Conjugation of Biofertilizers with Different Sources of Chemical Fertilizers in Wheat: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-2001    | Article Id: R-2001 | Page : 22-31
Citation :- Conjugation of Biofertilizers with Different Sources of Chemical Fertilizers in Wheat: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2021.(42):22-31
Pankaj Kumar, Sukhdeep Kaur Brar
Address : Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 027, Punjab, India.
Submitted Date : 6-04-2020
Accepted Date : 4-09-2020


Plants nutrients are necessary in increasing production and productivity of crops and healthy food for the world’s ever increasing population. Today, soil management strategies are mainly dependent on inorganic chemical-based fertilizers, which cause a serious threat to human health and the environment. Bio-fertilizer has been identified as an alternative for increasing soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. The exploitation of beneficial microbes as bio-fertilizers has become of paramount importance in agricultural sector due to their potential role in food safety and sustainable crop production. Bio-fertilizer can be an important component of integrated nutrients management. Microorganisms that are commonly used as bio-fertilizer components include; nitrogen fixers (N-fixer), potassium and phosphorus solubilizers, growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), endo and ecto mycorrhizal fungi, cyanobacteria and other useful microscopic organisms. The use of bio-fertilizers leads to improved nutrients and water uptake, plant growth and plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic factors. In wheat, non-symbiotic spp. like Azotobacter and streptomyces may be used as a potential source of plant growth promoter and also can reduce chemical fertilizer up to 25% with compromising yield. Thus, these potential biological fertilizers would play a key role in productivity and sustainability of soil and also in protecting the environment as eco-friendly and cost effective inputs for the farmers. This review will overview the importance of biofertilizers with different sources of chemical fertilizers in wheat.


Bio-fertilizers Environment Nutrients Production Productivity


  1. Alekhya, G. and Gopalakrishna, S. (2016). Plant growth promotion by Streptomyces in sorghum (Sorghum bicolour). Afri. J. Biotech. 15: 1781-88.
  2. Andrews, M., Leap J., Raven, J.A. and Lindsey, K. (2004). Can genetic manipulation of plant nitrogen assimilation enzymes result in increased crop yield and greater N-use efficiency? Assessment Annals App Biol. 145: 25-40.
  3. Azcorn, R. and Barea, J.M. (1975). Synthesis of auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins by Azotobacter vinelandi and Azotobacter beijerinckii related to effects produced on tomato plants. Pl. Soil. 43: 609-19.
  4. Bargaz, A., Lyamlouli, K., Chtouki, M., Zeroual, Y. and Dhiba, D. (2018). Soil microbial resources for improving fertilizers efficiency in an integrated plant nutrient management system. Front Microbiol. 9: 1-25.
  5. Beijerinck (1901). Flagellation of Azotobacter. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol 7: 561-582.
  6. Berger, R.L., Stamford, N.P., Santos, S. and Stamford, T.C.M. (2013). Plant and soil characteristics affected by biofertilizers from rock and organic matter inoculated with diazotropic bacteria and fungi that produce chitosan. J. Soil Sci. Pl. Nut. 3: 592-603.
  7. Bindia, B.D., Kalla and Mankotia, B.S. (2005). Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and productivity of wheat crop. Agri. Sci. Dig. 4: 235-39.
  8. Choudhary, D., Narula, N., Sidhu, S.S. and Behl, R.K. (2013). Plant growth stimulation of wheat by inoculation of salinity tolerant Azotobacter strain. Physiol. Mol. Bio. Pl. 19: 515-19.
  9. Deleep, K. and Ravinder, R. (2006). Growth, nutrient uptake and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as influenced by biofertilizers and nitrogen. Ind. J. Agron. 1: 37-39.
  10. Desai, H.A, Dodia, I.N., Desai, C.K., Patel, M.D. and Patel, H.K. (2015). Integrated nutrient management in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Trends in Biosci. 8: 472-75.
  11. Dhiman, S. and Dubey, Y.P. (2017). Effect of bio fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on yield attributes, yield and quality of Triticum aestivum and Zea mays in an acidic alfisole. Int. J. Curr. Micro Appl. Sci. 6: 2594-2603.
  12. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2017). Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper no. 81. FAO, Rome, Italy, 1728-3264.
  13. Gogoi, D., Kotoky, U. and Hazarika, S. (2004). Effect of biofertilizers on productivity and soil characteristics in banana. Ind. J. Hort. 61: 354-56.
  14. Gonzales, L.J., Toledo, M.V., Reina, S. and Salmeron, V. (1991). Root exudates of maize on production of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, amino acids and vitamins by Azotobacter chroococcum chemically defined media and dialysed soil media. Toxicol Environ. Chem. 33: 69-78.
  15. Gopalkrishnan, S., Srinivas, V., Alekhya, G. and Varshney, K. (2015). The extent of grain yield and plant growth enhancement by plant growth promoting broad spectrum Streptomyces sp. in chickpea. Springer Plus. 4: 31.
  16. Heidaryan, J. and Feilinezhad, A. (2015). on the effect of bio fertilizer on the yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Eyvan climate condition. Biol. Forum Int. J. 7: 581-85.
  17. Idapuganti, R.G. and Ahlawat, I.P. (2007). Integrated phosphorous management in pigeonpea (Cajnas cajan) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system. Ind. J. Agron. 4: 289-93.
  18. Illmer, P. and Schinner, F. (1995). Solubilization of inorganic calcium phosphate - solubilization mechanisms. Soil Biol. Biochem. 27: 257-63.
  19. Islam, N.F. and Borthakur (2016). Effect of different growth stages on rice crop on soil microbial and enzyme activities. Tropl. Pl. Res. 3: 40-47.
  20. Jat, R.C., Sharma, Y., Jakhar, R.K. and Sharma R.K. (2018). Effect of phosphorous, zinc and iron on yield and quality of wheat in western Rajasthan, India. Int. J. Micro App. Sci. 7: 2055-62.
  21. Kader, M.A., Mian, M.H. and Hoque, M.S. (2002). Effects of Azotobacter inoculant on to yield and nitrogen uptake by wheat. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 259-61.
  22. Kakraliya, S.K., Jat, R.D., Kumar, S., Choudhary, K.K., Parkash, J. and Singh, L.K. (2017). Integrated nutrient management, for improving fertilizer use efficiency, soil biodiversity and productivity of wheat in irrigated rice-wheat cropping system in Indo Gangatic plain of India. Int. J. Curr. Micro App. Sci. 6: 152-63. 
  23. Kaleem, S., Ansar, M., Ali, M.A., Sher, A., Ahmad, G. and Rashid, M. (2009). Effect of phosphorus on the yield components of wheat variety inqlab-91 under rainfed conditions. Sarhad J. Agric. 25: 21-24.
  24. Kizikaya, R. (2008). Yield response and nitrogen concentration of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum strains. Ecol. Eng. 33: 150-56.
  25. Kousar, P., Ali, L., Raza, A., Maqbool, A., Maqbool, S., Rasheed, S. and Irum, S. (2015). Effect of different levels of nitrogen on the economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Aas-11. Int. J. Agron. Agi. Res. 6: 7-11.
  26. Koushic, N. and Singha Roy (2008). Residual effect of vermicompost, chemical fertilizer and biofertilizer in wheat on succeeding fodder cowpea. Annals Agric. Res. New Series 29: 73-77.
  27. Kumar, A. and Urmila (2011). Impact of biofertilizers in enhancing growth and productivity of wheat: A review. Int. J. Chem. Stud. 6: 360-62. 
  28. Kumar, V., Behal, R.K. and Narula, N. (2001). Establishment of phosphate solublizing strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in the rhizosphere and their effect on wheat cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Microbiol. Res. 156: 87-93.
  29. Litke, L., Gaile, Z. and Ruza, A. (2018). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality. Agron. Res.16: 500-09.
  30. Luo, C., Branlardt, G., Griffint, W.B. and Neil, D.L. (2000). The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization and their interaction with genotype on wheat glutenins and quality parameters. J. Cereal Sci. 31: 185-94.
  31. Luz, W. (2001). Evaluation of plant growth promoting and bioprotecting Rhizobacteria on wheat crop. Aceitopara publication. Fitopthologia Brasileira. 26: 597-600.
  32. Madhu, R., Ahemed, M. and Rahman, A.M. (2012). Investigation of indole acetic acid production potential of Azotobacter chroococcum using wheat coleoptile bioassay. Inter. J. Agri. Res. 2: 127-133.
  33. Mahato, S. and Kafle, A. (2018). A comparative study of Azotobacter sp. with or without other fertilizers on growth and yield of wheat in Nepal. Ann. Agri. Sci. 16: 250-56.
  34. Malik, B.S., Pans, S. and Sharma, P.K. (2005). Effect of Azotobacter sp. on wheat yield and its attributing characters. Ind. J. Agri. Sci. 9: 600-02.
  35. Meena, B.L., Singh, A.K., Phogat, B.S. and Sharma, H.B. (2016). Improving wheat and soil productivity through integrated nutrient management and efficient planting system. J. Agric. Search 3: 147-56.
  36. Mertens, T. and Hess, D. (1984). Yield increase in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) inoculated with Azospirillum lipoferum under green house and field conditions of a temperate region. Plant Soil. 82: 87-99.
  37. Mondal, T., Datta, J.K. and Mondal, N.K. (2017). Chemical fertilizer in conjunction with biofertilizer and vermicompost induced changes in morpho-physiological and bio chemical traits of mustard crop. J. Saudi Soc. Agri. Sci. 16: 135-44.
  38. Monterio, P., Borba, M. and Sand, V.D. (2017). Evaluation of the antifungal activity of streptomyces sp on Bipolaris sorokiniana and growth promotion of wheat plants. J. Agri. Sci. 9: 12.
  39. Mumtaz, M.Z., Aslam, M., Jamil, M. and Ahmad, M. (2014). Effect of different phosphorus levels on growth and yield of wheat under water stress conditions. J. Env. Earth Sci. 4: 19.
  40. Naqeeb, A.M., Hilfy, H.H., Hamza, J.H. and Abodi, M.H. (2018). Biofertilizer effect on growth and yield of three bread wheat cultivars. J. Central Europ. Agri. 19: 530-43.
  41. Narula, N., Kumar, V., Singh, B., Bhatia, R. and Kumar, L. (2005). Impact of Biofertilizers on grain yield in spring wheat under varying fertility conditions and wheat-cotton rotation. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 51:79-89.
  42. Omar, M.N.A., Hegazy, M.H., Abd El-Azize, R.A., Abo-Soliman, M.S.M. and Sobh, M.M. (1991). Effect of inoculation with rhizobacteria on yield of wheat under graded level of nitrogen fertilization. Annals Agric. Sci. Ain. Shams. Univ. 36: 99-104.
  43. Patra, B. and Singh, B. (2018). Effect of priming, biofertilizers and nitrogen levels on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 7: 1411-17.
  44. Procopio, R.E., Silvaa, I.R., Martins, M.K., Joao, L. and Janete, M. (2012). Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 16: 466-71.
  45. Rai, N., Ashiy, P. and Rathore, D.S. (2014). Comparative study of the effect of chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers on Eisenia foetida. Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Tech. 3: 2319-8753.
  46. Ram, T., Yadav, S.K. and Sheoran, R.S. (2005). Growth analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under varying fertility levels and Azatobacter strains. Ind. J. Agric. Res. 4: 295-    98.
  47. Ramlakshmi, A., Iniyakumar, M. and Raj, S.N. (2008). Influence of biofertilizers on soil physico-chemical and biological properties during cropping period. Asian J. Bio. Sci. 3: 348-51.
  48. Rana, A., Sharan, B., Nain, L. and Shivay, Y.S. (2012). Enhancing micronutrient uptake and yield of wheat through bacterial PGPR consortia. Soil Sci. Pl. Nut. 58: 573-82.
  49. Rekha, D., Lakshmipathy, R. and Gopal, G.A. (2018). Effect of integrated use of biofertilizers, chemical fertilizers and FYM on soil health parameters of Pearl millet. J. Soil Sci. Pl. Health 2: 2.
  50. Renuka, M., Ahemud, M., Ravichand, P. and Rahman, A.M. (2012). Investigation of indole acetic production of aztobacter chroococcum using wheat coleoptiles bioassay. Indian J. Agric. Res. 46: 127-33.
  51. Sarma, A., Singh, H. and Nanwal, R.K. (2007). Effect of integrated nutrient management on productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under limited and adequate irrigation supplies. Ind. J. Agron. 2: 120-23.
  52. Sharma, V.K. and Singh, R.P. (2011). Organic matrix based slow fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncia L.). J. Env. Biol. 32: 619-24.
  53. Singh, G., Jalota, S.K. and Singh, Y. (2007). Manuring and residue management effect on physical properties of soil under rice-wheat cropping system in Punjab. India Soil Tillage Res. 94: 229-39.
  54. Singh, M.S. (2006). Cereal crops response to Azotobacter- A review. Agric. Rev. 27: 229-31.
  55. Singh, R.R. and Prasad, K. (2011). Effect of bio fertilizer on growth and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Farm Sci. 1: 1-8.
  56. Singh, R., Singh, B. and Patidar, M. (2008). Effect of preceding crops and nutrient management on productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) based cropping system in arid region. Ind. J. Agron. 4: 267-72. 
  57. Singh, U. and Ahlawat, I.P. (2007). Phosphorous management in pigeonpea (Cajonus cajan) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system. Ind. J. Agron. 1: 21-26.
  58. Sirafy, Z.M., Woodward, H.J. and EI-Norjar, E.M. (2006). Contribution of biofertilizers and fertilizer nitrogen to nutrient uptake and yield of Egyptian winter wheat. J. Pl. Nut. 29: 587-99.
  59. Stephen, R.C., Saville, D.J. and Drewitt, E.G. (2005). Effects of wheat seed rate and fertiliser nitrogen application practices on populations, grain yield components and grain yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum). New Zealand J. Crop Hort. Sci. 33: 125-38.
  60. Subbarao, N.S. (2001). An Appraisal of Biofertilizers in India. In: The Biotechnology of Biofertilizers, [Kannaiyan S. (Ed.)] Narosa Pub. House, New Delhi, India. pp. 42-54.
  61. Sugar, E., Berzsenyi, B., Arendas, T. and Bónis, P. (2016). Effect of nitrogen fertilization and genotype on the yield and yield components of winter wheat. J. Land Mgt. Food Env. 67: 25-34.
  62. Suhag, M. (2016). Potential of biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers. Inter Adv. Res. J. Sci. 3: 163-67.
  63. Tahvonen, R., Hannukkala, A. and Avikamen H. (1994). Effect of seed dressing treatment of streptomyces griseovidid on barley and spring wheat in field experiment. Agri. Sci. Finland 4: 419-27.
  64. Tejera, N., Lluch, C., Toledo, M.V. and Lopez, J.G. (2005). Isolation and characterization of Azotobacter and Azospirillum strains from the sugarcane rhizosphere. JPl Soil. 270: 223-32.
  65. Umesha, S., Srikantaiah, M. and Lakshmipati, R.N. (2014). Comparative effect of organic and biofertilizers on growth and yield of maize. Curr. Agri. Res. J. 2: 55-62.
  66. Vurukonda, S.S., Stefani, E. and Davide, G. (2018). Plant growth promoting and biocontrol activity of Streptomyces as endophytes. Inter. J. Mol. Sci. 19: 952.
  67. Wani, P.A., Khan, M.S. and Zaidi, A. (2012). Synergistic effects of the inoculation with nitrogen fixing and phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria on N C. J. Pl. Nut. Soil Sci. 170: 283-87.
  68. Wu, S.C., Caob, Z.H., Lib, Z.G., Cheunga, K.C. and Wonga, M.H. (2005). Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma. 125: 155-66.
  69. Yang, R., Liang, X., Torrion, J., Brien, K. and Liu, Q. (2018). The influence of wheat and nitrogen availability on the expression of end use quality parameters of spring wheat. J. Agron. 8: 257.
  70. Yousefi, A. and Barzegar, A.R. (2014). Effect of Azotobacter and Pseudomonas bacteria inoculation on wheat yield under field conditions. Int. J. Agri. Crop Sci. 7: 616-19.
  71. Zaidi, A. and Khan, S. (2005). Interactive effect of rhizotrophic microorganisms on growth yield and nutrient uptake of wheat. J. Pl. Nut. 28: 2079-2092.

Global Footprints