Neem Coated Urea (NCU), An Efficient Nitrogen Source for Paddy Cultivation: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1980    | Article Id: R-1980 | Page : 111-115
Citation :- Neem Coated Urea (NCU), An Efficient Nitrogen Source for Paddy Cultivation: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2021.(42):111-115
Ashvin Kumar Meena, R.N. Meena, Kartikeya Choudhary, Anoop Kumar Devedee, Kamlesh Meena ashvin.agro@gmail.com
Address : Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Submitted Date : 22-02-2020
Accepted Date : 3-11-2020

Abstract

Green revolution dramatically change the nitrogen application in paddy cultivation and day by day its demand increased but excessive and imbalanced use of nitrogen fertilizer has raised certain global concerns, also its low nitrogen use efficiency. Nitrogen is required in huge amounts for rice and supply of N in the right amount, at the right rate and at right time throughout the growing season is most important to increase the yield. Approximately 90% of the N-fertilizer applied worldwide is in the NH4+ form, which is rapidly oxidized to NO3- by soil nitrifier bacteria. Whereas, NCU temporarily delays the bacterial oxidation of the ammonium-nitrogen by depressing over a certain period of time the activity of Nitrosomonas bacteria in the soil. So far more than 75 studies have been conducted to study the performance of NCU in increasing the yield of rice and several other crops. In rice more than 30% of the urea consumed in India is applied, the mean increase in grain yield by replacing urea with NCU is 5 to 6%. NCU has been observed to improve nitrogen use efficiency and subsequently grain yield of rice. Possibly, applying NCU following the site-specific nutrient management principles will lead to paddy production of higher levels as observed with ordinary urea but with lower fertilizer application rates.

Keywords

Denitrification Leaching Neem coated urea Nitrogen use efficiency Rice

References

  1. Arafat, S.M., Abd El-Galil, A., Abu Seeda, M. (1999). Improvement of nitrogen fertilizer efficiency with nitrification inhibitor in low land rice. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2(4): 1184-1187.
  2. Bazaya, B.R., Sen, A., Srivastava, V.K. (2009). Planting methods and nitrogen effects on crop yield and soil quality under direct seeded rice in the Indo-Gangetic plains of eastern India. Elseveir Soil and Tillage Research. 105: 27-32.
  3. Bharde, N.M., Shivay, Y.S., Singh, S. (2003). Effect of biogas slurry and neem oil-treated urea sources on rice (Oryza sativa) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 48(2): 73-77.
  4. Bhatt, R. (2012). Relative performance of neem coated urea vis-à-vis ordinary urea applied to rice-wheat cropping in sub-tropical soils. Asian Journal of Soil Science. 7: 353-357.
  5. Buresh, R.J., Reddy, K.R., Van Kessel, C. (2008). Nitrogen transformations in submerged soils. American Society of Agronomy, Madison pp. 401-436.
  6. Cai, H., Lu, Y., Xia, W., Zhu, T., Lian, X. (2012). Transcriptome response to nitrogen starvation in rice. Journal of Biological Sciences. 37: 731-747. 
  7. Cassman, K.G., Kropff, M.J., Gaunt, J., Peng, S. (1993). Nitrogen use efficiency of rice reconsidered: what are the key constraints? Plant and Soil. 156: 359-362.
  8. Chauhan, H.S. and Mishra, B. (1989). Fertilizer-use efficiency of amended urea materials in flooded rice. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge. 112: 277-281.
  9. Chauhan, R.P.S. (1999). Efficiency of coated-urea materials in rice (Oryza sativa) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) system under partially reclaimed sodic soil. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 69(5): 311-316. 
  10. Dastan, S., Siavoshi, M., Zakavi, D., Ghanbariamalidarreh, A., Yadi, R., Ghorbannia Delavar, E., Nasiri, A.R. (2012). Application of nitrogen and silicon rates on morphological and chemical lodging related characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.) north of iran. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 4(6): 1-5. 
  11. Fageria N.K. and Baligar, V.C. (2001). Lowland rice response to nitrogen fertilization. Communication of Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 32: 1405-1429.
  12. Fageria, N.K., Slaton, N.A., Baligar, V.C. (2003). Nutrient management for improving lowland rice productivity and sustainability. Advances in Agronomy. 80: 63-152.
  13. Hirzel, J., Pedreros, A., Cordero, K. (2011). Effect of nitrogen rates and split nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and its components of flooded rice. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Reserach. 71: 437-444. 
  14. IMF. “India: (2015). Article IV Consultation-Staff Report,” March 11, 2015.
  15. IRRI. (2010). Global rice science partnership (GRiSP). IRRI, Philippines.
  16. Jat, M.L. and Pal, S.S. (2002). Relative efficiency of Pusa neem micro-emulsion-coated and prilled urea in rice (Oryza sativa) wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system on Ustocbrepts of Indo-Gangetic Plain. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 72(9): 48-50.
  17. Kumar, D., Devakumar, C., Kumar, R., Das, A., Panneerselvam, P., Shivay, Y.S. (2011). Effect of neem-oil coated prilled urea with varying thickness of neem-oil coating and nitrogen rates on productivity and nitrogen-use efficiency of lowland irrigated rice under indo-gangetic plains. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 33: 193-195.
  18. Kumar, N., Prasad, R., Zaman, F. U. (2007). Relative response of high yielding variety and a hybrid of rice to levels and sources of nitrogen. Proc. Indian Natn. Sci. Acad. 73: 1-6.
  19. Kumar, R., Parmar, B. S., Walia, S., Saha, S. (2015). Nitrification inhibitors: classes and use in nitrification management. Nutrient use efficiency: from basics to advances. New Delhi. Springer India p.103-122. 
  20. Kumar, S. and Shivay, Y.S. (2009). Effect of eco-friendly modified urea materials and nitrogen levels on growth and productivity of aromatic hybrid and an aromatic high yielding variety of rice. Annals of Agricultural Research. New Series. 30: 4-8.
  21. Ladha, J. K. and Reddy, P. M. (2000). Steps toward nitrogen fixation in rice. The quest for nitrogen fixation in rice. International rice research institute, pp: 33-46.
  22. Meena, A.K. (2017). Standardization of rate and scheduling of nitrogen application through neem coated urea in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.). (M.Sc. Thesis, GBPUA and T Pantnagar, Department of Agronomy).
  23. Meena, A.K., Singh, D.K., Pandey, P.C., Nanda, G. (2018). Growth, yield, economics and nitrogen use efficiency of transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by different nitrogen management practices through neem (Azadirachta indica) coated urea. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 6(3): 1388-1395.
  24. Meena, A.K., Singh, D.K., Pandey, P.C., Nanda, G. (2019). Dynamics of dry matter and nitrogen distribution in transplanted rice on mollisols. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 42(7): 749-758. DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2019.1567777.
  25. Metwally, T. F., Gewail, E. S., Naeem, S. (2011). Nitrogen respose curve and nitrogen use efficiency of egyptian hybrid rice. J. Agric. Res. Kafer El-Sheikh University 37: 73-84.
  26. Moore, P. A., Gilmour, J.T., Wells, R.R. (1981). Seasonal patterns of growth and soil nitrogen uptake by rice. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 45: 875-879.
  27. O’Hara, G.W., Howmson, J.G., Graham, P.H. (2002). Nitrogen fixation and agricultural practice. In Leigh, G.J (ed.) Nitrogen fixation at the millennium. Elsevier Ams. pp. 391- 420. 
  28. Prasad, R., Singh, S., Saxena, V.S., Devkumar, C. (1999). Coating of prilled urea with neem (Azadirachta indica) oil for efficient nitrogen use in rice. Naturwissenschaften. 86: 538-539.
  29. Salim, M. (2002). Nitrogen induced changes in rice plants: effects on host-insect introductions. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Resiences. 17(3): 210-218.
  30. Shivay, Y.S., Kumar, D., Prasad, R. (2005). Iron pyrites for reducing ammonia volatilization losses from fertilizer urea applied to a sandy clay loam soil. Current Science. 89(5): 742-743.
  31. Shivay, Y.S., Prasad, R., Pal, M. (2015). Effect of Nitrogen Levels and Coated Urea on Growth, Yields and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Aromatic Rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 1532-4087.
  32. Shivay, Y.S., Prasad, R., Singh, S., Sharma, S.N. (2001). Coating of prilled urea with neem (Azadirachta indica) for efficient nitrogen use in lowland transplanted rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 46: 453-457.
  33. Shoji, S., Delegado, J., Mosier, A. R., Minura, Y. (2001). Controlled release fertilizers and nitriûcation inhibitors to increase nitrogen use efficiently and to conserve air and water quality. Communication of Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 32: 1051-1071. 
  34. Singh, B. (2016). Agronomic benefits of neem coated urea – A review. Review paper, International Fertilizer Association. pp 1-21.
  35. Singh, S. and Shivay, Y.S. (2003). Coating of prilled urea with ecofriendly neem (Azadirachta indica) formulations for efficient nitrogen use in hybrid rice. Acta Agronomy of Hungarica. 51: 53-59.
  36. Strong, W.M. and Cooper, J.E. (1992). Application of anhydrous ammonia or urea during the follow period for winter cereals on the Darling Downs Queensland. I. Effect of time of application on soil mineral N at sowing. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 30: 695-709.
  37. Subbarao, G.V., Ito, O., Sahrawat, K.L., Berry, W.L., Nakahara, K., Ishikawa, T., Watanabe, T., Suenaga, K., Rondon, M., Rao, I. M. (2006). Scope and strategies for regulation of nitrification in agricultural systems - Challenges and opportunities. Plant Science. 25: 1-33.
  38. Subbarao, G.V., Wang, H.Y., Ito, O., Nakahara, K., Berry, W.L. (2007). NH4+ triggers the synthesis and release of biological nitrification inhibition compounds in Brachiaria humidicola roots. Plant Soil Journal. 290: 245-257.
  39. Suresh, S. and Swarna Piria, R. (2008). Studies on the bio-efficacy of neem coated urea on rice. Asian Journal of Soil Science. 2: 333-335.
  40. Thind, H.S., Bijay-Singh, Pannu, R.P.S., Yadvinder-Singh, Varinderpal-Singh, Gupta, R.K., Vashistha, M., Jagmohan-Singh., Kumar, A. (2010). Relative performance of neem (Azadirachta indica) coated urea vis-à-vis ordinary urea applied to rice on the basis of soil test or following need based nitrogen management using leaf colour chart. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystem. 87:1-8. 
  41. Thind, H.S., Singh, B., Pannu, R.P.S., Singh, Y., Singh, V., Gupta, R.K., Vashistha, M., Singh, J., Kumar, A. (2009). Performance of neem-coated urea vis-à-vis ordinary urea applied to irrigated transplanted rice in northwestern India. International Rice Research Notes. (0117-4185).
  42. Tomar, S.S. and Gupta, P.K. (1992). Use of neem as Nimin to increase N use efficiency in transplanted rice. In: Neem and Environment. Proc. World Neem Conference, Bangalore.
  43. Wang, L. and Schjoerring, K.J. (2012). Seasonal variation in nitrogen pools and 15N/13C natural abundances in different tissues of grassland plans. Biogeosciences. 9: 1583-1595.
  44. Zeigler, R.S. (2006). Bringing hope, improving lives: A new strategic vision for rice research. In: 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 October, New Delhi, India. p.1.

Global Footprints