Superabsorbent Polymers (SAPs) Hydrogel: Water Saving Technology for Increasing Agriculture Productivity in Drought Prone Areas: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-2023    | Article Id: R-2023 | Page : 183-189
Citation :- Superabsorbent Polymers (SAPs) Hydrogel: Water Saving Technology for Increasing Agriculture Productivity in Drought Prone Areas: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2021.(42):183-189
A. Mohammed Ashraf, T. Ragavan, S. Naziya Begam ashrafbsa09040@gmail.com
Address : Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute (Govt. of Pondicherry and Affiliated to Pondicherry University), Nedungadu (Post), Karaikal-609 603, U.T. of Puducherry, India.
Submitted Date : 22-05-2020
Accepted Date : 28-01-2021

Abstract

To improve the soil moisture availability, by reducing the evaporation losses and retaining the moisture in effective rooting zone. The soil application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) is found to be the promising methodology in drought prone areas. However, very limited research work done in Indian conditions on this aspect. One of such successfully developed product is ‘Pusa hydrogel’ which is first indigenous semi-synthetic superabsorbent technology for conserving water and enhancing crop productivity and thereby increases the water use efficiency. It performs its wetting or drying cycles over a longer period of time, maintaining its very high water swelling and releasing capacity against soil pressure. Consequently evaporation, deep water percolation and nutrient leaching can be avoided. Under rainfed condition, crops can better withstand drought condition without moisture stress by using hydrogel. Systematic field studies under arid and semi-arid conditions of India are needed to develop appropriate dose, frequency and method of application of different polymers to various crops and to assess economics of use of different polymers.

Keywords

Hydrogel Moisture Polymers

References

  1. Abdel-Nasser G., Al-Omran A.M., Falatah A.M., Sheta A.S. and Al-Harbi A.R. (2007). Impact of Natural Conditioners on Water Retention, Infiltration and Evaporation Characteristics of Sandy Soil. Journal of Applied Sciences. 7: 1699-1708.
  2. Abedi-Koupai, J., Eslamian, S.S. and Asad Kazemi, J. (2004). Enhancing the available Water Content in Unsaturated Soil Zone using Hydrogel, to Improve Plant Growth Indices. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology. 8: 3-11. 
  3. Abedi-Koupai, J., Sohrab, F. and Swarbrick, G. (2008). Evaluation of hydrogel application on soil water retention characteristics. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 3: 317-331. 
  4. Agaba, H., Baguma Orikiriza, L.J., Osoto Esegu, J.F., Obua, J., Kabasa, J.D. and Hüttermann, A. (2010). Effects of hydrogel amendment to different soils on plant available water and survival of trees under drought conditions. Clean-Soil, Air, Water. 38: 328-335. 
  5. Akhter, J., Mahmood, K., Malik, K., Mardan, A., Ahmad, M. and Iqbal, M. (2004). Effects of hydrogel amendment on water storage of sandy loam and loam soils and seedling growth of barley, wheat and chickpea. Plant Soil Environment. 50: 463-469. 
  6. Ali, L.K.M. (2011). Significance of applied cellulose polymer and organic manure for ameliorating hydro-physico-chemical properties of sandy soil and maize yield. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 5: 23-35. 
  7. Al-Omran, A.M., Mustafa, M.A. and Shalaby, A.A. (1987). Intermittent Evaporation from Soil Columns as Affected by a Gel-forming Conditioner 1. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 5: 1593-1599. 
  8. Anupama, M.C., Singh, R., Kumar, B.S. and Kumar, P.A. (2005). Performance of new super absorbent polymer on seedling and post planting growth and water use pattern of Chrysanthemum under controlled environment. Acta Horticulturae. 618: 215-224. 
  9. Azevedo, T.L., Bertonha, A., Goncalves, A.C.A., Freitas, P.S.L., Rezende, R. and Frizzone, J.A. (2002). Levels of super absorbent polymer, irrigation interval and coffee plant growth. Acta Scientiarum. 24: 1239-1243. 
  10. Barihi, R., Panahpour, E. and Beni, M.H.M. (2013). Super Absorbent Polymer (Hydrogel) and its Application in Agriculture. World of Sciences Journal. 1: 223-228. 
  11. Bhardwaj, A.K., Shainberg, I., Goldstein, D., Warrington, D.N. and J Levy, G. (2007). Water retention and hydraulic conductivity of cross-linked polyacrylamides in sandy soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 71: 406-412. 
  12. Bhat, A.I., Faisal, T.H., Madhubala, R., Hareesh, P.S. and Pant, R.P. (2004). Purification, production of antiserum and development of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay-based diagnosis for Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 13: 16-21. 
  13. Chan, K.Y. and Sivapragasam, S. (1996). Amelioration of a degraded hardsetting soil using an anionic polymeric conditioner. Soil Technology. 9: 91-100. 
  14. Cookson, P., Abdelrahman, H. and Hirsbrunner, P. (2001). Effect of Hydrophobic Polymer Application and Irrigation Rates on Yield of Field Grown Okra. Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences. 6: 67-75. 
  15. Dabhi, R., Bhatt, N. and Pandit, B. (2013). Superabsorbent polymersan innovative water saving technique for optimizing crop yield. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2: 5333-5340. 
  16. Dexter, S.T. and Miyamoto, T. (1959). Acceleration of Water Uptake and Germination of Sugarbeet Seedballs by Surface Coatings of Hydrophilic Colloids 1. Agronomy Journal. 51: 388-389. 
  17. Eiasu, B.K., Soundy, P. and Hammes, P.S. (2007). Response of potato (Solarium tuberosum) tuber yield components to gel polymer soil amendments and irrigation regimes. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 35: 25-31. 
  18. Ekebafe, L.O., Ogbeifun, D.E. and Okieimen, F.E. (2011). Effect of native cassava starch-poly (sodium acrylate-co-acrylamide) hydrogel on the growth performance of maize (Zea mays) seedlings. American Journal of Polymer Science. 1: 6-11. 
  19. El-Amir, S., Helalia, A. M. and Shwaky, M.E. (1993). Effects of acryhope and aquastore polymers on water regime and porosity in sandy soil. International Agrophysics. 6: 19-25
  20. El-Hady, O.A. and Wanas, S.A. (2006). Water and fertilizer use efficiency by cucumber grown under stress on sandy soil treated with acrylamide hydrogels. Journal of Applied Science Research. 2(12): 1293-1297. 
  21. El-Hady, O.A., Tayel, M.Y. and Lotfy, A.A. (1981). Super Gel as a soil conditioner II-Its effect on plant growth, enzymes activity, water use efficiency and nutrient uptake. Paper presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Water supply and Irrigation in the open and under Protected Cultivation 119.
  22. Ghamsari, B.M., Akbari, G.A., Zohorian, M.J. and Nikniaee, A.B. (2009). An evaluation of growth and yield of forage corn with application of different levels of super absorbent polymer (SUPERAB A200) and under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 40: 1-8. 
  23. Halagalimath S.P. and Rajkumar S. (2018). Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties to irrigation and hydrogel application in Vertisols. Legume Research. 41(2): 259-262.
  24. Huttermann, A., Zommorodi, M. and Reise, K. (1999). Addition of hydrogels to soil for prolonging the survival of Pinus halepensis seedlings subjected to drought. Soil and Tillage Research. 50: 295-304. 
  25. IARI. (2012). Pusa Hydrogel: An Indigenous semisynthetic superabsorbent technology for conserving water and enhancing crop productivity Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.
  26. Ishwar Singh, Verma, R.R. and Srivastava, T.K. (2018). Growth, Yield, Irrigation Water Use Efficiency, Juice Quality and Economics of Sugarcane in Pusa Hydrogel Application Under Different Irrigation Scheduling. Sugar Tech. 20: 29-35. 
  27. Islam, M.R., Hu, Y., Mao, S., Jia, P., Eneji, A.E. and Xue, X. (2011). Effects of water saving superabsorbent polymer on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 91: 813-819. 
  28. Jain, N.K., Meena H.N. and Bhaduri, D. (2017). Improvement in productivity, water-use efficiency and soil nutrient dynamics of summer peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through use of polythene mulch, hydrogel and nutrient management. Communicatons in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 48: 549-564.
  29. Jamnongkan, Tongsai, Kaewpirom and Jjjsupranee. (2010). Potassium release kinetics and water retention of controlled-release fertilizers based on chitosan hydrogels. Journal of Polymers and the Environment. 18: 413-421. 
  30. Karimi, A. (1993). Evaluation of effect of corrective material of Igeta on Sunflower growth. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Agricultural College, Tehran University, Farsi.
  31. Karimi, A., Noshadi, M. and Ahmadzadeh, M. (2009). Effects of super absorbent polymer (igeta) on crop, soil water and irrigation interval. JWSS-Isfahan University of Technology. 12: 403-414. 
  32. Khadem, S.A., Galavi, M., Ramrodi, M., Mousavi, S.R., Rousta, M.J. and Rezvani-Moghadam, P. (2010). Effect of animal manure and superabsorbent polymer on corn leaf relative water content, cell membrane stability and leaf chlorophyll content under dry condition. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 4: 642. 
  33. Khodadadi Dehkordi, D., Kashkuli, H.A. and Naderi, A. (2013). Evaluation of effect of superabsorbent on saturated and unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity and estimate index of corn yield. Advances in Environmental Biology. 7: 3252-3259. 
  34. Koupai, J.A., Eslamian, S.S. and Kazemi, J.A. (2008). Enhancing the available water content in unsaturated soil zone using hydrogel, to improve plant growth indices. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology. 8: 67-75. 
  35. Kumaran, S.S., Natarajan, S., Muthvel, I. and Sathiyamurthy, V.A. (2001). Standardisation of hydrophylic polymers on growth and yield of tomato. Madras Agricultural Journal. 88: 103-105. 
  36. Levy, G.J., Ben-Hur, M. and Agassi, M. (1991). The effect of polyacrylamide on runoff, erosion and cotton yield from fields irrigated with moving sprinkler systems. Irrigation Science. 12: 55-60. 
  37. Magalhaes, J.R., Wilcox, G.E., Rodrigues, F.C., Silva, F. and Rocha, A.F. (1987). Plant growth and nutrient uptake in hydrophilic gel treated soil. Communications in soil science and plant analysis. 18: 1469-1478. 
  38. Meena, M.K. (2009). Influence of hydrophilic polymer (Luquasorb) on plant growth and physiology in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill). M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. 
  39. Mikkelsen, R.L. (1994). Using hydrophilic polymers to control nutrient release. Fertilizer research. 38(1): 53-59. 
  40. Narjary, B., Aggarwal, P., Kumar, S. and Meena, M.D. (2013). Significance of hydrogel. Indian Farming. 62: 15-17. 
  41. Nazarli, H., Zardashti, M.R., Darvishzadeh, R. and Najafi, S. (2010). The effect of water stress and polymer on water use efficiency, yield and several morphological traits of sunflower under greenhouse condition. Notulae Scientia Biologicae. 2: 53-58. 
  42. Nektarios, P.A., Nikolopoulou, A.E. and Chronopoulos, I. (2004). Sod establishment and turfgrass growth as affected by urea–formaldehyde resin foam soil amendment. Scientia horticulturae. 100: 203-213. 
  43. Orikiriza, L.J.B., Agaba, H., Tweheyo, M., Eilu, G., Kabasa, J.D. and Huttermann, A. (2009). Amending Soils with Hydrogels Increases the Biomass of Nine Tree Species under Non water Stress Conditions. Clean–Soil, Air, Water. 37: 615-620. 
  44. Patil, A.A. (2009). Influence of super absorbent polymer on plant growth and productivity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. 
  45. Rehman, A., Ahmad, R. and Safdar, M. (2011). Effect of hydrogel on the performance of aerobic rice sown under different techniques. Plant Soil and Environment. 57: 321-325. 
  46. Roy, T., Kumar, S., Chand, L., Kadam, D.M., Bihari, B., Shrimali, et al. (2019). Impact of Pusa hydrogel application on yield and productivity of rainfed wheat in North West Himalayan region. Current Science. 116: 1246-1251.
  47. Sarvas, M., Pavlenda, P. and Takacova, E. (2007). Effect of hydrogel application on survival and growth of pine seedlings in reclamations. Journal of Forest Science. 53: 204-209. 
  48. Shahid, S.A., Qidwai, A.A., Anwar, F., Ullah, I. and Rashid, U. (2012). Improvement in the Water Retention Characteristics of Sandy Loam Soil Using a Newly Synthesized Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 Superabsorbent Hydrogel Nanocomposite Material. Molecules. 17: 9397. 
  49. Shi, Y., Li, J., Shao, J., Deng, S., Wang, R., Li, N., Sun, J., Zhang, H., Zhu, H. and Zhang, Y. (2010). Effects of Stockosorb and Luquasorb polymers on salt and drought tolerance of Populus popularis. Scientia Horticulturae. 124: 268-273. 
  50. Silberbush, M., Adar, E. and De Malach, Y. (1993). Use of an hydrophilic polymer to improve water storage and availability to crops grown in sand dunes I. Corn irrigated by trickling. Agricultural Water Management. 23: 303-313. 
  51. Sivapalan, S. (2001, 11-12 July). Effect of a polymer on growth and yield of soybeans (Glycine max) grown in a coarse textured soil. Paper presented at the Irrigation 2001 Regional Conference, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia.
  52. Uz, B.Y., Ersahin, S., Demiray, E. and Ertas, A. (2008). Analyzing the soil texture effect on promoting water holding capacity by polyacrylamide. International Meeting on Soil Fertility Land Management and Agroclimatology. (Special Issue): 209-215. 
  53. Vijayalakshmi, Nemichandrappa, M., Reddy, K.S. and Ayyanagowdar, M.S. (2012). Effect of polymers on moisture retention and soil water holding capacity. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 25: 469-471. 
  54. Waly, A., El-Karamany, M.F., Shaaban, A.M., Bakry, A.B. and Elewa, T.A. (2015). Utilization of hydrogel for reducing water irrigation under sandy soil condition 2-Preliminary study: yield and yield components of rice and barley in sandy soil as affected by hydrogel. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences. 6: 1018-1024. 
  55. Watt, S. and Peake, R. (2001). Potato production on sandy soil in Australia: PIRSA rural solutions.http://www.sardi.sa.gov. au/pages/horticulture/pathology/hortpnpotsand.htm:sect ID=323andtempID=152. 
  56. Woodhouse, J. and Johnson, M.S. (1991). Effect of superabsorbent polymers on survival and growth of crop seedlings. Agricultural water management. 20: 63-70. 
  57. Yazdani, F., Alahdadi, A. and Akbari, B.M.R. (2008). Effect of Super absorbent polymer (Terawatt A200) and different levels of drought stress on soybean yield and yield components. Research In Agriculture And Horticulture and Construction. (75). 
  58. Yazdani, F., Allahdadi, I. and Akbari, G.A. (2007). Impact of superabsorbent polymer on yield and growth analysis of soybean (Glycine max L.) under drought stress condition. Pakistan Journal

Global Footprints