​Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.), A Promising Grain Legume Crop of Bangladesh: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-203    | Article Id: R-203 | Page : 292-299
Citation :- ​Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.), A Promising Grain Legume Crop of Bangladesh: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2021.(42):292-299
Swapan Kumar Paul, Dipali Rani Gupta skpaul@bau.edu.bd
Address : Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh.
Submitted Date : 21-04-2021
Accepted Date : 12-07-2021


Faba bean is one of the multi-purpose oldest crop which is used as a source of dietary protein in human, as fodder and forage for livestock, feed for poultry and for available nitrogen for the biosphere. It is cool season grain legume that is grown in large areas in various countries in the world including a limited locality in Bangladesh. Diverse ecosystem benefits are expected from inclusion faba bean in cropping systems. This article reviews the published work mentioning potential uses of faba bean world-wide, challenges and its cultivation possibilities in Bangladesh.


​Constrains Faba bean Importance Possibility Status


  1. Adekiya, A.O., Agbede, T.M., Aboyeji, C.M., Dunsin, O. and Ugbe, J.O. (2017). Green manures and NPK fertilizer effects on soil properties, growth, yield, mineral and vitamin C composition of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences.  18(2): 218-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2017. 05.005 
  2. Ali, M., Joshi, P.K., Pandey,  S., Asokan,  M., Virmani, S.M. et al.  (2000). Legumes in the Indo-Gangetic Plain  of  India. [Johansen, C., et al.  Eds.]. ICRISAT, Patancheru-502324, AP. India and Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University. pp. 35-70.
  3. Álvarez-Iglesias, L., Puig, C.G., Garabatos, A., Reigosa MJ. and Pedrol, N. (2014). Vicia faba aqueous extracts and plant material can suppress weeds and enhance crops. Allelopathy Journal. 34: 299-314.
  4. Alonso, R., Aguirre, A. and Marzo, F. (2000). Effects of extrusion and traditional processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro digestibility of protein and starch in faba and kidney beans. Food Chem. 68: 159-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0308- 8146(99)00169-7.
  5. Álvarez-Iglesias, L., Revilla, P., Cavaleiro, C., Reigosa, M.J. and Pedrol, N. (2015). Crop legumes for weed control: the case of faba bean (Vicia Faba L.). Eucarpia International Symposium on Protein Crops. Pontevedra. 4-7 May, Spain.
  6. Aune, D., Chan, D.S., Lau, R., Vieira, R., Greenwood, D.C., Kampman, E. and Norat, T. (2011). Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose- response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 343: d6617. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d6617.
  7. Bangladesh Bank. (2021). https://www.ceicdata.com/en/bangladesh /trade-statistics-imports-by-commodity-bangladesh-bank/ imports-pulses-all-sorts.
  8. BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics) (2020). Yearbook of Agricultural statistics. BBS, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Statistics and Informatics Division, Bangladesh, Dhaka. p. 140.
  9. Bilalis, D., Karkanis, A., Sidiras, N., Travlos, I., Efthimiadou, A., Thomopoulos, P. and Kakabouki, I. (2012). Maize and legumes root growth and yield as influenced by organic fertilization, under mediterranean environmental conditions. Romanian Agricultural Research. 29: 211-217.
  10. Biswas, B.K. (1988). Genotype and environment interaction in faba bean. M. Sc. Thesis in Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University. pp. 1-40.
  11. Cazzato, E., Tufarelli, V., Ceci, E., Stellacci, A.M. and Laudadio, V. (2012). Quality yield and nitrogen fixation of faba bean seeds as affectedby sulphur fertilization. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B-Soil and Plant Science. 62: 732- 738. https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2012.698642
  12. Etemadi, F., Hashemi, M., Zandvakili, O. and Mangan, F. (2018). Phenology yield and growth pattern of faba bean varieties. International Journal of Plant Production. 12 (3): doi.org/ 10.1007/s42106-018-0023-1. 
  13. FAO (2021). FAOSTAT Database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at: www.fao.org/faostat/ [accessed April 15, 2021].
  14. Fru¨hbeck, G., Monreal, I. and Santidrian, S. (1997). Hormonal implications of the hypocholesterolemic effect of intake of field beans (Vicia faba L.) by young men with hypercholesterolemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 66: 1452-1460.
  15. Gasim, S. and Link, W. (2007). Agronomic performance and the effect of soil fertilization on German winter faba bean. Journal of Central European Agriculture. 8: 121-127.
  16. Gasim, S., Hamad, S.A.A., Abdelmula, A. and Ahmed, I.A.M. (2015). Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. Food Science and Nutrition. 3: 539-547.
  17. Gupta, Y.P. (1987). Anti-nutritional and toxic factors in food legumes: a review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 37:201-228.
  18. Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Jørnsgaard, B., Kinane, J. and Jensen, E.S. (2008). Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems, Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 23: 3-12.
  19. Helsper, J.P., Hoogendijk, J.M., van Norel, A. and Burger-Meyer, K. (1993). Antinutritional factors in faba beans (Vica faba L.) as affected by breeding toward the absence of condensed tannins. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 41: 1058-1061.
  20. Hu, J., Kwon, S.J., Park, J.J., Landry, E., Mattinson, D.S. and Gang, D.R. (2015). LC-MS determination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia faba L.) lines with common and rare flower colors. Functional Foods in Health and Disease. 5: 243-250.
  21. Hulse, J.H. (1994). Nature, composition and utilization of food legumes. In: [F.J. Muehlbauer and W.J. Kaiser (eds.)], Expanding the production and use of cool season food Legumes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands pp. 77-97.
  22. Jambunathan, R., Blain, H.L., Dhindsa, K.H., Hussein, L.A., Kogure, K., Li-Juan, L. et al. (1994). Diversifying Use of Cool Ceason Food Legumes through Processing. In: F.J. Muehlbauer and W.J. Kaiser (eds.), Expanding the Production and Use of  Cool Season  Food Legumes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 98-112.
  23. Jensen, E.S. and Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. (2003). How can increased use of biological N2 fixation in agriculture benefit the environment? Plant and Soil. 252: 177-186. https://doi. org/10.1023/A:1024189029226.
  24. Karim, M.A., Quayyum, M.A.. Samsuzzaman, S., Higuchi, H. and Nawata, E. (2017). Challenges and opportunities in crop production in different types of char lands of Bangladesh: Diversity in crops and cropping. Tropical Agriculture and Development. 61(2): 77-93.
  25. Kaletha, M., Bhatt, B.P. and Todaria, N.P. (1996). Allelopathic crop- weed interactions in traditional agroforestry systems of Garhwal Himalaya. Allelopathy Journal. 3: 65-70.
  26. Karkanis, A., Ntatsi, G., Lepse, L., Fernández, J.A., Vågen, I.M., Rewald, B., Alsin, I., Kronberga, A., Balliu, A., Olle, M., Bodner, G., Dubova, L., Rosa, E. and Savvas, D. (2018). Faba bean Cultivation- Revealing novel managing practices for more sustainable and competitive European cropping systems. Frontiers in Plant Science. 9:1115. https:// doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01115.
  27. Kaur, M. and Singh, N.A. (2007). A comparison between the properties of seed, starch, flour and protein separated from chemically hardened and normal kidney beans. Journal of Science Food Agriculture. 87: 729-737. https:/ /doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2798.
  28. Kumar, A., Nidhi, Prasad, N. and Sinha, S.K. (2015). Nutritional and antinutritional attributes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms growing in Bihar, India. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 21: 159-162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298- 014-0270-2.
  29. Link, W., Balko, C. and Stoddard, F.L. (2010). Winter hardiness in faba bean: physiology and breeding. Field Crops Research. 115: 287–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2008.08.004
  30. Luo, Y., Xie, W., Xie, C., Li, Y. and Gu, Z. (2009). Impact of soaking and phytase treatments on phytic acid, calcium, iron and zinc in faba bean fractions. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 44: 2590-2597. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02089.x.
  31. Luo, Y-W. and Xie, W-H. (2013). Effect of different processing methods on certain antinutritional factors and protein digestibility in green and white faba bean (Vicia faba L.). CYTA- Food. 11: 43-49. https://doi.org/10.1080/19476337. 2012. 681705.
  32. Madar, Z. and Stark, A.H. (2002).  New legume sources as therapeutic agents. British Journal of Nutrition. 88: 287–292. https:/ /doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002719.
  33. Martin, A., Cabrera, A. and Medina, J.L.  (1991). Antinutritional factors in faba bean. Tannin content in Vicia faba:  possibilities for plant breeding. Options Méditerranéennes-Série Séminaires.10:105-110. 
  34. Mandal, U.K., Singh, G., Victor, U.S. and Sharma, K.L. (2003). Green manuring: its effect on soil properties and crop growth under rice-wheat cropping system. European Journal of Agronomy. 19: 225-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161- 0301(02)00037-0
  35. Meradsi, F. and Laamari, M. (2016). Aphicidal and behavioral effects of Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) leaf extracts against Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hom., Aphididae). Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 12: 1085-1094. 
  36. Merga, B., Egigu, M.C. and Wakgari, M. (2019). Reconsidering the economic and nutritional importance of faba bean in Ethiopian context. Cogent Food and Agriculture. 5: 6839 38.https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2019.1683938
  37. Mona, A.M., Sabah, M.A. and Rehab, A.M. (2011). Influence of potassium sulfate on faba bean yield and quality. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 5: 87-95.
  38. Mortuza, M.G., Hannan, M.A. and Tzen, J.T.C. (2009). Chemical composition and functional properties of Vicia faba L. Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany. 38: 93-97. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjb.v38i1.5129
  39. Multari, S., Stewart, D. and Russell W.R. (2015). Potential of fava bean as future protein supply to partially replace meat intake in the human diet. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 14: 511-522. https:// doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12146
  40. Murinda, M.V. and Saxena, M.C. (1985). Agronomy of faba beans, lentils and chickpeas. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Faba Beans, Kabuli Chickpeas and Lentils in the 1980s. ICARDA, [M.C. Saxena and S. Verma (eds.)], 16-20 May, 1983. Aleppo, Syria.  p. 229-244.
  41. Nadal, S., Suso, M. and Moreno, M. (2003). Management of Vicia faba genetic resources: changes associated to the selfing process in the major, equina and minor groups. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 50: 183-192. https:// doi.org/10.1023/A:1022944017530.
  42. Nuessly, G.S., Hentz, M.G., Eiriger, R.B. and Scully, B.T. (2004). Insects associated with faba bean, Vicia faba (fabales: fabaceae), in southern Florida. Florida Entomologist.  87(2): 204-211. https://doi.org/10.1653/0015-4040 (2004) 087[0204:IAWFBV]2.0.CO;2
  43. Nava-Rodriguez, V., Hernandez-Bautista, B.E., Cruz-Ortega, R. and Anaya, A.L. (2005). Allelopathic potential of beans (Phaseolus spp.) and other crops. Allelopathy Journal. 15: 197-210.
  44. O’Donovan, J.T., Grant, C.A., Blackshaw, R.E., Harker, K.N., Johnson, E.N., Gan, Y., Lafond, G.P., May, W.E., Turkington, T.K., Lupwayi, N.Z., Stevenson, F.C., McLaren, D.L., Khakbazan, M. and Smith, E.G. (2014). Rotational effects of legumes and non-legumes on hybrid canola and malting. Agronomy Journal. 106: 1921-1932. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj 14.0236
  45. Oplinger, E.S. (1982). Faba beans Field Crops 32.0 UWEX. Madison, WI 53706.  
  46. Oshodi, A.A. and Adeladun, M.O.A. (1993).  Proximate composition, some nutritionally valuable minerals and functional properties of three varieties of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). International Journal of Food Science Nutrition. 43: 181-185. https://doi.org/10.3109/096374893090275 40.
  47. Papadopoulou, A. and Frazier, R.A. (2004). Characterization of protein-polyphenol interactions. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 15: 186-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. tifs.2003.09.017.
  48. Patil, S.A., Apine, O.A., Surwase, S.N. and Jadhav, J.P. (2013). Biological sources of L-DOPA: an alternative approach. Advances in Parkinson’s Disease. 2: 81-87. https://doi. org/10.4236/apd.2013.23016.
  49. Paul, S.K., Mondal, M., Sarker, U.K. and Sarkar, S.K (2021). Response of yield and seed quality of faba bean (Vicia faba) to irrigation and nutrient management. Research on Crops. 22(2): 256-264. https://doi.org/10.31830/2348- 7542.2021.066.
  50. Peyvast, G. and Khorsandi, Z. (2007). Antibacterial activity of the broad bean extracts on resistant bacteria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 10(3): 398-402. https:// doi.org/ 10.3923/pjbs.2007.398.402.
  51. Proskina, L. and Cerina, S. (2017). Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 97: 4391-4398. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/jsfa.8415.
  52. Ramirez-Moreno, J.M., Salguero Bodes, I., Romaskevych, O. and Duran-Herrera, M.C. (2015). Broad bean (Vicia faba) consumption and Parkinson’s disease: a natural source of L-dopa to consider. Neurologia. 30: 375-376. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2013.08.006.
  53. Rubiales, D. and Mikic, A. (2015). Introduction: Legumes in sustainable agriculture. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 34: 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689.2014.897896.
  54. Rubio, L.A., Grant, G., Dewey, P., Bremner, I. and Pusztai, A. (1994). The intestinal true absorption of Zn in rats is adversely affected by diets containing a faba bean (Vicia faba L.) nonstarch polysaccharide fraction. The Journal of Nutrition. 124: 2204-2211. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/124.11.2204
  55. Salahin, N., Alam, M.D.K., Islam, M.D.M., Naher, L. and Majid, N.M. (2013). Effects of green manure crops and tillage practice on maize and rice yields and soil properties. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 7: 1901-1911.
  56. Sathe, S.K., Deshpande, S.S. and Salunkhe, D.K. (1982). Functional properties of lupin seeds (Lupinus mutabilis) proteins and protein concentrates. Journal of Food Science. 47: 491-497.
  57. Sheikh, M.A.K., Paul, S.K. and Sarkar, M.A.R. (2020). Effect of spacing and Rhizobium inoculum on the yield and quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University. 18(2): 245-251. https://doi.org/ 10.5455/JBAU.91870.  
  58. Shi, L., Mu, K., Arntûeld, S.D. and Nickerson, M.T. (2017). Changes in levels of enzyme inhibitors during soaking and cooking for pulses available in Canada. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 54: 1014-1022. doi: 10.1007/s13197- 017-2519-6.
  59. Sillero, J. C., Villegas-Fernandez, A.M., Thomas, J., Rojas-Molina, M.M., Emeran, A.A., Fernandez Aparicio, M. and Rubiales, D. (2010). Faba bean breeding for disease resistance. Field Crop Research. 115: 297-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.fcr.2009.09.012
  60. Singh, A.K. and Bhatt, B.P. (2012a). Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.):  A potential leguminous crop of India ISBN 978-93-5067- 773-5ICAR, RC for ER, Patna, P. 518. 
  61. Singh, A.K. and Bhatt, B.P. (2012b). Faba bean: unique germplasm explored and identified. Hort Flora Research Spectrum. 1(3): 267-269.
  62. Singh, A.K., Bharati, R.C., Manibhushan, N.C. and Pedpati, A. (2013). An assessment of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) current status and future prospect. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8: 6634-6641.
  63. Singh, A.K., Bhatt, B.P., Upadhyaya, A., Kumar, S., Sundaram, P.K., Singh, B.K., Chandra, N. and Bharat, R.C. (2012). Improvement of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yield and quality through biotechnological approach: a review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11: 15264-15271. https://doi.org/10.5897/ AJB12.1926
  64. Sinha, S. K.  (2012). Faba bean: a potential alternative grain legume of future. Rashtriya Krishi. 7: 45-46. 
  65. Sinha, S.K., Kumar, M., Kumar, A., Bharti, S. and Shahi, V.K. (2013). Antioxidant activities of different tissue extract of Faba bean (Vicia faba L) containing phenolic compounds. Legume Research. 36: 496-504. 
  66. Shukla, U.N. and Mishra M.L. (2020). Present scenario, bottlenecks and expansion of pulse production in India: A review. Legume Research. 43 (4) 461-469. https://doi.org/10.18805/LR- 3998.
  67. Subedi, B., Acharya, K. and Kafle, K. (2018). Effectiveness of Plant Leaf Extract on Black Bean Aphid (Aphis Fabae Linn.). Innovative Techniques in Agriculture. 2(3): 395-399.
  68. Surwase, S.N., Patil, S.A., Jadhav, S.B. and Jadhav, J.P. (2012). Optimization of L-DOPA production by Brevundimonas sp. SGJ using response surface methodology. Microbial Biotechnology. 5: 731-737. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751- 7915.2012.00363.x.
  69. Turco, I., Ferretti, G. and Bacchet, T. (2016). Review of the health benefits of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) polyphenols.  Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 55 (4): 283-293.
  70. Upadhyay, V., Muntean, B., Hwang, J., Kathem, S., Abou-Alaiwi, W. and Nauli, S. (2014). Roles of dopamine receptor on chemosensory and mechanosensory primary cilia in renal epithelial cells. Frontiers in Physiology. 5: 72. https:// doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2014.00072.
  71. Wissal, M., Nadia, K. and Haythem, M. (2020). Legumes: Model plants for sustainable agriculture in phosphorus and iron deficient soils. Agricultural Science Digest. 40(4): 445- 447. https://doi.org/10.18805/ag.D-24e
  72. Witten, S., Böhm, H. and Aulrich, K. (2015). Eûect of variety and environment on the contents of crude nutrients, lysine, methionine and cysteine in organically produced ûeld peas (Pisum sativum L) and ûeld beans (Vicia faba L). Landbauforsch Volkenrode. 65: 205-216. https://doi.org/ 10.3220/LBF1447765843000.
  73. Yadav, S.K., Verma, N., Singh, A.K., Singh, N., Rana, S.C., Ranga S.S. and Kumar, K.  (2017). Diversity and development in faba bean. Legume Research. 40(4): 618-623. https:/ /doi.org/10.18805/lr.v0iOF.6200.
  74. Yasmin, W., Paul, S.K. and Anwar, M.P.  (2020). Growth, yield and quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)  in response  to  sowing  date  and  phosphorus fertilization.  Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 5(1): 11-17. https:// dx.doi.org/10.26832/24566632.2020.050102.
  75. Yitayih, G. and Azmeraw, Y. (2017). Adaptation of faba bean varieties for yield, for yield components and against faba bean gall (Olpidium viciae Kusano) disease in South Gondar, Ethiopia. The Crop Journal. 5: 560-566. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.cj.2017.05.007.

Global Footprints