Stemphylium Blight of Onion: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1902    | Article Id: R-1902 | Page : 51-58
Citation :- Stemphylium Blight of Onion: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2020.(41):51-58
Mudasir Hassan, Vaseem Yousuf, T.A. Shah, N.A. Bhat, Z.A. Bhat, Misba Majeed, Rabia Latief hmudasir72@gmail.com
Address : Division of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Wadura, Sopore, India.
Submitted Date : 21-05-2019
Accepted Date : 14-02-2020

Abstract

Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most important crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from many diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and abiotic factors. Among them fungal diseases stemphylium blight is the most serious and devastating disease of onion limiting the quality and quantity of both bulb and seed. The present review is mainly focused on variability associated with Stemphylium vesicarium and its integrated management. Variability studies are important to document the changes occurring in the population and individuals with variability in morphological, cultural and pathogenic characteristics so as to breed the varieties with durable resistance to the stemphylium blight of onion andidentification of source of resistance against the range of virulence present in the pathogen population. Further, management of stemphylium blight of onion through fungicide application is feasible, however, long term usage of fungicides has led to the resistance development in pathogens besides hazardous environmental consequences associated with their use. The most efficient and economical method to mitigate the menace of this disease is therefore, integrated disease management (IDM) approach where other non-chemical ecofriendly management strategies are integrated with chemical methods in order to manage the diseases more efficiently with reduced use of chemicals. Among non-chemical ecofriendly management strategies biological control is gaining interest as an alternative or complement to chemical treatment of the disease. The present review paper deals with distribution, symptomatology, pathogenicity, variability and integrated management. 

Keywords

Biological control Integrated disease management Stemphylium blight Stemphylium vesicarium Variability

References

  1. Alamiri, K., Abdullah, M.S., Adel, A.S., Abbas, N., Issa, A. M. and Mike, L.D. (2016). Population structure of Stemphylium lycopersici associated with leaf spot of tomato in a single field. Springer Plus. 1642: 2-8.
  2. Anonymous (2012). Vegetables Package of Practices. Directorate of Extension Education SKUAST-K, Shalimar pp. 90-91. 
  3. Anonymous (2013). Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Market Intelligence System, Horticulture Division, Govt. of India, New Delhi pp. 7-9. 
  4. Anonymous (2014). Information Status of Vegetables, Spices and Mushrooms of Kashmir Division. Agriculture Production Department, Jammu and Kashmir pp. 1-2. 
  5. Arzanlou, M., Khodaei, S. and Babai Ahari, A. (2012). Helianthus annuusas a natural host for Stemphylium vesicarium in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 7: 167-170. 
  6. Barnwal, M.K., Prasad, S.M. and Agarwal, B.K. (2005). Effect of major nutrients on Stemphylium blight disease and yield of onion. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 2: 92-98. 
  7. Barnwal, M.K., Prasad, S.M. and Maiti, D. (2003). Efficacy of fungicides and bioagents against Stemphylium blight of onion. Indian Phytopathology. 56: 291-292. 
  8. Bassalote, M.J., Prados, A.M., Perez-de-Algaba, A. and Melero-    Vara, J.M. (1993). First report in Spain of two leaf spots of garlic caused by Stemphylium vesicarium. Plant Disease. 77: 952. 
  9. Bayaa, B. and Erskine, W. 1998. Lentil Pathology, In: Pathology of Food and Pasture Legumes (Eds. D. Allen and J. Lenné). Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International, U.K in association with: International Crop Research Center for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru. pp. 324-502.
  10. Bhat, S., Beig, M.A., Sagar, V. and Khan, N.A. (2008). First record of stemphylium blight of onion (Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.) E. Simmons) from Jammu & Kashmir. Applied Biological Research. 10: 63-65. 
  11. Bhatia, J.N. and Chahal, D. (2014). Studies on effectiveness of certain new fungicides in controlling stemphylium blight of onion seed crop. Agricultural Science Digest. 34: 237-    239. 
  12. Boiteux, L.S., Lima, M.F., Menezes Sobrino, J.A. and Lopes, C.A. (1994). A garlic (Allium sativum) leaf blight caused by Stemphylium vesicarium in Brazil. Plant Pathology. 43: 412-414. 
  13. Byung-Soo, K., SeungHun, Y., HyunJung, C. and HeeSuk H. (2004). Gray leaf spot in peppers caused by Stemphylium solani and S. lycopersici. Plant Pathology Journal. 20: 85-91. 
  14. Camara, M. P. S., Neill, N. R. and Van-Berkum, P. (2002). Phylogeny of Stemphylium spp. based on ITS and glyceraldehyde-    3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene sequences. Mycologia. 94: 660-672. 
  15. Cedeno, L., Carrero, C., Quitero, K., Pino, H. and Espinoza, W. (2003). Stemphylium vesicarium: casual agent of severe foliar blight on garlic and onion in Meride, Venezuela. Interciencia. 28: 174-177. 
  16. Chaisrisook, C., Skinner, D.Z. and Stuteville, D.L. (1995). Molecular genetic relationships of five Stemphylium species pathogenic to alfalfa. Sydowia. 47: 1-9. 
  17. Daljeet, S., Dhiman, J.S., Sidhu, A.S. and Singh, H. (1992). Current status of onions in India. Strategies for distance resistance breeding for sustained production. Onion News Letters for the Tropics. 4: 43-44. 
  18. Ellis, M.B. (1971). Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew Surrey, England pp. 608. 
  19. Falloon, P.G. (1987). Etiology and epidemiology of stemphylium leaf spot and purple spot of asparagus in California. Phytopathology. 77: 407-413
  20. FAOSTATS (2015). Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations statistics division [online]. Production figures. Available from: http://www.fao.org/3/ai4691e.pdf [Accessed. 16 Oct 2016].
  21. Gupta, R.C. and Gupta, R.P. (2013). Effect of integrated disease management packages on disease incidence and bulb yield of onion (Allium cepa L.). SAARC Journal of Agriculture. 11: 49-59. 
  22. Gupta, R.P., Srivastava, P.K. and Sharma, R.C. (1996). Efficacy of fungicides and their spray interval on the control of purple blotch and stemphylium blight diseases of onion. News Letter National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation. 16: 11-13. 
  23. Hassan, M.H.A. and Hussein, M.A.M. (2007). New Disease Report. Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt pp. 724. 
  24. Hassan, M.H.A., Allam, A.D., Abo-Elyousr, K.A.M. and Hussein, M.A.M. (2006). First report of stemphylium leaf blight of onion caused by Stemphylium vesicarium in Egypt. New Disease Reports. 14: 24. 
  25. Hosen, M.I. (2010). Cultural, physiological comparison and fungicidal sensitivity between two isolates of Botrytis cinerea and Stemphylium botryosum. Journal of Food Agriculture. 23: 120-129. 
  26. Hosen, M.I., Ahmed, A.U., Zaman, J., Ghosh, S. and Hossain, K.M.K. (2009). Cultural and physiological variation between isolates of Stemphylium botryosum the causal of stemphylium blight disease of lentil (Lens culinaris). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 5: 94-98. 
  27. Hunter, G.C., Wingfield, B.D., Crous, P.W. and Wingfield, M.J. (2006). A multi-gene phylogeny for species of Mycosphaerella occurring on Eucalyptus leaves. Studies in Mycology. 55: 147-161. 
  28. Hussein, M.A.M., Hassan, M.H.A., Allam, A.D.A. and Abo-Elyousr, K.A.M. (2007). Management of stemphylium blight of onion by using biological agents and resistance inducers. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology. 35: 49-60. 
  29. Hyesun, C. and Hun, Y.S. (1998). Stemphylium vesicarium on garlic and other Allium spp. in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology. 14: 567-570. 
  30. Ihsanul, H.M. and Nowsher, A.K. (2007). Efficacy in-vivo of different fungicides in controlling stemphylium blight of lentil during 1998-2001. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Industrial Research. 42: 89-96. 
  31. Jakhar, S.S., Duhan, J.C. and Suhag, L.S. (1996). Studies on epidemiology and survival of Stemphylium vesicarium {(Wallr.) E. Simmons} in debris and seed of onion. Seed Research. 24: 135-140. 
  32. Kohl, J., Groenenboom-de-Haas, B., Goossen-van-de-Geijn, H., Speksnijder, A., Kastelein, P., Hoog, S. and Ende, B.G. (2009). Pathogenicity of Stemphylium vesicarium from different hosts causing brown spot in pear. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 124: 151-162. 
  33. Koike, S., Matheron, M.E. and Toit, L.J. (2005). First report of leaf spot of spinach caused by Stemphylium botryosum in Arizona. Plant Disease. 89: 359. 
  34. Kumar, P. (2007). Genetics of resistance to stemphylium leaf blight of lentil (Lens culinaris) in the cross BARI masur-4 x CDC milestone. Plant Science. 30: 1-68. 
  35. Kumar, U., Naresh, P. and Bishwas, S.K. (2012). Ecofriendly management of stemphylium blight of garlic by plant extracts and bioagents. Hort Flora Research Spectrum. 22: 231-    245. 
  36. Llorente, I. and Montesinos, E. (2006). Brown spot of pear: an emerging disease of economic importance in Europe. Phytopathology. 90: 1368–1375.
  37. Leach, C.M. and Aragaki, M. (1970). Effect of temperature on conidium characteristics of Ulocladium chartarum and Stemphylium floridanum. Mycologia. 62: 1071-1076. 
  38. Lu, Z., Rujing, L., Tom, H. and Junbin, H. (2008). Host range and phytotoxicity of Stemphylium solani, causing leaf blight of garlic (Allium sativum) in China. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 124: 21-30. 
  39. McKenzie, E. (2013). Stemphylium vesicarium (Stemphylium vesicarium) http: //www.padil.gov.au. 
  40. Meah, B. and Khan, A.A. (1987). Checklist of vegetables and fruit diseases in Bangladesh. Deptartment of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agriculture University, Mymensingh pp. 22. 
  41. Mehta, Y.R. (2001). Genetic diversity among isolates of Stemphylium solani from cotton. Fitopathologia Brasileira. 26: 703-709. 
  42. Miller, M.E. (1983). Relationship between onion leaf age and susceptibility to Alternaria porri. Plant Disease. 67: 283-    286. 
  43. Miller, M.E., Taber, R.A. and Amador, J.M. (1978). Stemphylium blight of onion in South Taxas. Plant Disease Reporter. 62: 851. 
  44. Mirjalili, M.H., Farzaneh, M., Bonfill, M., Rezadoost, H. and Ghassempour, A. (2011). Isolation and characterization of Stemphylium sedicola SBU-16 as a new endophytic taxol producing fungus from Taxus baccata grown in Iran. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 328: 1-8. 
  45. Misawa, T. and Yasuoka, S. (2012). The life cycle of Stemphylium vesicarium, the causal agent of Welsh onion leaf blight. Journal of General Plant Pathology. 78: 18–29.
  46. Mishra, R.K. and Gupta, R.P. (2012). In vitro evaluation of plant extracts, bioagents and fungicides against Purple blotch and Stemphylium blight of onion. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 45: 5658-5661. 
  47. Mishra, R.K., Jaiswal, R.K., Kumar, D., Saabale, P.R. and Singh, A. (2014). Management of major diseases and insect pests of onion and garlic: A comprehensive review. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 6: 160-170. 
  48. Mohan, C., Thind, T.S., Prem, R. and Arora, J.K. (2003). Promising activities of triazoles and other fungicides against fruit rot of chilli and stemphylium blight of onion. Plant Disease Reporter. 19: 200-203. 
  49. Nguyen, H.D.T. and Seifert, K.A. (2008). Description and DNA barcoding of three new species of Leohumicola from South Africa and the United States. Persoonia. 21: 57-69. 
  50. Nisha, H.A.C. (2013). Cultural, Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Stemphylium vesicarium causing White Blotch of Onion. M. Sc. thesis, submitted to Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka pp. 1-92. 
  51. Paibomesai, M., Celetti, M. andTesfaendrias, M. (2012). Update on Stemphylium leaf blight in onions in Ontario. Hort Matters, OMAFRA Specialist in Horticulture and Speciality Crops. 12: 11-12.
  52. Patil, A.O. and Patil, B.C. (1992). Stemphylium leaf blight of onion. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural University. 17: 165-    166. 
  53. Pattori, E., Rossi, V., Bugiani, R. and Giosue, S. (2006). Virulence of Stemphylium vesicarium isolates from pear and other host species. Bulletin OILB/SROP. 29: 195-205. 
  54. Polat, Z., Besirli, G., Sonmez, I. and Yavuz, B. (2012). First report of stemphylium leaf blight of garlic (Allium sativum) caused by Stemphylium vesicarium in Turkey. New Disease Reports. 25: 22-29. 
  55. Poursafar, A., Ghosta, Y. and Javan-Nikkhah, M. (2016). A taxonomic study on Stemphylium species associated with black (sooty) head mold of wheat and barley in Iran. Mycologia Iranica. 3: 99-109. 
  56. Rao, N.N.R. and Pavgi, M.S. (1975). Stemphylium leaf blight of onion. Mycopathologia. 56: 113-118. 
  57. Shahnaz, E., Razdan, V.K., Rizvi, S.E.H., Rather, T.R., Gupta, S. and Andrabi, M. (2013). Integrated disease management of foliar blight disease of onion: A case Study of application of confounded factorials. Journal of Agricultural Science. 5: 17-22. 
  58. Sharma, R.C. and Sharma, S. (1999). Stemphylium leaf blight and stalk rot. In: Diseases of Horticultural Crops-Vegetables, Ornamentals and Mushrooms (Eds. L. R. Verma and R. C. Sharma). Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi. pp. 356-357.
  59. Shenoy, B.D., Jeewon, R. and Hyde, K.D. (2007). Impact of DNA sequence data on the taxonomy of anamorphic fungi. Fungal Diversity. 26: 1-54. 
  60. Shishkoff, N. and Lorbeer, J.W. (1989). Etiology of stemphylium leaf blight of onion. Phytopathology. 79: 301-304. 
  61. Simmons, E.G. (1969). Perfect states of Stemphylium. Mycologia. 61: 1-26. 
  62. Simmons, E.G. (1985). Perfect states of Stemphylium II. Sydowia. 38: 284-293. 
  63. Singh, B.M. and Sharma, Y.R. (1977). Occurrence of leaf blight of garlic caused by Stemphylium botryosum in India. Indian Phytopathology. 30: 272-273. 
  64. Sinha, R.K.P., Singh, A.P., Sinha, B.B.P and Asghar, S.M.A. (1995). Stemphyliumblight: A new fungal disease of garlic (Allium sativum). Journal of Applied Biology. 5: 93. 
  65. Slimestad, R., Fossen, T. and Vangenlm. (2007). Onions. A source of unique dietry flavonoides. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 55: 24-34. 
  66. Srivastava, K.J., Gupta, R.P., Sharma, H.K. and Pandey, N.K. (2005). Effect of nitrogen doses and irrigation intervals on the stemphylium blight disease and thrips in onion bulb crop. News Letter National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation. 25: 6-9. 
  67. Suheri, H. and Price, T.V. (2000). Infection of onion leaves caused by Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium and disease development in controlled environments. Plant Pathology. 49: 375-382. 
  68. Tayviah, C.S. (2017). Epidemiology and management of stemphylium leaf blight on onion (Allium cepa L.). M. Sc., Thesis, submitted to Department of Plant Pathology, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, pp. 80-82. 
  69. Tesfaendrias, M.T., Paibomesai, M., Celetti, M. and McDonald, M.R. (2014). The battle against stemphylium leaf blight of onion in Ontario, Canada http: //www.hort.cornell.edu/expo/proceedings/2014/Onions/Stemphylium 
  70. Thind, T.S. (2001). Symptoms and disease epidemiology of stemphylium blight. In: Disease of Fruits and Vegetables and their Management. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India. pp. 307-308.
  71. Thind, T.S., Sharma, R.C. and Jhooty, J.S. (1985). Occurrence of two fungal diseases of onion in Punjab. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 15: 90. 
  72. Tomaz, I. and Lima, A. (1988). An important disease of onion caused by Stemphylium vesicarium {(Wallr.) Simmons} in Portugal. Horticultural Abstracts. 68: 618. 
  73. Vohra, S.B., Rizman, M. and Khan, J.A. (1974). Medicinal uses of common Indian vegetables. Planta Medica 23: 381-393.
  74. Wang, Y., Yun, G., YunFei, P. and XiuGuo, Z. (2010). Molecular and morphological description of two new species of Stemphylium from China and France. Mycologia. 102: 708-717. 
  75. Wu, W.S. (1979). Survey on seed borne fungi of vegetables. Plant Protection Bulletin. 21: 206-    219. 
  76. YunFei, P., Wang, Y., Geng, Y., Nichole, R., Neill, O. and XiuGuo, Z. (2010). Three novel species of Stemphylium from Sinkiang, China: their morphological and molecular characterization. Mycological Progress. 10: 163-173. 
  77. Zheng, L., Huang, J. and Hsiang, T. (2007). First report of leaf blight of garlic (Allium sativum) caused by Stemphylium solani in China. New Disease Reports. 15: 37-94. 

Global Footprints