Integrated Management of Insect Vectors of Plant Pathogens

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1982    | Article Id: R-1982 | Page : 87-92
Citation :- Integrated Management of Insect Vectors of Plant Pathogens.Agricultural Reviews.2021.(42):87-92
Ravinder Singh Chandi  rschandi@pau.edu
Address : Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, Punjab, India.
Submitted Date : 22-02-2020
Accepted Date : 23-10-2020

Abstract

A vector is an organism capable of transmitting pathogens from one host to another. Among the plant pathogen transmitting agencies, insect vectors are most important and various plant pathogens in crops are transmitted by insects. Insect vectors are much more hazardous because small population of vector can spread the pathogen in whole of the field or to new areas. These are difficult to manage and hence multi-pronged strategy should be adopted. To effectively manage insect vectors of plant pathogens there is a need to look into the careful timing of application of chemicals, integrated treatment with vector sampling, estimation of threshold level of vectors, assessing infection of pathogen at varying period of the year and combining insecticides with other means of control such as resistant cultivars, natural enemies, inclusion of plant products, cultural practices, biotechnology tools etc. An integration of control measures will be more effective and ecologically sound than any single method to control insect vectors of plant pathogens. The control of insect vectors with the use of various tactics should be used to reduce the severity and to delay appearance of disease.

Keywords

Insect vectors Management Plant pathogens Viruses

References

  1. Afifi, F.M.L. and Haydar, M.F. (1990). Effect of different intercropping systems on onion and garlic infestation with the cotton and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. Bulletin of faculty of Agriculture University of Cairo. 41(3): 639-48.
  2. Birch, A.N.E., Gordon, S.C., Fenton, B., Malloch, G., Mitchell, C., Jones, A.T., Griffiths, D.W., Brennan, R., Graham, J. and Woodford, J.A.T. (2004). Developing a sustainable IPM system for high value Rubus crops (raspberry, blackberry) for Europe. Acta Horticulturae. 649: 289-92.
  3. Buckland, K., Reeve, J.R., Alston, D., Nischwitz, C. and Drost, D. (2013). Effect of nitrogen fertility and crop protection on onion growth and yield, thrips density, Iris yellow spot virus and soil properties. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment. 177: 63-74
  4. Carrol, T.W. (1983). Certification schemes against barley stripe mosaic. Seed Science and Technology. 11: 1033-42.
  5. Cohen, S. and Madjar, M. (1978). Prevention by soil mulching of the spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Israel. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 68: 465-70.
  6. Culbreath, A.K., Todd, J.W. and Brown, S.L. (2003). Epidemiology and management of tomato spotted wilt in peanut. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 41: 53-75.
  7. Delafuente, A., Garzo, E., Moreno, A. and Fereres, A. (2013). A plant virus manipulates the behavior of its whitefly vector to enhance its transmission efficiency and spread. PLOS ONE. 8(4): e61543. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061543.
  8. Deol, G.S. and Rataul, H.S. (1978). Role of barrier crops in reducing the incidence of cucumber mosaic virus in chilli, Capsicum annum. Indian Journal of Entomology. 40: 261-64.
  9. Duffus, J.E. (1983). Epidemiology and control of curly top diseases of sugar beet and other crops. In: Plant Virus Epidemiology. R.T. Plumb and J.M. Thresh (eds). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK. pp. 297-330.
  10. Durvasula, R.V., Gumbs, A., Panackal, A., Kruglov, O., Aksoy, S., Merrifield, R.B., Richards, F.F. and Beard, C.B. (1997). Prevention of insect-borne disease: an approach using transgenic symbiotic bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(7): 3274-78.
  11. Fereres, A. (2000). Barrier crops as cultural control measure of non- persistently transmitted aphid borne viruses. Virus Research. 71: 221-31.
  12. Fereres, A. and Moreno, A. (2009). Behavioural aspects influencing plant virus transmission by homopteron insects. Virus Research. 141(2): 158-68. 
  13. Gibson, R.W., Rice, A.D., Pickett, J.A., Smith M.C. and Sawicki, R.M. (1982). The effects of the repellents dodecanoic acid and polygodial on the acquisition of non, semi and persistent plant viruses by the aphid Myzus persicae. Annals of Applied Biology. 100: 55-59.
  14. Halbert, S.E. (2011). Management of insect-vectored pathogens of plants. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, Florida, USA. Pp. 1-5. 
  15. Harpaz, I. (1982). Non pesticidal control of vector-borne viruses. In: Harris, K.F., Maramorosch, K. (eds) Pathogens, vectors and plant diseases: approaches to control. Academic Press, New York, pp 1-21.
  16. Harrison, B.D., Mayo, M.A., Roberts, I.M., Barker, H., Mowat, W.P., Hutchinson, A.M., Woodford, J.A.T., Murant, A.F., Jones, A.T., Salazar, L., Randles, J.W. and Hanad, P.K. (1976). Virology. In: Scottish Horticultural Research Institute 22nd Annual Report for the Year 1973, pp. 65-80.
  17. Heck, M. (2018). Insect transmission of plant pathogens: a systems biology perspective. mSystems. 3:e00168-17. MSystems. 3(2): 1-5.
  18. Hoddle, M.S., Driesche, R.V. and Sanderson, J.P. (1998). Biology and use of the whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa. Annual Review of Entomology. 43: 645-69. 
  19. Kimble, K.A., Grogan, R.G., Greathead, A.S., Paulus, A.O. and House, J.K. (1975). Development, application and comparison of methods for indexing lettuce seed for mosaic virus in California. Plant Disease Reporter. 59: 461-64.
  20. Lewellen, R.T. (2004). Registration of sugarbeet germplasm lines C67/2, C69/2, C78/3, and C80/2 with resistance to virus yellows and rhizomania. Crop Science. 44: 358-59.
  21. Mukhopadhyay, S., Nath, P.S., Das, B.K., Basu, D. and Verma, A.K. (1994). Comparative epidemiology and cultural control of some whitefly transmitted viruses in West Bengal. In: Virology in the Tropics. N. Rishi, K.L. Ahuja and B.P. Singh (eds). Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, India. pp. 285-330.
  22. Perring, T.M., Gruenhagen, N.M. and Farrar, C.A. (1999). Management of plant viral diseases through chemical control of insect vectors. Annual Review of Entomology. 44: 457-81.
  23. Pionese, B., Lisle, B.I., Ramsey, M.D., Halfpapp, K.H. and DeFaveri, S. (1994). Control of aphid borne Papaya ring spot Poty virus in zucchini marrow (Cucurbita pepo) with reflective mulch, mineral oil- insecticide sprays. International Journal of Pest Management. 40: 81-87. 
  24. Reddy, D.V.R., Amin, P.P., McDonald, D. and Ghanekar, A.M. (1983). Epidemiology and control of groundnut bud necrosis and other diseases of legume crops in India caused by tomato spotted wilt virus. Pp. 93-102, In Plant Virus Epidemiology (Plumb R T and Thresh J M eds.) Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publicatons.
  25. Saucke, H. and Doring, T. (2005). Potato virus Y reduction by straw mulch in organic potatoes. Annals of Applied Biology. 144: 347-55. 
  26. Schroder, M.L. and Kruger, K. (2014). Preference of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) for lucerne, maize, soybean and wheat and their potential as prospective border crops for potato virus Y management in seed potatoes. African Entomology. 22: 144-55.
  27. Stillson, P.T., Bloom, E.H., Illán, J.G. and Szendrei, Z. (2020). A novel plant pathogen management tool for vector management. Pest Management Science. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps. 5922.
  28. Thresh, J.M. (1976). Gradients of plant virus diseases. Annals of Applied Biology. 82: 381-406.
  29. Thresh, M. and Cooter, R.J. (2005). Strategies for controlling cassava mosaic virus disease in Africa. Pl. Path. 54: 587-614.
  30. Ucko, O., Cohen, S. and Ben Joseph, R. (1998) Prevention of virus epidemics by a crop free period in the Arava region of Israel. Phytoparasitica. 26: 313-21.
  31. Weintraub, P.G. and Beanland, L. (2006). Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. Annual Review of Entomology. 51: 91-111.
  32. West, A.J. and Mordue Luntz, A.J. (1992). The influence of azadirachtin on the feeding behavior of aphids and slugs. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 62: 75-79.
  33. Whitfield, A.E., Falk, B.W. and Rotenberg, D. (2015). Insect vector-mediated transmission of plant viruses. Virology. 479-480: 278-289. 
  34. Wilson, C.R. (1999). The potential of reflective mulching in combination with insecticide sprays for control of aphid borne viruses of iris and tulip in Tasmania. Annals of applied Biology. 134(3): 293-97.
  35. Wisler, G.C. and Duffus, J.E. (2000). A century of plant virus management in the Salinas Valley of California, ‘East of Eden’. Special Issue: Plant Virus Epidemiology: Challenges for the twenty-first century, Almeria, Spain 11-16 April, 1999. Virus Research. 71: 161-69.

Global Footprints