Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 40 issue 3 (september 2019) : 200-207

Manipulation of Source-Sink Relationship in Pertinence to Better Fruit Quality and Yield in Fruit Crops: A Review

Ravina Pawar, Vishal S. Rana
1<div>Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni -173 230, Solan (Himachal Pradesh)</div>
Cite article:- Pawar Ravina, Rana S. Vishal (2019). Manipulation of Source-Sink Relationship in Pertinence to Better Fruit Quality and Yield in Fruit Crops: A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 40(3): 200-207. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1934.
Profuse flowering and fruiting creates high demand for a limited source of carbohydrates, which affects fruit set and development. These plenty number of flowers and fruits must be reduced to allow the trees to produce fruit that meets market expectations for size, colour and quality. The concept of source-sink relationship and the regulation of carbon partitioning in plants is useful for better understanding of crop physiology and the influence of yield limiting factors on crop production. This relationship between source leaves and the various sink organs not only affects fruit production in the current season, but also the long term performance due to perennial nature of fruit trees. Modelling early season whole-tree carbohydrate supply and demand has greatly improved the understanding of response of trees to manipulation strategies relating source-sink alliance. Various strategies has been adopted to manipulate source-sink relationship like flower bud inhibition, flower thinning, fruitlet thinning, defoliation, girdling, pruning, application of hormones and nutrients etc. Thus, balance between vegetative and reproductive growth is an important aspect for improvement in yield and quality of fruit crops.
  1. Aliev, T., Solomakhin, A., Blanke, M., Kunz, A., Klad, A. (2012). Shading as an effective means for crop load management and fruit quality enhancement in apple trees. Acta Horticulturae, 10: 956-963.
  2. Allen, M.T., Prusinkiewicz, P., DeJong, T.M. (2005). Using L‐systems for modeling source-sink interactions, architecture and physiology of growing trees: the L‐PEACH model. New Phytologist, 166: 869-880.
  3. Bangerth, F. and Ho, L.C. (1984). Fruit position and fruit set sequence in a truss as factors determining final size of tomato fruits. Annals of Botany, 53: 315-319.
  4. Bangerth, F. (1989). Dominance among fruit sinks and the search for a correlative signal. Physiologia Plantarum, 76: 608-614.
  5. Bohner, J. and Bangerth, F. (1988). Effects of fruit set sequence and defoliation on cell number, cell size and hormone levels of tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) within a truss. Plant Growth Regulation, 7: 141-55.
  6. Buwalda, J.G. and Smith, G.S. (1990). Effects of partial defoliation at various stages of the growing season on fruit yields, root growth and return bloom of kiwifruit vines. Scientia Horticulturae, 42: 29-44.
  7. Casierra-Posada, F., Rodriguez, P.J.I., Cardenas, H.J. (2007). Leaf to fruit ratio affects yield, fruit growth and fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. 'Rubidoux'). Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomia Medellin, 60(1): 3657-3669.
  8. Chacko, E.K., Reddy, Y.T.N., Ananthanarayanan, T.V. (1982). Studies on the relationship between leaf number and area and development in mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 57(4): 483-492.
  9. Clair, M.D., Le, D.I., Bory, G. (1999). Pruning stress: changes in the tree physiology and their effects on the tree health. Acta Horticulturae, 496: 317-324.
  10. J.M. 1995. Crecimientoy desarrollo de las species frutales. Ed. Mundi-Prensa, Madrid.
  11. Cook, M.G. and Evans, L.T. (1978). Effect of relative size and distance of competing sinks on distribution of photosynthetic assimilates in wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 5: 495-509.
  12. Dejong, T.M., Doyle, J.F., Day, K.R. (1987). Seasonal patterns of reproductive and vegeta­tive sink activity in early and late maturing peach (Prunus persica) cultivars. Physiologia Plantarum, 71: 83-88.
  13. Dejong, T.M. and Ryugo, K. (1998). Carbohydrate assimilation, translocation and utilization. In: Walnut production manual. UCA NR Publication. University of California, Oakland, CA. p. 109-114.
  14. Di, Vaio C., Petito, A., Buccheri, M. (2001). Effect of girdling on gas exchanges and leaf mineral content in the ‘Independence’ nectarine. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 24: 1047-1060.
  15. Dussi, M.C. (2007). Intercepcion y distribucion lumínicaen agro-sistemas frutícolas. In: Sozzi G. (ed.). Arboles frutales: ecofisiología, cultivo yaprovechamiento. Editorial Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires. p. 200-241.
  16. Fallahi, E. (1997). Applications of endothalic acid, pelargonic acid, and hydrogen cyanamide for blossom thinning in apple and peach. Horttechnology, 7: 395-399.
  17. Farrar, J.F. (1993). Sink strength: what is it and how do we measure it? Plant, Cell and Environment, 16: 1015.
  18. Faust, M. (1989). Physiology of temperate zones fruit trees. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
  19. Fischer, G., Jose, Almanza-Merchan P., Ramirez, F. (2011). Source-sink relationships in fruit species: A review. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas, 6(2): 238-253.
  20. Fischer, G. (2005). Aspectos de la fisiología aplicada de los frutales promisorios en cultivo y poscosecha. Rev. Comalfi, 32(1): 22-34.
  21. Fisher, M., Ravi, J., Benes, B., Shi, B., Hirst, P. (2017). IMapple: a source-sink developmental model for 'Golden Delicious' apple trees. Acta Horticultuare, 1160: 51-60.
  22. Friedrich, G. and Fischer, M. (2000). Physiologische Grundlagen des Obstbaues. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart, Alemania. p. 95-107.
  23. Garcia-Martinez, J.L. and Beltran, J.P. (1992). Interaction between vegetative and reproductive organs during early fruit development in pea. In: Progress in plant growth regulation, Karssen, C.M., van, Loon L.C., Vreugdenhil, D., eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. p. 401-410.
  24. Goffinet, M.C., Robinson, T.L., Lakso, A.N. (1995). A comparison of “Empire” apple fruit size and anatomy in unthinned and hand thinned trees. Journal of  Horticulture Sciences, 70: 375-387.
  25. Guardiola, J.L. and García-Luis, A. (1993). Transporte de azucares y otros asimilados. In: Azcon-Bieto, J. and Talon, M. (eds.). Fisiología y bioquímica vegetal. McGraw-Hill Interamericana de España, Madrid. p. 149-171.
  26. Hansen, P. (1978). Blatt/Frucht-Verhaltnisse, Assimilatverteilungund Fruchtentwicklung. Erwerbsobstbau, 20: 228-231.
  27. Hansen, P. (1982). Assimilation and carbohydrate utilization in apple. In: Proceedings of 21st International Horticulture Congress. 1: 257-268.
  28. Ho, L.C. and Hewitt, J.D. (1986). Fruit development. In: The tomato crop: A scientific basis for improvement; Atherton, J.G., Rudich, J. (eds). p 201-239.
  29. Jackson, J.E. 1980. Light interception and utilization by orchard systems. Horticulture Revolution, 2: 208-267.
  30. Kaur, R. and Dhaliwal, G.S. (2001). Effect of time and pruning intensity of tree canopy volume, girth and height in Sardar guava. Journal of Horticulture Sciences, 30(3-4): 154-156.
  31. Kindo, P. (2005). Studies on various methods of crop regulation in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Pant Prabhat. M.Sc. Thesis. G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar, India. p 84.
  32. Kitajima, A., Akuta, H., Yoshioka, T., Entani, T., Nakano, M., Ishida, T. (1992). Influence of seeded fruit on seedless fruit set in Japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu (Diospyros kaki L.). Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 61: 499-506.
  33. Kubo, T., Hohjo, I., Hirat, S. (2001). Sucrose accumulation and its related enzyme activities in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin fruit from trees with different crop loads. Scientia Horticulturae, 91(3-4): 215-225.
  34. Lai, R. (1987). Leaf fruit relationships in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Ph.D Thesis. Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
  35. Lakso, A.N. and Flore, J.A. (2003). Carbohydrate partitioning and plant growth. In: Baugher, T.A., Singh, S. Concise encyclopedia of temperate tree fruit. Food Products Press, New York, NY, p 21-30.
  36. Lasa, B., Menendez, S., Sagastizabal, K., Cervantes, M.E.C., Irigoyen, I., Muro, J., Aparicio-Tejo, P.M., Ariz, I. (2012). Foliar application of urea to “Sauvignon Blanc” and “Merlot” vines: doses and time of application. Plant Growth Regulation, 67: 73-81.
  37. Lechaudel, M., Jannoyer, M., Genard, M. (2004). Effects of the leaf fruit ratio on growth and partitioning of water and dry matter in mango fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 645: 429-433.
  38. Lechaudel, M. and Joas, J. (2007). An overview of pre-harvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19: 287-298.
  39. Marschner, P. (2012). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3th ed. Elsevier, Oxford, UK.
  40. Miras-Avalos, Jose, Buesa, Ignacio, Llacer, Elena, Jimenez-Bello, Miguel, Risco, David, Castel Juan, Intrigliolo Diego. (2016). Water versus sink: source relationships in a semiarid tempranillo vineyard: vine performance and fruit composition. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 68: 16-26.
  41. Myers, S.C. (2003). Training and pruning principles. In: Baugher, T.A., Singha, S. (eds.). Concise encyclopedia of temperate tree fruit. Food Products Press, New York. p. 339-345.
  42. Park, S.J. (2011). Dry weight and carbohydrate distribution in different tree parts as affected by various fruit-loads of young persimmon and their effect on new growth in the next season. Scientia Hortiulture, 130: 732-736.
  43. Patrick, J.W. (1988). Assimilate partitioning in relation to crop productivity. HortScience, 23: 33-40.
  44. Rajan, S., Tiwari, D., Singh, V.K., Saxena, P., Singh, S., Reddy, Y.T.N., Upreti, K.K., Burondkar, M.M., Bhagwan, A., Kennedy, R. (2011). Application of extended BBCH scale for phenological studies in mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Applied Horticulture, 13: 108-114.
  45. Rajan, S., Kumar, R., Negi, S.S. (2001). Variation in canopy characteristics of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars from diverse eco-geographical regions. Journal of Applied Horticulture. 3(2): 95-97.
  46. Sauer, E. and Baumann, E. (2007). Qualitatsoptimierung durch Entblatterung. In: linkurl_0_15_0_1. pdf; consulted: October 2011.
  47. Schumacher, R. (1989). Die Fruchtbarkeit der Obstgehölze. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
  48. Sievanen, R., Nikinmaa, E., Nygren, P., Ozier‐Lafontaine, H., Perttunen, J., Hakula, H. (2000). Components of functional-structural tree models. Annals of Forestry Science, 57: 399-412.
  49. Singh, V., Ravishankar, H., Anurag, Soni M. (2015). Pruning in guava (Psidium guajava) and appraisal of consequent flowering phenology using modified BBCH scale. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 85: 1472-1476.
  50. Stephenson, A.G., Devlin, B., Horton, J.B. (1988). The effects of seed number and prior fruit dominance on the pattern of fruit production in Cucurbita pepo (Zucchini squash). Annals of Botany, 62: 653-661.
  51. Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2006). Plant Physiology. 4th ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  52. Tamas, I.A., Engels, C.J., Kaplan, S.L., Ozbun, J.L., Wallace, D.H. (1981). Role of indole acetic acid and abscisic acid in the correlative control by fruits of axillary bud development and leaf senescence. Plant Physiology, 68: 476-481.
  53. Tamas, I.A, Koch, J.L., Mazur, B.K., Davies, P.J. (1986). Auxin effects on the correlative interaction among fruits in Phaseolus vulgaris L. In: Proceedings, plant growth regulator society of America (PGRSA), Cooke AR, ed. PGRSA, Lake Alfred, FL. p. 208-215.
  54. Thimann, K.V. and Skoog, F. (1934). On the inhibition of bud development and other functions of growth substance in Vicia faba. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 114: 317-339.
  55. Tucker, D. (1978). Apical dominance in the tomato: the possible roles of auxin and abscisic acid. Plant Science Letters12: 273-278.
  56. Turner, D.W. (1986). Plant carbon balance. Acta Horticulturae, 175: 109-114.
  57. Wardlaw, I.F. (1990). The control of carbon partitioning in plants. New Phytologist, 116: 341-381.
  58. Wareing, P.F. and Patrick, J. (1975). Source-sink relations in the partitioning of assimilates in the plant. In: Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments (JP Cooper, ed.), p. 481-499. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  59. Warren, Wilson J. (1972). Control of crop processes. In: Rees AR, Cockshull KE, Hand DW, Hurd RG, eds. Crop processes in controlled environments. London: Academic Press. p. 7-30.
  60. Westwood, M.N. (1993). Chemical thinning, In: Temperate zone pomology. 3rd ed. Timber Press, Inc., Portland Ore. p. 267-269.
  61. Zufferey, V., Murisier, F., Vivin, P., Belcher, S., Lorenzini, F., Spring, J.L., Viret, O. (2012). Carbohydrate reserves in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. Chasselas): the influence of the leaf to fruit ratio. Vitis, 51: 103-110.

Editorial Board

View all (0)