J.S. and Johnson, W.H. (2002). Defining and diagnosing postpartum clinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 85(9): 2223-2236. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022- 0302(02)74302-6.
  46. Leonardi, C. and Armentano, L.E. (2003). Effect of quantity, quality and length of alfalfa hay on selective consumption by dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 86(2): 557-564. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73634-0.
  47. Li, X.Z., Park, B.K., Yan, C.G., Choi, J.G., Ahn, J.S. and Shin, J.S. (2012). Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 25(11): 1546-1552. DOI:10.5713/ajas.2012.12248.
  48. Löf, E., Gustafsson, H. and Emanuelson, U. (2007). Associations between herd characteristics and reproductive efficiency in dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science. 90(10): 4897- 4907. DOI:10.3168/jds.2006-819.
  49. Loor, J.J., Soriano, F.D., Lin, X., Herbein, J.H. and Polan. C.E. (2003). Grazing allowance after the morning or afternoon milking for lactating cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) enhances trans 11-18: 1 and cis9, trans 11-18: 2 (rumenic acid) in milk fat to different extents. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 109: 105-119. DOI:10.1016/S0377- 8401(03)00175-5.
  50. Mackle, T.R., Kay, J.K., Auldist, M. J., McGibbon, A.K.H., Philpott, B.A., Baumgard, L.H. and Bauman, D.E. (2003). Effects of abomasal infusion of conjugated linoleic acid on milk fat concentration and yield from pasture-fed dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 86: 644-652. DOI:10.3168/ jds.S0022-0302(03)73642-X.
  51. Mendoza, A., Cajarville, C. and Repetto, J. L. (2016). Short communication: Intake, milk production and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Science. 99(3): 1938-1944. DOI:10.3168/jds.2015-10257.
  52. Metzler-Zebeli, B.U., Schmitz-Esser, S., Klevenhusen, F., Podstatzky- Lichtenstein, L., Wagner, M. and Zebeli, Q. (2013). Grain- rich diets differently alter ruminal and colonic abundance of microbial populations and lipopolysaccharide in goats. Anaerobe. 20: 65-73. DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.02.005.
  53. Mikus, J.H. (2012). Diet consistency: Using TMR Audits TM to deliver more from your feed, equipment and people to the bottom line. High Plains Dairy Conference. 27-36.
  54. Mohammad, M., Gorgulu, M. and Goncu, S. (2017). The effects of total mixed ration and separate feeding on lactational performance of dairy cows. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture: 5(2): 1–7. DOI:10.9734/arja/2017/33663.
  55. Moore, G. and Varga, D.A. (1996). BUN and MUN: Urea nitrogen testing in dairy cattle. Compendium Continuing Education Veterinary. 18: 712-721.
  56. Morales-Almaráz, E., Soldado, A., González, A., Martínez-Fernández, A., Domínguez-Vara, I., De La Roza-Delgado, B. and Vicente, F. (2010). Improving the fatty acid profile of dairy cow milk by combining grazing with feeding of total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Research. 77(2): 225-230. DOI:10.1017/S002202991000004X.
  57. Moujahed, N., Dabboussi, S., Ammar, S.B.H. and Darej, S. (2009). Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on milk production. Research Journal of Dairy Sciences. 3(1): 3-7. DOI:medwelljournals.com/abstract/?doi=rjdsci.2009.3.7.
  58. NRC (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. In Seventh Revised Edition. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA. DOI:10.1201/b11653.
  59. Nissanka, N.P.C., Bandara, R.M.A.S. and Disnaka, K.G.J.S. (2010). A comparative study on feeding of total mixed ration vs conventional feeding on weight gain in weaned friesian heifers under tropical environment. The Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 5(1): 42-51.
  60. Nousiainen, J., Shingfield, K. J. and Huhtanen, P. (2004). Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a diagnostic of protein feeding. Journal of Dairy Science. 87: 386-398. DOI:10.3168/jds. S0022-0302(04)73178-1.
  61. Overton, T.R. and Waldron, M.R. (2004). Nutritional management of transition dairy cows: Strategies to optimize metabolic health. Journal of Dairy Science. 87(SUPPL. 1): E105- E119. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)70066-1.
  62. Perera, B.M.A.O. and Jayasuriya, M.C.N. (2008). The dairy industry in Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka. 36: 115-126.
  63. Prayitno, C. H., Mukminah, N. and Jayanegara, A. (2017). Effects of different feeding methods on feeding behavior, feed intake and digestibility of lactating dairy cows. International Journal of Dairy Science. 12(1): 73-80. DOI:10.3923/ ijds.2017.73.80.
  64. Premarathne, S. and Samarasinghe, K. (2020). Animal feed production in Sri Lanka: Past, present and future. In: Agricultural Research for Sustainable Food Systems in Sri Lanka (Vol. 1, pp. 277-301). DOI:10.1007/978-981-15-2152- 2_12.
  65. Rego, O.A., Portugal, P.A., Sousa, M.B., Rosa, H.J.D.  and Vouzela, C.M. (2004). Effect of diet on the fatty acid pattern of milk from dairy cows. Animal Research. 53: 213-220. DOI:10.1051/animres:2004010.
  66. Rego, O.A., Cabrita, A.R.J., Rosa, H. J.D., Alves, S.P., Duarte, V., Fonseca, A.J.M., Vouzela, C.F.M., Pires, F.R. and Bessa, R.J.B. (2016). Changes in milk production and milk fatty acid composition of cows switched from pasture to a total mixed ration diet and back to pasture. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 15(1): 76-86. DOI:10.1080/1828051X. 2016.1141330.
  67. Rehak, D., Barton, L., Vodkova, Z., Kubešová, M. and Rajmon, R. (2012). Relationships among body condition score, milk yield and reproduction in Czech Fleckvieh cows. Czech Journal of Animal Science. 57(6): 274-282.
  68. Roche, J.F. (2006). The effect of nutritional management of the dairy cow on reproductive efficiency. Animal Reproduction Science. 96(3-4): 282-296. DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci. 2006.08.007.
  69. Roche, J.R., Bell, A.W., Overton, T.R. and Loor, J.J. (2013). Nutritional management of the transition cow in the 21st century-a paradigm shift in thinking. Animal Production Science. 53: 1000-1023. DOI:10.1071/AN12293.
  70. Sarker, N.R., Yeasmin, D., Habib, M.A. and Tabassum, F. (2019). Feeding effect of total mixed ration on milk yield, nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen environment in Red Chittagong cows. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 5(1): 71-77. DOI:10.3329/ajmbr.v5i1.41048.
  71. Schingoethe, D.J. (2017). A 100-Year Review: Total mixed ration feeding of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 100: 10143-10150. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-12967.
  72. Schröder, B. and Breves, G. (2006). Mechanisms and regulation of calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract in pigs and ruminants: Comparative aspects with special emphasis on hypocalcemia in dairy cows. Animal Health Research Reviews. 7: 31-41. DOI:10.1017/S1466252307001144.
  73. Schroeder, G.F., Couderc, J. J., Bargo, F. and Rearte, D. H. (2005). Milk production and fatty acid profile of milkfat by dairy cows fed a winter oats (Avena sativa L.) pasture only or a total mixed ration. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 48(2): 187-195. DOI:10.1080/00288233.2005. 9513649.
  74. Schroeder, G.F., Delahoy, J.E., Vidaurreta, I., Bargo, F., Gagliostro, G.A. and Muller, L.D. (2003). Milk fatty acid composition of cows fed a total mixed ration or pasture plus concentrates replacing corn with fat. Journal of Dairy Science. 86: 3237-3248. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73927-7.
  75. Sharifi, K. (2014). Rumen health care for sustained productivity. Energy. 1: 1-8.
  76. Soriano, F.D., Polan, C.E. and Miller, C.N. (2001). Supplementing pasture to lactating Holsteins fed a total mixed ration diet. Journal of Dairy Science. 84: 2460-2468. DOI:10.3168/ jds.S0022-0302(01)74696-6.
  77. Sova, A.D., LeBlanc, S.J., McBride, B.W. and DeVries, T.J. (2014). Accuracy and precision of total mixed rations fed on commercial dairy farms. Journal of Dairy Science. 97(1): 562-571. DOI:10.3168/jds.2013-6951.
  78. Staples, C.R., Thatcher, W.W. and Clark, J.H. (1990). Relationship Between ovarian activity and energy status during the early postpartum period of high producing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 73(4): 938-947. DOI:10.3168/ jds.S0022-0302(90)78750-4.
  79. Stone, W.C. (2004). Nutritional approaches to minimize subacute ruminal acidosis and laminitis in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 87: E13-E26. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022- 0302(04)70057-0.
  80. Storm, A.C. and Kristensen, N.B. (2010). Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 93(9): 4223-4238. DOI:10.3168/jds.2009-3002.
  81. Swanepoel, N. and Robinson, P.H. (2019). Impacts of feeding a flax-seed based feed supplement on productive and reproductive performance of early lactation multiparous Holstein cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 251: 134-152. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.03.008.
  82. Tafaj, M., Junck, B., Maulbetsch, A., Steingass, H., Piepho, H.P. and Drochner, W. (2004). Digesta characteristics of dorsal, middle and ventral rumen of cows fed with different hay qualities and concentrate levels. Archives of Animal Nutrition. 58(4): 325-342. DOI:10.1080/000394204 1233 1273259.
  83. Teshome, D., Fita, L., Feyissa, F., Kitaw, G. and Wondatir, Z. (2017). Effect of Total mixed ration on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition of early lactating jersey cows. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 7(9): 19-24.
  84. Tomas, F.M. and Potter, B.J. (1976). The site of magnesium absorption from the ruminant stomach. British Journal of Nutrition. 36(1): 37-45. DOI:10.1079/bjn19760056.
  85. Tucker, W.B., Rude, B.J. and Wittayakun, S. (2001). Performance and economics of dairy cows fed a corn silage-based total mixed ration or grazing annual ryegrass during mid to late lactation. The Professional Animal Scientist. 17(3): 195-201. DOI:10.15232/S1080-7446(15)31622-3.
  86. Vibart, R.E., Fellner, V., Burns, J.C., Huntington, G.B. and Green, J.T. (2008). Performance of lactating dairy cows fed varying levels of total mixed ration and pasture. Journal of Dairy Research. 75(4): 471-480. DOI:10.1017/S0022 029908003361.
  87. Wachirapakorn, C., Puramongkol, T. and Seepuang, V. (1997). Total mixed ration (TMR) or complete ration (CR) for dairy cows. Journal Dairy Cows. 5: 53.
  88. Washburn, S.P., White, S.L., Green, J.T. and Benson, G.A. (2002). Reproduction, mastitis and body condition of seasonally calved holstein and jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems. Journal of Dairy Science. 85(1): 105-111. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74058-7.
  89. White, S.L., Bertrand, J.A., Wade, M.R., Washburn, S.P., Green, J.T. and Jenkins, T.C. (2001). Comparison of fatty acid content of milk from jersey and holstein cows consuming pasture or a total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Science. 84(10): 2295-2301. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74676-0.
  90. Wongnen, C., Wachirapakom, C., Patipan, C., Panpong, D., Kongweha, K., Namsaen, N., Gunun, P. and Yuangklang, C. (2009). Effects of fermented total mixed ration and cracked cottonseed on milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 22(12): 1625-1632. DOI:10.5713/ajas.2009.80668.
  91. Yan, T., Gordon, F.J., Agnew, R.E., Porter, M.G. and Patterson, D.C. (1997). The metabolisable energy requirement for maintenance and the efficiency of utilisation of metabolisable energy for lactation by dairy cows offered grass silage-based diets. Livestock Production Science. 51(1-3): 141-150. DOI:10.1016/S0301-6226(97)00065-1.
  92. Zebeli, Q., Aschenbach, J.R., Tafaj, M., Boguhn, J., Ametaj, B.N. and Drochner, W. (2012). Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 95(3): 1041-1056. DOI:10.3168/jds.2011-4421.
  93. Zebeli, Q., Ghareeb, K., Humer, E., Metzler-Zebeli, B.U. and Besenfelder, U. (2015). Nutrition, rumen health and inflammation in the transition period and their role on overall health and fertility in dairy cows. Research in Veterinary Science. 103: 126-136. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.09.020.
  94. Zerbini, E., Polan, C.E. and Herbein, J.H. (1988). Effect of dietary soybean meal and fish meal on protein digesta flow in Holstein cows during early and midlactation. Journal of Dairy Science. 71(5): 1248-1258. DOI:10.3168/jds.S00 22-0302(88)79680-0.

Global Footprints